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Professor of Psychology 
Ohio State University 
Columbus, Ohio 


New York and London 


Copyright, ig^i, 1946, by Harper & Brothers 
Printed m the United States oi America 
All Tights in this book are reserved 
No part oi the book may be reproduced m any 
manner whatsoever without written permission 
except m the case oi brief quotations embodied 
m critical articles and reviews For iniormation 
address Harper & Brothers 

Effective Study is a revised edition of Diagnostic 
and Remedial Techniques for Effective Study, 


Preface vu 

I Introduction . i 

Part One- Higher-Level Work Skills 

II, Survey Q3R Method of Studying. . 13 

III Effective Skill in Examinations 43 

IV Skills in Attack and Concentration 55 

V Preparing Reports 81 

VI. Classroom Skills 93 

Part Two: Educational Deficiencies Affecfang Schoolwork 

VII Reading Ability 105 

VIII Writing Skills 129 

IX Mathematics 147 

Part Three- Problem Areas Indirectly Affecting Effective Study 

X Health and Health Habits 151 

XI Vocational Orientation 157 

XII Social Adjustment 169 

XIII Personal Problems 179 

XIV. Looking Ahead , . .181 

Appendix I ... 183 

Appendix II 243 



Efficient work skills are necessary m col- 
lege, as in any occupation, in order that 
students may make the most effective use 
of tlieir time and be able to understand the 
more complex ideas in their lessons While 
it IS not possible to make all individuals 
into equally good students, a training pro- 
gram can be set up to show each student 
how to work to his full cai^acity The re- 
sponsibility of the college must go beyond 
merely providing educational offerings, it 
must include showing the student how to 
take full advantage of his opportunities 
This, in turn, will more than pay for itself 
by reducing the number of repeaters and by 
providing for more efficient progress m tlie 

How-to-study programs have been set up 
in many colleges, one of the oldest and most 
successful being the one at Ohio State Uni- 
versity. Evaluations of its effectiveness are 
summarized on page 2 of Project I As the 
result of an extensive lesearch program and 
of experience in applying the findings, a 
great deal of useful training material has 
been developed This book represents a co- 
ordination of these diagnostic and training 
devices, and should be of use in otlier similar 

When this material was first presented in 
Diagnostic and Remedial Techniques for 
Effective Study (Plarper, 1941) emphasis 
was placed on two general areas: (1) the 
diagnosis and remediation of skill disabilities 
which often cause students to limp along 
ineffectually in their work, and (2) the 
handling of problem areas which distract 

students from their studies These areas ave 
treated in Parts Two and Three in the 
present book, but Part One introduces a 
new and important idea in how-to-study 
work— higher-level work skills Heretofore, 
goals in how-to-study work have been ob- 
tained by determining in what ways good 
students differed from poor ones, poor stu- 
dents tlien being urged to adopt the ways 
of the good students Recent research, how- 
ever, indicates that even good students have 
bad habits of study and are, on the whole, 
relatively inefficient in tlieir study methods 
An analogy to the outcomes of an old-time 
method of teaching swimming— the “sink 
or swim” method— illustrates tins A long 
time ago people were taught to swim by 
throwing them in the water Each person 
gradually developed a dog-paddle swimming 
stroke from his desperate thrashing of the 
water in an effort to stay up. In those 
days such swimming methods were “good 
enough” to have fun and even permitted 
some to swim better than others But since 
then experts have analyzed the problems 
of resistance and propulsion and devised 
new swimming methods which each year 
result in new swimming records Students 
have similarly been thrown into assignments 
and each has had to figure out as good a 
method of studying as he could Bright stu- 
dents, however, have easily been able to 
keep ahead, even with inefficient methods. 
Now the educational psychologist is stepping 
in and, on the basis of extensive creative 
expenments, is suggesting new methods of 
studying on a higher level of efficiency 


Such skills permit students to learn more 
rapidly, with deeper understanding, and 
with no more effort than with their present 
trial-and-error methods 

Such an emphasis on higher-level learn- 
ing skills has caused two changes in the 
nature of the how-to-study training program 
at Ohio State University and might well be 
given consideration in other programs 
Whereas how-to-study work once tradi- 
tionally emphasized helping or “saving” the 
poor student, it now is of value to all stu- 
dents since even good students do not have 
efficient techniques In fact, tlie students 
who take this work represent almost a normal 
distribution of ability, and those who make 
the most gains and feel the most satisfied 
with the program have tended to be the 
brighter students A second effect has been 
the removal of the stigma which such train- 
ing sometimes has with its emphasis on 
remediation and probation students Re- 
medial work IS still carried on, but it is in- 
troduced as needed after the student has 
had some successful experiences with the 
use of higher-level study skills. 

A program to develop effective study 
habits in students should also have other 
characteristics The characteristics listed be- 
low have served as guideposts in the prepara- 
tion of this book. 

1 A how-to-study program must be in- 
dividualized to each student’s needs. Stu- 
dents have different programs of courses, 
they have different ability patterns and 
methods of learning, and they have dif- 
ferent problems which need remediation or 
which are distracting them Even in the 
field of higher-level study skills, the program 
must be individualized as a student pro- 
gresses in learning a skill, much as coaching 
m golf takes individual instruction. 

2 Although students are keenly aware 
of difficulty m studying their lessons, they 
usually do not know their actual level of 

skill nor the specific nature of their dif- 
ficulties For these reasons it is important 
that a student have some means provided 
for determining his level of skill and, if 
there is a difficulty, some knowledge of its 
nature As he makes progress m learning 
a skill, he needs evidence of the nature of 
hrs improvement and of what is next needed 
Self-evaluation tests are included m each 
project for these purposes 

3. How-to-study work has to go further 
tlian helping a student discover what is 
wrong or giving him information— through 
reading or lecture— on how to study effi- 
ciently For, as is true of most skills, the mere 
possession of a desire to improve and in- 
formation on how to do it will not guarantee 
that correct procedures will he used How-to- 
study training demands much actual prac- 
hce under supervision until the best skill is 
obtained and fixed 

4 To develop maximum motivation and 
to increase transfer of skills to actual study- 
ing, this work should be as closely allied 
as possible to a student’s lessons in his other 
courses That is, artificial exercises may pro- 
duce gams on similar tests, but these gams 
do not transfer as well to actual studying as 
when the how-to-study suggestions are made 
in terms of tire student’s methods on other 
courses and Ins gains measured there For 
this reason much of the student’s practice 
and application is done outside this book 
This book acts as an introduction, a basis for 
diagnosis, a presentation of study techniques, 
and a place to record progress, much practice 
will have to he carried on with other ma- 
tenals, preferably the student’s actual text- 

5 Finally, this training m study methods 
can be of little value unless the student 
realizes its importance and believes it worth 
while to expend some effort toward im- 
provement. The instructor’s cajoling, mak- 
ing assignments, and giving grade penalties 


have little place in such work Tlie student 
must, of his own volition, do the work The 
projects are so arranged that he can select 
those of interest, the specific diiections make 
it possible for him to go ahead on his own 
These factors free the instructor so that he 
may become a counselor rather than a task- 
master The purpose of this book is to pro- 
vide a working aid for the student and 
counselor which will increase the efficiency 
of classroom and counseling sessions. 

The arrangement of the projects and the 
emphasis on self-direction permit the use 
of this book either in a course or in clinical 
conferences At Ohio State University several 
sections of a class (for college credit) meet 
daily for a full quarter in an informal labora- 
tory^ Various projects and tests are also 
used in the counseling of individuals who 
want help without being registered m the 
class on Effective Study. 

This book IS the product of the wnter’s ex- 
perience in how-to-study work over a period 
description of this program and also one for 
counselor training will be found in the arbcle, Two 
quarries with a single stone, J Higher Educ , 1945, 
16 20i-ao6 

of fifteen years. This program has grown 
until about 450 students' a year receive 
training in a class on Effective Study and 
about 100 more are helped 111 tlie How-to- 
Study Clinic In tins work, the writer has 
been fortunate in having colleagues who have 
willingly and capably experimented with 
possible teaching metliods and materials 
Tlie diagnostic and training materials in- 
cluded here are tlius an outgrowth of many 
research adventures m personnel work, many 
persons have had tiieir part in shaping the 
program Tests that are not original with 
tins progiam are used by permission of tlieir 
authors and acknowledgment is made m the 
proper place Special acknowledgment is due 
Miss Louise Edmundson, librarian at Ohio 
State University, for assistance in the prepara- 
tion of the library tests, and to Dr Ray G 
Wood of the State Department of Educa- 
tion for permission to reprint several of the 
Senior Survey tests The writer is indebted 
to Dr Loren S Hadley, Mrs Carolyn B 
Robinson, and Mrs Alice Seeman for valu- 
able suggestions m the preparation of the 


Almost all students have m their college 
life some problem or problems which so 
impair their efEciency that they are unable 
to make the most of their college experi- 
ence When asked to list their problems, 
as in the Problem Check List at the end of 
this pio)ect, students mention difficulties 
with their studies more often than any other 
type of problem ^ And an objective analysis 
of students’ behavior shows that they do 
have many such study problems Further- 
more, recent research in educational psy- 
chology indicates tliat new, higher-level 
methods of learning can be devised which 
are more efficient than those now used by 
even the best students This book attempts 
to help the student who is worried and in- 
efficient to make the most of his educational 

Contrary to the opinion of many students, 
the way to achieve effective study is not by 
more study or more determined concentra- 
tion, but by changing the quality of study 
method For instance, good students study 
no more (usually slightly less) than poor 
students, they just use their time more 
effectively® Ineffectiveness may be due to 
such defects as slow reading rate, poor 
grammar, or poor study habits, these cause 

Ross Mooney, Problem Check List, Norms, 
1940, E G Andrews, Guidance survey of student 
problems, Educ and Psych Meas , 1944, 4 209- 
215, Ruth Strang, Behavior and Background of 
Students in College and Secondary School, Har- 
per, 1937, p 21, C G Wrenn and R Bell, Stu- 
dent Personnel Problems, Farrar & Rinehart, 1942 

“ E. G Williamson, The relationship of number 
of hours of study to scholarship, L Educ Psych , 
1935, 26 682-688 

a student to limp along in his woik when 
he might be able to go further, with an 
equal effort, if these deficiencies were 
remedied Or a student, even one with 
good grades, may be trying to do his work 
the hard way, little realizing that there are 
better techniques For instance, even good 
students seldom make use of headings in 
textbooks® Finally, a student may be in- 
efficient because some worry or outside in- 
terest so distracts him tliat he cannot con- 
centrate on his work 

The Value of a How-to-Study Program 

Colleges are sincerely interested m help- 
ing students “make the grade”, in fact, over 
a hundred colleges have remedial reading 
and how-to-study programs whose function 
is not only to rescue potentially successful 
students fiom ffiilure but to help the many 
otliers work to their full capacity Although 
many of tliese programs started out for the 
purpose of helping students on probation, 
a training in how-to-study can help anyone 
since every person is somewhat inefficient 
There is evidence, in fact, that the brighter 
the student die more he gams from such 
training An analysis of the records of several 
hundred students who have recendy taken 
the how-to-study course at Ohio State Uni- 
versity shows an almost normal distribution 
of intelligence (median percentile is 47 with 
shghdy less than a fourth of the number in 
either the bottom or the top quartile) and 

®F P Robinson and P, Hall, Studies of higher 
levd reading abilihes, / Eduo. Psych, 1941, 32 


grade point averages have ranged from oo 
to 3 93 before taking tire course And the stu- 
dents with above average grades have been 
among the ones who gained the most 

How-to-study programs have met with 
notable success Some of the more out- 
standing ones have been those at the Uni- 
versities of Buffalo, Chicago, Dartmouth, 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Ohio State, Stan- 
ford, and Yale Measures of student progress 
have shown increased reading ability, greater 
skill in organizing work, better use of edu- 
cational facilities, and moie satisfactory per- 

^The following sources provide cKcellent reviews 
of the many reports that have been published on 
how-to study programs in high schools and col- 
leges W W Charters, Remedial leading in col- 
lege, J. Higher Educ, 1941, 12 117-121, J W 
Sherburne, Problems and Outcomes of a College 
Remedial Program, PhD dissertation, Ohio State 
Univ, 1938, pp 8-36, R Strang, Improvement of 
Reading in High School and College, Science Press, 
rev ed, 1940, pp 136-177, F Triggs, Remedral 
reading programs evidence of their development, 
/ Educ. Psych , 1942, 33 678-685 

sonal and social adjustment Further concrete 
evidence of improvement has been shown 
through highei grade point averages 

Some actual results over a period of years 
in such a course at Ohio State University 
may he of interest to the student. Ferguson 
found that remedial training for probation 
students produced positive results for the 
several quarters measured ® Making up a 
control group of probation students with 
background comparable to that of the trained 
group, she found that the grade point 
average of both groups before training was 
.77 The next quarter’s grade point averages 
were 1 79 (trained group) and 1 04 (un- 
trained or control group) The spring 
quarter grade point averages were 1 77 
(trained group) and 1 43 (control group) 
Pressey gave how-to-study training to 50 
probation students, but not to another 

®J M Ferguson, Probation students under guid- 
ance, Educ Rev , 1928, 75 224-228 

Chart 1 Changes in test percentiles after a how to study course, 
compared to tliose of a matched control group measured after the 
same period of time (J W Sherburne, unpublished Pb D disserta- 
tion, Ohio State Umversity, 1938,} 


matched group ^ She found three and a half 
years later that 58 per cent of the trained 
group had maintained a passing grade average 
or had left college with satisfactory grade 
records, but only 18 per cent of the control 
group did as well Twenty per cent of the 
trained group graduated, but none of the 
control group did 

A more recent experimental evaluation 
of the result of this same how-to-study 
course, but with all types of students en- 
rolled, showed that the students taking this 
course improved a great deal in vanous 
determiners of scholastic success^ Chart 1 
summarizes some of these results For in- 
stance, the median student, as a result of this 
training, improved 24 percentiles on a test 
of English skills, 34 percentiles in reading 
rate, 9 percentiles m comprehension ac- 
curacy, and 24 percentiles on an outlining 
test A control group taking and retaking 
these tests over a comparable period of time 
showed very slight gams The students in 
the how-to-study course received 17 per cent 
more A’s and B’s on a term paper in an- 
otlier course than a control gioup with 
comparable background Fewer of the trained 
students withdrew or were dropped from 
the university than in the control group, 
and the grade point average of the trained 
students was 15 grade points higher for 
die year than that of the control group 
Several aspects of the students’ personal 
and social adjustment also showed improve- 

The Approach to Improvement of Study 


It takes more than knowledge to improve 
study skills Not only must the student 

®L C Pressey, The permanent effects of train- 
ing in methods of study on college success. School 
and Soc, 1928, 28 40J-404 

J W Sherburne, Pioblems and Outcomes of a 
College Remedial Program, Ph D dissertation, Ohio 
State Univ. 1938, 411 pp 

know what effective study skills are like 
but he must patiently practice until he has 
acquired them He can quickly learn enough 
to tell some one else how to study but he 
will have to use continued effort in order 
to develop effective study skills in himself. 
The program obviously has to be individu- 
alized to fit each student’s needs Students 
progress differently and vary m the errors 
they make while learning new skills Meth- 
ods which are of value in dealing with 
one student’s problems may be of little use 
to another student More than other courses, 
this program demands a highly individu- 
alized laboratory approach And unlike other 
courses, it may be said tliat the subject 
studied is the student himself 
Tlie situation in this class has a definite 
analogy to coaching in athletics In teaching 
a swimmer the crawl stroke, a coach presents 
it as a new metliod and not as a patchwork 
modification of the dog paddle And it takes 
more flian one explanation or trial since 
continuing practice is necessary to develop 
polished skiU But practice alone is not 
enough because the swimmer does not recog- 
nize his eirors, a coach, on the other hand, 
can spot difficulties and make definite sug- 
gestions, Similarly m study-skill training, 
higher-level work skills will be demonstrated 
and then, through the aid of tests and ob- 
servation of work, further training sugges- 
tions will be made The student can gam 
little without such diagnostic aid 
Another aspect of study skills, also analo- 
gous to coaching in athletics, concerns the 
importance of motivation m improvement 
The writer’s attitude toward his own game 
of golf will illustrate this point Although 
the course of his ball may be likened to the 
meandenngs of a child’s tiddlywink, the 
wnter does not see any great need to im- 
prove his game, or at least he does not want 
to take the trouble to work at it. In this 
case, no coach in the world can do much 


good. To state this principle in a positive 
form, it has been found that the student 
must sincerely desiie to improve his study 
skills before these projects can be of much 
assistance. Mere exposure to such a program 
will not help him 

Finally, it is obvious that emphasis will 
be placed on developing effective skills, not 
just in finding out about them Much of this 
book IS devoted to helping the student dis- 
cover his difficulties and leam what to do 
about them, some practice exercises are in- 
cluded but much of the actual practice 
should be done in his other courses The 
student will get his practice by actually 
doing his work more effectively during study 
hours, in other classes, while reading at the 
library, and so on Evaluation of achieve- 
ment should be based on how much progress 
a student makes toward remedying his prob- 
lems rather than on how much he knows in 
comparison to others 

Self Insight 

Does the typical student know how good 
he is in various traits? How poor he may 
be in others? He doubtless feels that by tlie 
time he is in college he ought to know him- 
self quite well In such traits as height and 
weight, where he has had frequent measure- 
ments and has seen tables of norms, he 
probably does have a fairly accurate notion, 
but everyday life provides few opportunities 

for objective measures of abilities and other 
personality traits which affect school success 
A person must be able to determine whether 
or not he needs help in developing study 
skills so the question of how accurately stu- 
dents estimate their own abilities becomes 
important in a how-to-study program. 

The discussion of this topic will have 
greater interest and meaning for the reader 
when he fills out the following Check List. 
Checks can be lightly made and erased later, 
no one will ask to see the results Ratings 
should be frank and honest. Later in the 
book, tests are provided for some of these 
traits; the reader may be interested in seeing 
how accurately he can estimate his relative 

How do you compare in each of the fol- 
lowing tiaits with the other students in your 
college? If you feel that you are m the top 
fifth (20 per cent) on a given trait, check 
in the first or left-hand box, if you feel that 
you are in the bottom fifth on that trait, 
check in the third or right-hand box, but if 
you feel that you are in the middle 60 per 
cent on that trait, check in the middle box 

Interesting results have been obtained 
from using this type of rating sheet with 
high-school and college students In several 
schools, the entire junior or senior class was 
asked to fill out such a sheet, since each stu- 
dent compared himself to the rest of the 

In My College, Fm in the 

Top MiddlA Bottom 
20 Per Cent 60 Per Cent 20 Per Cent 

Speed of leading 

Ability to understand textbooka 

Vocabulary . . 

At ease with persons of own sex 



Note-taking abihty . . . . 



Abihty to recite in class 


class and everyone in the class answered, the 
distribution of rating in the three levels 
should have been 20, 60, and 20 per cent, 
respectively Every effort was made to get 
as accurate estimates as possible; the students 
were told that they would not be ashed to 
sign their names and that the data were to 
be used only as part of a research project 
The actual results showed a marked tend- 
ency to overratei For instance, only 11 per 
cent on the average rated themselves in the 
bottom fifth on a trait Thus only 1 per 
cent felt they were in the bottom fifth in 
honesty, while 59 per cent felt they were 
more honest than the top 20 per cent of 
then classmates Only 3 per cent felt they 
were in the bottom 20 per cent in being at 
ease with their own sex, but 45 per cent 
felt tliey were more at ease than the top 
fifth of their classmates Only 8 per cent 
felt they were in the bottom fifth in ability 
to understand textbooks and 37 per cent 
felt tliat they were in the top fifth® Such 
overratings are in part products of (1) an 
unwillingness on the part of a person to 
admit to himself (the results were other- 
wise anonymous) that he might be deficient 
and (2) the normal tendency to view one- 
self through rose-colored glasses It is little 
wonder that a lecture or an assignment on 
how to improve usually does so little good 
when the advice seems to apply so much 
more to someone else than to oneself! 

Even though there is a tendency to rate 
oneself high, is a person’s self-ratmg related 
to his score on a standardized test which 
measures the same trait? Various studies in- 
dicate not. In one study in which students 
were asked to estimate how intelligent they 
were in comparison to other college students, 
only 40 per cent placed themselves 'withm 
the correct fifth of where tliey actually be- 

® J C Wnght, A Study of High School Students’ 
Insight into Then Problems and Resources, Mas- 
ter’s thesis, Ohio State Umv,, 1944. 

longed, 41 per cent overestimated and 19 
per cent underesbmated grossly.® In another 
study students’ estimate of how many words 
th^ knew correlated only .50 witli their 
actual test scores, i e., these students could 
estimate their own scores only 14 per cent 
better than a blindfolded man could by 
pulling numbers from a hat“ Other studies 
of ability, English usage, and vocational in- 
terests show similar results This small 
relationship between estimate and score in- 
dicates that students may actually be stran- 
gers to their own relative abilities. 

The function of this discussion is to point 
out the need for the use of diagnostic tests 
in how-to-study tiaining Such testing, how- 
ever, IS not to be used in grading— it is solely 
for the information of the student To assure 
tlie reader of this fact, the keys for all tests 
in the book are printed in Appendix II 

One of the first steps in how-to-study 
work IS to help a student discover his profile 
of abilifaes and skills Such self-discovery is 
of value in itself and shows where training 
is needed Feelings of security m schoolwork 
are promoted by knowledge of areas of 
competence, and energies can be focused 
where they will do the most good when 
specific difficulties are pointed out. A stu- 
dent with such knowledge will not need to 
feel, as some do, that he may be altogether 
“dumb.” Because diagnostic tests show 
what needs to be worked on, a “rifle” rather 
than a “shotgun” approach can be used to 
pick off specific problems. Finally, a testing 

® T H Schutte, Students’ estimates of their abil- 
ity and achievement, f Educ Res , 1929, 20 394- 

R M Bear and H S Odbert, Insight of older 
students into thar knowledge of word meanings, 
School Rev, 1941, 49 754-760 

S Arsenian, Own esbmate and objective meas- 
urement, / Educ Psych, 1942, 33’29i-302, N D 
M Hnsch, Relationship between interest, ability, 
and self-esbmated ability among maladjusted boys, 
/. Abn & Soc Psych., 1939, 34 395-399, R C 
Crosby and A L Winsor, The validity of students' 
esbmates of their interests, / AppZ Psych., 1941, 
25 408-414 


program before and after training provides 
concrete proof of* gams 

How to Use This Book 
1 Organization of the Book This book 
is designed to assist a student m learn- 
ing how to secure the most from his col- 
lege life m the classroom, in his study, and 
on the campus The projects will assist him 
in analyzing the effectiveness of vanous de- 
terminants of his success at college and in 
selecting suitable steps for improvement. 
The projects are presented m three gen- 
eral groupings (I) highei-level work 
skills, (II) educational deficiencies, and 
(III) problems indirectly affecting scholasfac 
success Projects in Part One concern special- 
ized work skills developed from research on 
techniques of learning, le. Survey QjR 
Method of Studying, Effective Skills in Ex- 
aminations, Skills in Attack and Concentra- 
tion, Preparing Reports, and Classroom 
Skills Projects in Part Two deal with de- 
ficiencies m reading, writing, and anthmetic 
which are surprisingly frequent among col- 
lege students Projects in Part Three relate 
to problems of health, vocational choice, 
recreational and social adjustment, and per- 
sonal adjustment-problems which distract 
some students so much as to affect their 
success in college These projects may be 
taken up in whatever order most interests a 
student Some may wish to work in different 
sections of the book at the same time For 
instance, while working on the Survey Q3R 
Method in the next project, a student may 
wish to work on reading rate in Project VII 
and also on making a vocational decision 
through Project XI As a result, the in- 
dividual members of a how-to-study class 
may not wish to emphasize the same proj- 
ects nor take them up in the same order. In 
the final project, the student is given an 
opportunity to evaluate his progress m all 
these potential problem areas 

So much for a general description, but you, 
the reader, aie more interested in your own 
diagnosis and treatment than in a general 
discussion of student problems, especially 
since each student’s pioblems are so dis- 
fanedy mdividual In otlier words, what are 
your problems and what should you do 
about them? 

The first step in using each project is 
evaluation, that is, how you stand m that 
skill or trait. With this information you may 
decide whether or not you are satisfied with 
that particular level of performance The 
project will also indicate whether new higher 
levels of performance are possible beyond 
even the present level of good students This 
information again provides a basis for de- 
ciding on which projects you wish to work, 
as well as giving useful diagnostic informa- 
tion for a starting point 

Tire second step is devoted to reading 
about how you may improve these abilities 
and skills Space is provided in each project 
so that you may summarize the difficulties 
found and suggest the nature of the train- 
ing program. The third and last step deals 
with practice and is, of course, the most im- 
portant part of the whole project. Little 
written material can be prepared for this 
step because practice must be carried on in 
your actual courses in order to obtain the 
best results This fact emphasizes that this 
IS not a program of reading but of practice. 
You can rather quickly read a project and 
carry out the evaluative and diagnostic steps,* 
but if you find a problem area, it will take 
constant application to obtain improvement 
Furthermore, as you work on improving 
these skills, it will take continuing diagnosis 
to point out what still needs to be done to 
develop such skills fully. 

In brief, your job is to find problem areas 
as soon as possible, to determine the specific 
nature of tlie difficulty and what higher-level 
skills are possible, and then to undertake a 


training program This last task is the most 
difficult and time-consuming, but it makes 
the preliminary ones worth while Aside 
from completing the diagnostic step, every 
student is not expected to put the same 
effort on all projects You should select areas 
of need and there devote most of your time 
to programs of training 

2 The Counselor and the Lahoratoiy. 
You may find it difficult to determine with- 
out help whether or not a given project will 
be worth while for you to work on You 
may also find it difficult to decide just what 
training activity you should try Further, you 
may have difficulty in deciding how much 
to do As mentioned earlier, how-to-study 
training is m many respects similar to learn- 
ing golf where an observer or coach can see 
what needs to be worked on and make smt- 
able suggestions Furthermore, more effec- 
tive suggestions can be made if a student's 
actual studying can be frequently observed. 
For these reasons, how-to-study training is 
done most effectively in a laboratory situa- 
tion with the aid of a counselor A student 
can benefit from working with this book 
without outside assistance, but greater help 
will be obtained if he has some otlier person 
analyze his study methods, notes, examina- 
tions, and papers, and then make suggestions 
Most colleges provide such help through 
how-to-study counselors or through courses 
on how-to-study The exercises in each proj- 
ect are oriented to help the reader make 
effective use of this counselor or course. 

The term “counselor” is used throughout 
this book instead of “instructor” in order to 
emphasize the characteristics this observer or 
coach must have Fie is there to help you 
with your particular problems He will not 
lecture merely to give you information and 
he will not urge you to do this or that, he 
IS there, available for consultation If you 
want help, he can check your methods and 
plans and so save wasted effort. 

3 Diagnostic Tests Many tests have 
been provided so as to give a picture of 
your study abilities If as many of these as 
possible are completed early, a basis is pro- 
vided for planning a training program The 
counselor can also be more helpful if he has 
such test information and any further data 
which you feel will help explain your study 
difficulties Wliatever information is given 
will be considered confidential 

The materials necessary for using a test 
are included m the book the directions for 
taking the test, the key for correcting the 
responses, the norms for interpreting results, 
and specific exercises for correcting errors. 
This arrangement enables vou to take tests 
at the time they are most needed (except 
in a few instances where some assistance will 
have to be given in timing a test), it also 
permits you to score a test immediately so 
that you may go on with a minimum of 

The following procedure is used in cor- 
recting tests After filling out a test, tear out 
the key which appears in the back of this 
book Fold it close to the column of correct 
answers, place tlie strip by your answers, and 
mark those that are incorrect It is also useful 
at tins time to wnte in the correct answer 
and, if designated on the key, the symbol 
for the rule diat is violated Place your score 
(usually the number of items right) in the 
place designated on the test 

The next step is to find out what the test 
result means, for a given score has little 
meaning by itself Two bases for interpreta- 
bon are provided 

1 All the items in the tests have been 
selected because they represent important 
aspects or factors in college courses For in- 
stance, the items in the English Survey Test 
represent the most frequent major errors 
which students make in writing and are not 
merely a sampling of grammar rules It might 
be said then that as a well-educated person 


you should know or be able to do anything 
you may miss. 

2 Another meaningful and possibly more 
interesting approach is to show how well 
you do in comparison with other college 
students.^^ To do this, tables of norms are 
provided for many of the tests Your next 
step, then, is to find a comparative value 
(percentile rank, median, or quartile) m the 
table of norms and place this beside your 
test score These norm terms have the fob 
lowing meanings A “percentile” indicates 
the per cent among college freshmen who do 
poorer than you on that test A "median” 
indicates the score of the middlemost person 
among college freshmen, and the “first quar- 
tile” and the "third quartile” refer to the 
scores made by the persons who had one- 
quarter and three-quarters of the freshmen 
below them respectively This emphasis on 
comparison to a college group is important 
because students in higher educabon tend 
to be a select group The percentile ranks 
show how you compare with your compeh- 
tion in college but not with the population 
at large For instance, one may be at the 
tenth percentile in intelligence for college 
students and stall be above average for this 
trait in comparison to the general popula- 
tion of the United States 

A table for summarizing your test results 
IS placed on the back page of this book 
Such a list permits a quick evaluation of 
tests taken and, when torn out, will provide 
a summary of your test results. Each tame 

^“The function of some tests in this book is to 
help organize your thinking about certain topics 
Others function as quick ways of giving your coun- 
selor information These tests are not interpreted 
through percenbles, other direcbons accompany 
these tests 

you take a test, write your result not only 
on the test but also on this Summary Sheet. 
(As other activities in this book are com- 
pleted, they, too, should be recorded on tins 
Summary Sheet.) 

The final step m making use of a test 
result IS to determine for yourself the level 
of skill you wish to attain You may be satis- 
fied with your present level and wish to do 
nothing further on that skill In certain areas, 
however, you will feel challenged to impiove 
your skills and so plan a training program 
If, at the end of the school term, you wish 
to measure your gams and find what prob- 
lems remain, you may retest yourself on the 
tests m this book, or second forms are avail- 
able for some areas (See Project XIV ) 

Certain shortcomings of tests should be 
noted when you make interpretations First, 
most tests are somewhat unreliable That is, 
if the test or a similar test were repeated, 
one would not get exactly the same score 
because of differences in how hard one 
worked, accidental variations in the diffi- 
culty of the tests, etc Not that your score 
has no value, for this unreliability will pro- 
duce fluctuations of only a few points 
Second, you may punctuate very carefully 
on tire punctuation test, but m your letters 
home leave out most of these marks The 
test will tend to give your best performance 

4. Work to Be Completed m This 
Project Please fill out the following ques- 
tionnaires witli complete information V^ile 
this will be only a rough measure of infor- 
mation concerning yourself, the checking on 
the Problem Check List will help clarify 
your thinking and the information on both 
questionnaires will be of great help to the 





Personal Name , Age Sex M F 

Major , , Year Fr So Jr Sr 

School Address . , . . ... Phone 

Home Address 

How many years have you hved m a city (oyer 10,000 population) 
town (1,000-10,000) . ., village or country (under 1,000) 

Occupation of father Mother 

Education of father Mother 

Of whom beside yourself does your immediate family consist (i e , father, mother, two younger 
sisters, one older brother, grandfather, grandmother)? 

Rehgious preference 

Educatwnal Which high school subjects did you like best? 

Like least? 

What high schools or colleges have you attended? . 

What scholastic honors (valedictorian, honor society, scholarship) have you won in school? 

What grades did you make last term? 

What courses m psychology have you had? 

Why did you enroll in this remedial course? 

Did someone suggest your enrollment? 

What courses are you taking this term? 

Vooational What are your vocational plans? 

Why did you make this vocational choice? 


What other occupations have you considered? 

Have you talked over your vocational plans with anyone? 


What work have you ever done (summer or regular, part or full time)? 

Are you now working to help earn your way? If so, what are you doing? 

Social To what organizations (commumty as well as school or college) have you belonged? List 
specific organizations such as 4-H Club, Boy Scouts, Epwoith League, sorority, editorial board 
of school paper, debating team, football team, orchestra, dramatics club, Latin club, student 

government board, etc Draw a line under orgamzations to which you now belong 

What offices have you held m any organization (mclude chairmanships of committees)? 

To what social gatheiings or affairs have you been in the past four weeks? 

About how many days have you been away from home m the last year? 

Hecreahonal What magazines do you read fairly regularly? 

What are your favorite sports, recreations, and hobbies? 

Where have you traveled? 

Give below any other information about yourself you thmk of significance 

Third Step; Answer the following five questions: 


1. Do you fed that the items you have marked on the list ffive a well-rounded picture of your prob- 
lems? . Yes. No If any additional items or explanations are desired, please mdicate 
them here. 

2 . How would you summarise your chief problems in your own words? Write a brief summary. 

3. If the opportunity were offered, would you like to talk over any of these problems with someone 
on the college staff? Yes No. If so, do you know the particular perBon(s) with 

whom you would like to have these talks? Yes. ■ , . No 

VfoU t» CmiMon; Normally the Btatioticol summary » to be made by the counselor In some 
dtoations, however, the counselor may wont students to make their own summaries In these cases, 
students ^ould be given defimte instructions and a demonstration of the method, preferably after 
they have filled out the check list. 

Ifulntctumt for Makmt a SUUuttcal Summary 

For convenience m summaruing results on an individual case or on groups of students, the 330 
problems are classified m eleven areas 

(1) Health and Physical Development (HPD) (6) Courtship, Be*, and Mamage (CBM) 

(2) Finances, Living Conditions, and Employ- (7) Home and Family (HF) 

ment (FLE) (8) Morals and Religion (MR) 

(3) Social and Recreational Activities (BRA) (9) Adjustment to College Work (ACW) 

U) Social-Psychological Relations (SPR) (10) The Future Vocational and Educational 

(5) Personal-Psychological Relations (PPR) (FVE) 

(11) Curriculum and Teaching Procedures (CTP) 

There are thirty problems in each area, these being arranged in groups of five items across the six 
columns of problems The first area is the top group, the second area is the second group, and so on 
down the pages On page 4, at the end of each group, is a box m which to record the count of prob- 
lems marked m each area In the left half of the box put the number of items circled as important, 
in the right half, put the total number marked m the area (includmg the circled items as well as those 
underlined only) At the bottom of the page enter the totals for the lut If desired, the area totals 
can be recopied to the first page for greater convenience m later reference 



Years ago many persons were taught to swim 
by throwing tliem in the water After their ini- 
tial terror they tried to propel themselves 
toward the shore while still thrashing the 
water to stay up Tire result of such self-m- 
struction was commonly known as the “dog 
paddle” and eventually permitted the swimmer 
to feel reasonably safe in the water and to en- 
joy it Some undoubtedly became known as 
the best swimmers in the county, but in 
modern competition such dog paddlers would 
be left far behind Modern methods of swim- 
ming were not found by comparing good and 
poor dog paddlers, they are based on scientific 
research on how to reduce the resistance of the 
body in the water and how to obtain the most 
forward push with the least effort As a result, 
highly efficient swimming methods such as the 
crawl have been designed and taught Be- 
cause of further research and expert coach- 
ing, new swimmings records are constantly be- 
ing set 

Present and possible future study techniques 
furnish an analogous picture. Typically, stu- 
dents have to learn to study as best they can, 
but such trial-and-error methods result only 
in a hodgepodge of inefficient techniques 
Since everyone is about equally inefficient, how- 
ever, a student can maintain his place in class 
on the basis of intelligence and effort But 
what if this student could learn an “Australian 
crawl” method of studying! His work would 
seem much easier and his performance would 
be much better. 

The reader may be surprised to find that 
even good students have bad habits, but several 
illustrations can be given One study of soldiers 
assigned to ASTP training showed they were a 
highly select group in terms of intelligence, 
previous scholastic record, and present knowl- 
edge, but their study sblls were no better on 

the average than those of other college stu- 
dents ^ Inquiry brought out tliat, being brighter 
than their classmates, they had been able to get 
by in high school witli their wits and person- 
ality Other studies show that even good stu- 
dents pay little attention to boldface headings 
m books, le, tliey read as well when such 
headings are omitted, and they know few of the 
short cuts m term-paper writing Of course, 
some people like to do things the hard way, but 
others — ^because they are lazy or want to get 
done sooner or want to do better — ^like to learn 
easier and more efficient ways of doing things 

The projects m Part One describe a series 
of higher-level work skills which have been 
devised from a scientific analysis of how per 
sons learn and of tlie nature of school materials 
They are called “higher level” because they 
represent an entirely different approach to 
studying than you have been using “ They will 

^ F P Robinson, Study stalls of soldiers m ASTP, 
School and Soc, 1943, 58 398-399, also C W 
Brown, The study habits of failing and successful 
students in the first two years of college, J Expei 
Educ, 1941, 9 205-209, F D Brooks and J C 
Heston, The validity of items in a study habits in- 
ventory, 7 Educ Psych, 1945, jd 257-270 

®The idea of higher-level work skills is not new 
nor is It hmited to swimming and study skills Time 
and motion studies of expert bricklayers showed 
many inefficiencies and, when new work arrange- 
ments and new techniques were taught, output in- 
creased 192 per cent Similarly candy dippers were 
helped to increase their output 88 per cent and 
seemed to others to work less hard than regular 
candy dippers Expenments have been earned out 
in which persons were taught methods of pitch dis- 
cnminabon, puzzle solving, and card sorting with 
resulting performance distinctly above what they 
had been able to do before Finally, some experi- 
ments have been earned out in teaching persons 
techniques of analyzmg problems with resulting 
miprovement in the quality of their answers and 
the speed with which they were obtained 



be taught as new methods and not as an at- 
tempt to patch up youi present techniques, i.e , 
the best way to teach the crawl is to teach it 
as a whole skill rather than as a modification 
of the dog paddle Evidence as to the efficiency 
of these higher-level woik sblls will be brought 
out in each project The first two projects take 

up the problem of school learning in its 
chronological aspects selecting and compre- 
hending the essential ideas, and remembering 
and demonstrating knowledge on examinations 
The next three projects in Pait One discuss 
skills in attack and concentration, skills in 
preparing reports, and skills in the classroom 



Have you ever noticed how students 
study? Everyone has his own techniques 
which typically are not very efiEcient The 
following description (possibly somewhat 
exaggerated) may remind you of some of 
the ways your friends study if not of yourself. 

A Typical Student 

Let us for the moment skip over the diffi- 
culties of getting to the library, finding a 
suitable place to study, looking aiound at 
people, finding out what die assignment is, 
and getting settled down, these are discussed 
in a later project Once started, how does 
our typical student go about studying? Hav- 
ing found the first page of the assignment, 
what does he do next? He probably looks 
for die last page, holds the assignment up 
to see how thick it is and then leaves a finger 
at the end of the lesson as a goal indicator 
Have you ever noticed how students, after 
reading a while, will hold up the part read 
and the part to be read in order to compare 
their relative thickness? Also indicative is the 
student who, when asked what the lesson 
was about, looked at the length of the lesson 
and said “about thirty pages ” 

Note how many students follow the lines 
with their fingers as they read One almost 
gets an impression of dutiful line following 
so that the next day diey can truthfully say 
“I don’t remember, but honest I read every 
word ” Some so carefully mark the cadence 
of their plodding eyes that their fingernails 
seem to be plowing each line under Not all 
are ‘line plowers” but certainly few reach 

the stage of using headings and context clues. 

Most readers feel that they understand 
the matenal as tliey read, the trouble comes 
later in trying to remember it Thus as they 
read along tliey can continually murmur 
“mmhm,” “uhhmm” as they see each idea, 
much as a mirror passing over the book 
might clearly reflect what was printed On 
finishing, the book is pushed aside with a 
sigh To an impolite inquiry as to what ideas 
were discussed, the typical reader has a neb- 
ulous feeling that there was much he had 
understood but it now is jumbled And 
rather than dwell on this discomforting fact, 
he prefers to say, “Well that's done, now 
for the next lesson” 

Of course, there are a few really conscien- 
tious students who reread their lessons, some 
students read tlieir lessons as many as four 
and five times in one sitting But their testi- 
mony indicates that this approach is ineffi- 
cient and not very fruitful Other students 
labonously copy out notes— as much as five 
pages on a lesson— only to find later that 
they would rather reread the book tlian their 

How Effective Are Typical Study Methods? 

So much for a caricature of the composite, 
typical student. What are the facts as to 
the outcomes from such study methods? 
When several thousand high-school students 
were tested immediately after reading a selec- 
tion they averaged only 53 per cent right on 
the quiz Other experiments also show that 
the average student gets only about half of 


the ideas ashed on an immediate qmz^ 
Since probably every student felt that he 
understood each of the ideas as he read the 
selection, what can be causing the difficulty? 
A similar problem is found when a senes of 
numbers, such as 894165873 5, is read 
once, each number is readily recognized as 
it is read but somehow by the end of the 
series the whole thing is mixed up. 

And what little is learned acems to be for- 
gotten so rapidlyl The solid line in Chart 2 

Chart 2 Curves of retention without inter- 
vening recall (solid lines) and with intervening 
recall (dotted lines) at vanous bme intervals (From 

shows how rapidly the several thousand liigh- 
school students mentioned above tended to 
forget what tliey had learned from a single 
reading (The conditions which permit 
memory to persist as shown by the broken 
lines m Chart 2 will be discussed later ) 
Thus at the end of two weeks the average 
student could recall only 20 per cent of 
what he knew immediately after reading, 
and tins, it will be recalled, was only 53 per 
cent right. 

Some conscientious students try rereading 
their lessons in order to raise the level of 
their comprehension accuracy and to retard 

^ C V Good, The effect of a single reading ver- 
sus two readings of a given body of matenal, J Educ 
Meth , 1926, 5 325-329, H F Spitzer, Studies in 
retention, J Educ Psych , 1939, 30 641-656, and 
see also the norms for the reading tests in this hook. 

forgetbng But simply rereading several 
times in one sitting does not help compre- 
hension accuracy very much, thus m one 
experiment the average reader got 69 per 
cent right on an easy test after one reading 
of the text and only 74, 75, and 74 per cent 
nght witlr two, three, and four successive 
readings, respectively^ (Later on it will be 
shown, however, that reading and then re- 
reading at a different time is more effective ) 

What then can be done? Is there some 
other more efficient method of studying 
dian reading and rereading a lesson? It is 
evident tliat the average student, through 
trial-and-error learning, has not found an 
efficient way One further experiment illus- 
trates this point and indicates one source 
for building a better leading technique In 
this experiment it was found that a superior 
group of students read no faster or any more 
accurately when a selection was printed with 
headings than they did when reading an 
equivalent selection without any headings “ 
But a boldface heading indicates the subject 
of tire text which follows, it can be used to 
call to mind what is already known and to 
precompiehend or guess as to what will be 
said Such a preorientation also helps a stu- 
dent discern what is and is not important 
as he reads 

Rather than analyze the skills of good 
students and suggest that poor students em- 
ulate them, the educational psychologist has 
more recently been conducting experiments 
to discover possible bases for devising more 
efficient study metliods New methods have 
been invented and their worthiness as study 
methods tried out A higher-level method 
of studying will be presented later m this 
project but first it seems best to review the 

B English, E L Wdborn, and C D Kil- 
han. Studies in substance memorization, J Gen 

®F P Robinson and Prudence Hall, Studies of 
high-level reading abilities, J Educ Psych , 1941, 
32 241-252 


two types of evidence used m devising this 
method (a) cues provided by the way text- 
books, lectures, and quizzes are prepared, 
and (b) new learning techniques obtained 
through extensive experimenting These con- 
stitute the next two divisions of this project. 

Cues in Course Materials 

Rather than being an apparent piling up 
of line on line, textbooks are organized with 
definite cues, either in typography or m 
writing style, to point out what is important 
One tends to read fiction straight along, 
but nonfiction is usually so written that the 
expert reader can know what the mam idea 
IS even as he starts to read a section and 
IS able to skim, skip, or study m the right 
places Training in the use of these cues 
will enable a student to speed up his read- 
ing, improve his comprehension of essential 
points, and— to be discussed more fully in 
the next project— predict quiz questions. 

The three sources of these cues— in text- 
book, in class, and in previous quizzes— will 
each be discussed in turn. 

1. Textbook Cues 

Textbooks usually include many cues in- 
dicating what IS important If sensitive to 
tliem, a reader can readily increase his read- 
ing efiiciency An author in writing a text- 
book makes an outline of the six to ten 
major points to be developed and in the 
final printed copy has this outline inserted 
as the boldface headings starting each sec- 
tion Major and minor points are differen- 
tiated by using centered and indented 
headings, and as further help these are often 
numbered Some headings give the gist of 
the discussion which follows, others merely 
announce the topic but do not give tire 
answer For instance, the heading “Learning 
and Intelligence” indicates that these two 
topics will be discussed but does not say 
what the nature of their relationship is 

While headings which state the mam thesis 
are more helpful with precomprehension, 
the mere indication of the topic can help 
the reader in looking for the answer. 

Other cues are also used to indicate im- 
portant points Paragraphs typically have 
topic or summary sentences at the begin- 
ning or at tlie end which state the gist of 
the idea under discussion Important state- 
ments or definitions are often put in italics 
or boldface type Cue phrases and typograph- 
ical cues are often used For instance, watch 
for numbers as m “three kinds” or “four 
causes” followed by sentences or phrases set 
off by (1), (2), (3), or (a), (b), (c), (d). 
Or, sentences may begin with “First, 
Second, And lastly, . ” These rep- 

resent dead giveaways as to equal and 
important subpoints in an outline Authors 
frequently use a listing device to indicate 
briefly what is to be discussed in the next 
sections or as a summary at the end to 
show what has been discussed Finally, the 
reader should pay especial attention to 
charts, diagrams, and maps, almost invaria- 
bly tire author uses them to present the 
most important ideas visually * 

It will be worth while to analyze several 
books to determine how these cues are used, 
some authors will prove to be more expert 
tlian others in their use Sensitivity to these 
cues will do much to speed up reading and 
improve comprehension In fact, it is 
through the use of such cues that phenom- 
enally fast readers, the so-called “page-at-a- 
glance” readers, are able to perform, that is, 
by merely spotting these important cues 

*Expencnce m wrihng manuals for the armed 
services has shown the value of these cue indicators 
In fact, many of the manual writers adopted a plan 
of presenting points in short paragraphs which m 
turn were organized in an outline form Cues such 
as numhenng, boldface type, diagrams, etc , have 
also been much used Research indicates that many 
textbook waters could improve the reading ability 
of students if they would modify their prose style 
through use of more cue indicators 


they can guess what will be said in between 
But such skimming skill or, even more 
important, efficient study skill is not to be 
obtained through mere knowledge of these 
cues, there must be practice in their rapid 
recognition and use Such practice will be 
provided at the end of this section and 
again later on 

2. Classroom Cues 

A teacher’s time m class is usually so 
limited that whatever he says should be 
important Students may feel that this is 
not true of some lecturers, but even these 
professors meant to cover certain important 
points and may have wandered, or it may 
be drat the students couldn’t see the forest 
(main point) because they were too en- 
grossed m the details of the trees (illustra- 
tions of the point). 

A teacher will usually try to cover about 
half a dozen points more or less during a 
period This may be represented by any 
combination from a couple of major points 
with several important subpoints to a series 
of equal ideas The important skill to be 
discussed here is analysis of each teacher’s 
lectures to determine if his lecture points 
are also emphasized in the textbook. If so, 
the student is doubly forewarned; both lec- 
ture notes and textbook should be studied 
thoroughly on these topics If the lectures 
do not take up items m the book, it means 
that important supplemental points are 
being added which need to be known as 
well as those in the textbook. Suggestions 
on how to take lecture notes will be dis- 
cussed in Project VI 

Finally, some cues as to the types of future 
quiz questions can be obtained by analyzing 
the questions which the teacher uses in class 
discussion One can determine in general if 
the emphasis runs to definitions, hsts, appli- 
cation, problems, or interpretation, and then 
' study accordingly 

3. Cues from Previous Examinations 

When a corrected exam is handed back, 
most students fail to recognize it as an 
important tool in studying Many get little 
further than their test scores Those who do 
look over the exam usually concentrate on 
what tliey did well, or feel like arguing with 
the instructor over items missed On the 
otlier hand, an instructor’s second quiz 
usually follows the same pattern as his first 
Looking over the first test, one can see what 
types of questions are asked Wliether they 
are primarily true-false, completion, or essay 
is not important But are definitions empha- 
sized, or problems, or judgment questions, 
or hsts? Do the questions come primarily 
from the textbook, laboratory book, or class 
lectures? Can you find where the topics for 
some of the questions appear in the text? 
Do they coincide with the headings? Fiom 
such an analysis, one can often point up 
one’s study technique for the next examina- 
tion, one can then be more effective with 
no more effort 

Practice In brief, then, three sources 
of cues— m textbook, lecture, and previous 
quizzes— provide the skilled student with 
means for promoting greater reading and 
listening efficiency and for pointing up his 
attempts to review for examinations To 
sensibze you to these cues, you are asked 
to do four Bungs at this time, further polish- 
ing exercises will be carried out later. 

First, go back over this project to see what 
cues were used Jot down the headings used 
m the form of an outline Does this outline 
cover all of the important points as you remem- 
ber them? Shm over the text and underline 
the other ones used, 1 e , numbers, typograph- 
ical cues, summary sentences, etc Check these 
with your counselor for evaluation. 


about reading that textbook m order to use the 

Second, rapidly glance over the selecbon 
used in the Art Reading Test and )ot down a 
brief outline from the major cues there. Now 
compare this list of cues with the quiz used in 
the reading test, how many of the questions 
did you predict? Tire questions in the quiz aie 
of two types restating and illustrating points 
in the text Do you feel that if you were to 
read more material by this author you could 
more easily prepare for a quiz? Check your 
outline with the counselor for suggestions. 

Third, select a textbook from another one of 
your courses, mark the cues that the author uses 
to indicate important points, and check these 
with your counselor. Does this author give you 
good cues? What would be a good way to go 

Fourth, m this same outside course and text- 
book, jot down the headings as a brief outline 
Are there many important points? Compare this 
outline with your class notes on tins same topic. 
Were many important points covered m class? 
Were they tlie same or different than the mam 
points m the text? If you have a copy of tlie 
quiz questions over this section or can remem- 
ber any of the questions, what is their relation- 
ship to the text or lecture outline? 

Experiments to Discover New 

Analysis of the experimental attempts of 
educational psychologists to devise new 
learning vmethods provides a second basis 
for constructing higher-level study skills. 



These experiments fall into two general prove comprehension as well aS rate. One 
categories ( i ) techniques for selecting and idea tried by several experimenters has been 
comprehending what is important, and to give questions to tire readers before or as 
(2) ways to retard forgetting The discus- they read in order to give them a basis for 
Sion will be organized accordingly selecting and organizing the ideas presented 

Thus one experimenter divided 170 college 
SELECTING AND COMPREHENDING WHAT IS studcnts mto two equated groups and had 
IMPORTANT them read materials concerning science and 

the history of English literature One group 
1. Value of Quick Preview -vras given a list of 20 questions before read- 

Several studies indicate that a quick pre- mg, the other group was not Comprehen- 
view of the headings 01 a look at the end sion was tested immediately after reading, 

summary is of help in reading a chapter, and again two weeks later on a 40-item test 

Thus m one experiment, 118 college sopho- (these 20 questions plus 20 other questions) . 
mores were put in two equated groups, one As might be expected, the group given the 
group being shown how to skim over head- questions did better on these questions, but 
mgs and summaries, tire other not When tliey also did as well as the other group on 
the two groups were then given a selection the new questions They were superior on 

to read, the trained group read 24 per cent the total tests, especially on the one given 

faster and as accurately as the students who two weeks later, this is shown graphically in 
read in the usual way ° Such a quick over- Chart 3 (Each bar represents a different 
view orients the reader and permits a partial selection for which results were obtained, 
precomprehension of what is to come; this all differences favor the method of using 
head start speeds up the rate at which the questions and a critical ratio of four is sta- 
selection can then be comprehended. tistically significant )® 

Is there a best time to introduce these 
a. Value of Previous Questions questions, 1 e , before, during, or after read- 

Of probably greater importance, however, mg? One interesting experiment sheds light 
js the discovery of techniques which im- 

“ H y McClusky, An expenment on the influ- * E Holmes, Reading guided by questions versus 
ence of preliminary skimming on reading, / Educ careful reading and rereading without queshons. 
Psych, 1934, 25 521-529 School Rev, 1931, 39 361-371 

^ Eng Lit A 
1 1 Eng Lit B 
I a Science A 
Science B 

Is ^"8 Lit C 
ga Science C 

0123456789 10 n 

Critical Ratio 

Chari 3 Reading, guided by questions, shows greater efSciency 
for both immediate and delayed recall than careful reading and 
rereading without use of questions (Adapted from Holmes.) 


on this problem ’’ In this study 1456 high- 
school students, divided into groups of equal 
ability, were given a selection about Flor- 
ence, Italy, to study for 25 minutes The 
selection read by each group, however, vaned 
to this extent. For one group questions 
concerning facts and generalizations m the 
article were presented at the beginning, for 
another group these questions came at the 
end of the article, for a third group each 
question appeared at the beginning of the 
section in which it was answered, for a fourth 
group each question was placed at die end 
of the section in which it was answered, 
and for a fifth group no questions were 
given during the reading of the article The 
test, which all the pupils took after reading 
the article, contained lire questions already 
asked and other comparable questions Of 
these patterns, the two most effective were 
all the questions given at the beginning of 
the article, and each question placed at the 
beginning of the section in which it was 
answered. Furthermore, this and other ex- 
periments show that each of these two 
patterns has its unique advantages A list 
of questions at the beginning of an article 
orients the reader to the whole subject in 
such a way that he can fit facts, not asked 
about, into a meaningful picture, this helps 
in their retention On the other hand, it is 
difficult when reading a long assignment to 
keep a list of questions clearly enough in 
mind to help most efficiently in organizing 
the material The use of questions at the 
beginning of each section gives ah immediate 
questioning attitude and a core idea around 
which to organize the material which fol- 

Two things seem evident, then An initial 
overview of a lesson to determine '“what it 
is about” speeds up reading and provides a 

J. N Washburne, The use of queshons in social 
science matenal, J Educ Psych , 1929, 20 321- 

general orientation that helps fit facts to- 
gether so they will be better retained Asking 
a question just before starting to read a 
section gives the most effective mental set 
for selecting and retaining the important 
facts and generalizations therein As will be 
seen later, these two techniques can be com- 
bined into one effective study method 

What source can the student use to find 
such bdpiul questions^ Teachers occasion- 
ally provide students witli lists of questions 
to direct their study, or questions may be 
stated at the end of a chapter or m a labora- 
tory manual Such lists, if stated in a way to 
make the reader want to find the correct 
answers, are useful m providing an overview, 
true-false tests, on tlie other hand, are not 
helpful because the reader's attitude is one 
of acceptance or rejection of the statements ® 
But where can the reader obtain the all- 
important question he needs as he starts to 
read each section of the textbook? One ex- 
cellent source has already been discussed 
That IS, audiors place many “cues” in their 
writings to indicate the main theses under 
discussion, the most obvious of these are 
boldface headings and italicized phrases. It 
IS a simple tnck to turn each of these into 
a question as the reader comes to it, he 
then reads on seeking the major points 
which answer his query 

Another problem in learning is to deter- 
mine the most efficient size unit which a 
given reader can handle in a meaningful way. 
Throughout our discussion there has been 
an emphasis on obtaining the larger ideas 
presented by the autlior Students tend to 
get lost in detail and so miss the forest for 
the trees Students vary, however, in the size 
of the bite of textbook stuff which they can 
assimilate at one time Where matenal is 
familiar one can more easily take in bigger 
ideas than where it is unfamiliar Some stu- 

® A T Jersild, Examination as an aid to learning, 
J Educ Psych , 1929, 20 602-609 


dents, in addition, are not as well trained 
as others in grasping these larger ideas Each 
reader has the problem then of finding how 
far he can read before he has, so to speak, 
to come up for air and reorient himself® 
It IS obvious that these spots should coincide 
if possible with the breaks in tliought of tlie 
autlior, le, at tlie end of headed sections 
If such headed sections extend over several 
pages, then the reader has to use paragraph- 
ing and other cues to find the best places for 
brief stops to summarize ideas and to re- 
orient himself for tlie coming material 

Learning poetry illustrates how the most 
efficient sized unit may vary with age and 
training In memorizing poetry it is generally 
best to read and reread the whole poem so 
that the total meaning can help with the 
learning On the other hand, if the poem is 
long and the language difficult to under- 
stand, the total meaning will be hard to get, 
and reading and rereading the whole poem 
will not be parhcularly effective In one 
experiment children at different age levels 
learned, by the whole method, four poems 
varying in lengtlr and difficulty Other 
equated groups of children learned these 
same poems by the part method The length 
and difficulty of the poem on which the 
pupils used the whole method most effi- 
ciently varied with the developmental level 
of the children, children in the lower grades 

®Some students try reading straight along, pos- 
sibly because of habits developed in fiction reaing, 
only to end up with quite hazy notions as to the 
content of the lesson. Very often in desperation 
they resort to memorizing of key phrases and for- 
mulae Probably every student can remember a 
time when he couldn’t figure out an algebra equa- 
tion or a chemistry formula and tried to “get by” 
with memorizing it, the only trouble was that the 
instructor changed the letters or numbers in the 
equation and the student was stuck. For example, 
m one group only 6 per cent didn’t know the an 
swer to (x -t- y)® but 28 per cent couldn’t tell the 
answer when the question was (bi + b2)®. Further- 
more, matenal which is memonzed is forgotten much 
more rapidly than matenal learned by understand- 
ing it 

found the whole method most effective on 
the simple poems whereas the pupils in the 
higher grades found it most efficient on the 
more difficult poems “ A student can tram 
himself to handle larger and larger units as 
a whole with resulting increased effective- 
ness in his work. 

3. Value of Outlining 

The emphasis above has been on under- 
standing the major ideas which tlie author 
presents and on seeing the relationship 
among these ideas Various experimenters 
have tned to devise techniques which would 
help tire reader clarify and verbalize his in- 
sights and which would give a visual picture 
of the ideas and their relationships Of these 
techniques, outlining, underlining, and writ- 
ing prdcis summaries have been the most 
frequently suggested. 

Many students have definite opinions 
about the value of these techniques While 
it IS true that good students tend to keep 
notes on their readings more than poor 
students, many good students do not Prac- 
tically all students agree that taking notes is 
a lot of work, they often say that they 
scarcely have time to read the lesson and 
certainly wouldn’t have time to read and 
take notes Many students, having given 
note-taking a trial, report that it slowed tliem 
down and did not seem to help, in fact, 
some feel that the lengthened time and extra 
activity made it harder to get the lesson. 

These observations have been verified by 
experiments in which students’ effectiveness 
with various of tliese techniques tned more 
or less for the first time, was compared with 
simply reading and rereading. In one experi- 
ment 242 college students tried the tech- 
niques of underlining, outlining, writing 
pr6cis summaries, and simply reading and 

M L Northway, Difficulty of the Task and the 
Ability of the Subject as Factors m Whole-Part 
Learning, M A thesis, Umv of Toronto, ^934 


rereading on different selections equated for 
difficulty. Not much difference was found in 
the effectiveness of these techniques, the 
clearest difference was between reading and 
underlining compared to reading and writing 
a summary^’- Analysis of students’ behavior 
m this and other experiments showed that 
the students did not know how to use these 
other techniques very well and became so 
involved in indiscriminate note-taking and 
compositional efforts that their reading com- 
prehension was actually hindered Having 
tried these techniques once or twice, many 
students decide to rely on the one technique 
with which they are familiar, eg, reading 
and rereading These students are like the 
bashful boy who complained of great diffi- 
culty in talking to girls, on hearing argu- 
ments that it IS easier to talk to a giil while 
dancing, he decided to try it on his next 
date although he was not a good dancer 
Afterwards, when asked how it was, he re- 
plied, “Goshl I was so busy placing my feet 
that I couldn’t talk at all ” 

It IS obvious then that any technique used 
must be so automatic and simple as to be 
subordinate to the task of reading Rather 
than interfere with reading it should help 
In the experiment reported above it was 
found that underlining was more effective 
ffian writing summaries, probably because 
me former merely requires die drawing of 
lines while writing a summary is a composi- 
tional effort On the other hand, underlining 
has its disadvantages Students tend to un- 
derline too much, to have difficulty seeing 
relationships among the scattered under- 
linings, and to memorize the author’s words 
when studying 

To overcome these objections, a type of 
bnef, topical outimmg has been devised, it 

F Arnold, The comparative efficiency of 
certain study techniques in the field of history, 
f Educ Psych,, 1942, 33 449-457, also C E. Ger- 
mane, The value of the wntten paragraph summary, 
/ Educ Res, 1921, 3 116-123, 

is called “working notes” to differentiate it 
from the type of oudmmg which most stu- 
dents know To save time in writing and in 
later readmg, headline phrases are used rather 
than complete sentences To promote easy 
visualization of the mam ideas m the lesson 
and again to save time, only the mam ideas 
and mam subpoints are jotted down, the 
notes on a chapter will cover a half page or 
at most a page, and the indentation of sub- 
points makes the major points stand out 
To cut out clencal, slavish copying into a 
notebook, notes are jotted from memory 
after reading a meaningful unit such as a 
headed section This type of note-taking is 
not what most students think of when note- 
taking IS mentioned, it sounds much easier 
A sample of such notes and a discussion of 
lecture notes will be presented later. 

Such note-taking may not be particularly 
effective the first time it is tried, the new- 
ness of any technique tends to upset previous 
readmg habits, just as tr5ang a new but better 
grip in golf may temporarily spoil one’s score 
With practice, however, a student can de- 
velop a learning skill which is far more 
efficient tlian the usual student method, 
such engineered skills are heie called higher- 
level learning shlls 'Tins need for practice 
and die possibilities of gam with it are 
shown in Chart 4 It shows that the first 
time tliree groups of students used outlining 
as a technique on study units in history it 
was not very effective, but after a month’s 
practice the technique was highly beneficial 
(comparison is to the efficiency of equated 
groups who had not been shown how to 
outline ).“ 

Evidence of increased efficiency possible 
with extended practice and of the transfer 
of efficiency to other courses is shown by 
still anodier experiment. Several hundred 
high-school students received intensive train- 

“ W A Barton, Outlining as a study procedure, 
Teach CoU Contn Educ,, No. 4x1, 1930. 


ing (daily lessons for six weeks) in outlining 
typical study materials Emphasis was placed 
on the thinking side of outlining At the 
end it was found that the trained group was 
better than a matched control group (re- 
ceived no training in outlining) in ability 
to comprehend what they read and in 
performance on study matenals in other 

Thus, in selecting and comprehending 
what IS important, tiie student will find it 
helpful to make a preview of tlie headings 
and final summary before starting to read, 
to ask a question based on the heading as 
he starts to read each headed section, and 
to write brief summary phrases after reading 
each section so as to check his comprehen- 
sion and to picture the relationship among 
the ideas Further it was shown that any 

“R Salisbury, Some effects of training m out- 
lining, Engl / (Coll Ed ), 1935, 34 111-116, 
see also R G Simpson, The effect of speafic train- 
ing on ability to read histoncal materials, J Educ 
Res, 1929, 30 343-351. 

method of outlining must be brief and easy 
to do and must be practiced before its 
benefits can be obtained. 


As every student is well aware, forgetting 
one’s lessons takes place altogether too 
rapidly. Students occasionally reply when 
queried in class, “I knew it yesterday, but 
it’s gone now” This rapid deterioration of 
learning was graphically shown in Chart 2, 
two weeks after reading a lesson a student 
usually remembers only about 20 per cent 
of what he knew immediately after studying 
the lesson 

The student’s problem in studying is two- 
fold learning what should be known, and 
then fixing it in memory so it will be there 
when wanted A student may develop 
facility at picking out important points so 
he can do well on an immediate quiz (this 
is one reason why many students cram 
before exams), but tins does not necessarily 
insure that he will remember it There is 
need to investigate tlie causes of forgetting 
and to develop techniques which will slow 
it down. 

Nature of Forgetting 

Contrary to popular opinion, forgetting is 
not simply a weatlienng away of once known 
impressions The process of forgetting, like 
the process of learning, follows certain dy- 
namic patterns whose study permits the 
scientist to develop techniques which retard 
forgetting. Several facts indicate possible 
directions for investigating first, not all 
material is forgotten at the same rate, nor 
in the same way“ One study shows that 

B Newman, Forgetting of meaningful ma- 
tenal during sleep and waking, Amer f Psych,, 
1939, 5^ J ^ Levine and G Murphy, 

TTie learning and forgetting of controversial mate- 
nal, J Abn & Soc Psych , 1943, 3S 507-517, 
R D Williams and G W Knox, A survey of 
dynamic principles governing memory, / Gen, 
Psych, 1944, 30 167-179 


eight hours after reading a story 86 per cent 
of the ideas essential to the plot can he 
reproduced but only 23 per cent of the non- 
essential ideas Another study shows tlrat 
persons tend to forget the content of an 
article on a controversial subject more rap- 
idly when they disagree with its point of 
view than when they agree Darwin said he 
found it necessary to jot down immediately 
any data which disagreed with his theory of 
evolution, but that evidence which sup- 
ported the theory was much more easily 
remembered. Still other studies show tliat 
memories gradually change to fit previous 
knowledge and tliought patterns For exam- 
ple, tire reddish hair of a long-absent friend 
tends to become redder and redder in 
memory because it is always thought of as 
“red” The bad acts of a "good” king are 
harder to remember (unless they arc so 
atrocious as to stand out) than the bad acts 
of a “bad" king Tire implication of all tliis 
for the student is that he should try to get 
a thorough understanding of the lesson since 
this will help him letain tlie essential ideas 
Fuither, he should study carefully those 
items which lend to disagree with the gen- 
eral theme of a unit 

Secondly, not all students forget at the 
same rate The student who remembers the 
most, immediately after reading, may not 
remember the most after two weeks, nor 
will several people who make the same score, 
immediately after reading, score the same 
two weeks later A study of lliese people 
who tend to remember the most indicates 
that the prime factor m this superiority is 
not endowed superiority of memory but 
learned skills and attitudes Tlie three pn- 
mary methods of attack to be discussed in 
tlie sections which follow are interest, 
recitation, and distributed learning 
1. Interest and Intent to Remember. 
Every student intends to remembei what 
he studies, at least until the next quiz is 

over, but students vary in the degree to 
which tiiey mentally clarify the specific 
things they intend to remember and in the 
strength of this intent. Sonic students have 
little more than a vague urging from then 
conscience that they ought lo rcnicnilxjr 
what they aie reading, but habits of reading 
for the moment’s comprehension, as m fic 
tion reading, really detennme their behavior 
Other students carefully select the points 
they feel they will need to know and defi- 
nitely attempt to fix them in nnnd The 
difference m efficiency is illustrated by a 
simple little classroom cxpenuicnt I'hc 
teacher in one class asked the students to 
copy down twenty words in then notes, hut 
no indication was given that they would 
later be expected to reproduce these words; 
the teacher in another class asked the stu- 
dents to copy down these same twenty words 
but they weic told that a test on them could 
be expected later On an immediate test, (he 
warned group was 30 per cent better and on 
a delayed test one week later the warned 
group was 50 per cent better 
In addition to choosing which facts are 
lo be icnicmbcrcd and carrying out iictivitics 
which will strengthen incnimy, the interest 
a student has in a subject seems also lo 
foster memory. Thus one more cksirly 
remembers incidents from high school dra- 
matic and athletic events than he does from 
most of his classes. Material which is of 
mlcrest is moie apt to be meaningful and 
the student is more apt to rememticr it. 
Because this fact is well known, teachers 
attempt to make their material interesting 
to students; the student in turn should make 
every attempt to make the material man- 
mgful, and tlierefore interesting, to himself. 

If he cannot sec its value, he should ask 
the instructor to explain its possible rela- 
tionships to the student's needs, 

2 Recitation One of the most effective 
devices to retard forgetbng is very simple 


yet few students malce use of it, and scarcely 
ever do so at the best tune An axiom in 
preparing oneself for a task is to practice 
the way it will later have to be done Since 
students have to show their learning tlirough 
recitation in class or on tests, the student 
may well practice reciting beforehand Stu- 
dents often mistakenly believe that, havmg 
understood something as a lesson is read 
through, it must be known and therefore 
will be retained (Remember the example 
cited earlier of the list of ten numbers which 
were easily comprehended but learned with 
difficulty ) Such self-recitation insures that 
the material is understood and acts to fix it 
in memory. 

Tlie techniques of the expert at remem- 
bering names (how we envy him) are a good 
illustration here. Have you ever watched 
such a person? The first thing he does on 
being introduced is to repeat the introduced 
person’s name aloud immediately, he wants 
to be sure he has it straight Otilier persons 
are usually engrossed m their own droughts 
when introduced because the stranger obvi- 
ously means nothing to them at the time, 
or if they are paying attention they may 
feel sure they won't remember it anyway. 
There is no particular intention to remem- 
ber as mentioned above And to make 
matters worse the introducer is often so 
unsure of the name tliat he mumbles it so 
that a person doesn’t get it in the first place. 
Little wonder that people have trouble in 
(learning and) remembering names But to 
return to the expert again. He not only says 
the name immediately, he may try spelling 
it to be sure he has it straight and then 
during the course of the conversation he 
will use the new name several times In 
other words, he learns and uses the name 
until it IS fixed in mind 

Strong evidence of the value of sdf- 
recitation, and furtlier clarification as to the 
best time for its use, is given by a study of 

several thousand high-school students in 
Iowa Reference to part of this study was 
made earliei m order to show how rapidly 
students tend to forget after a single reading 
of an article (sec Chart 2) In this experi- 
ment, the groups took an initial test at dif- 
ferent intervals after the reading and then 
took it again at later times Tire first test, 
therefore, acted as a recitation-review for the 
later tests The results of such testing-review 
are indicated by broken lines in Chart 2, on 
page 14 For instance, group I took the 
test immediately after reading, after 1 day 
and after 21 days, gioup III took its first 
test on the first day after reading and again 
on die fourteenth day Two things stand 
out (1) The recitation-test acted to retard 
forgetting and (2) the earlier it came the 
better It was found, m fact, tliat with a 
single reading tlie student is apt to remem- 
ber only 20 per cent at tlie end of two 
weeks, but with a single reading followed 
immediately with a recitation test, he will 
remember 80 per cent' Or as the author says, 
“More IS forgotten in one day when reten- 
tion is unaided than is forgotten in 63 days 
when retention is aided by recall ” Such a 
gam is far beyond what rereading will pro- 
duce and yet it takes less time^® 

The best time to use recitation to retard 
forgetbng, tlierefore, is immediately after 
reading a lesson. But just where in the 
lesson should this self-recitation take placed 
That IS, after the lesson is read clear through, 
or after each headed section? If the student 
waits until the end of the lesson before jot- 
ting down an outline from memory, he will 
find that he has too hazy a notion of the 
details On the other hand, the student 
should not stop to recite each time he finds 
an important point It seems best to read 

“H F Spitzer, Studies in retention, / Educ 
Psych , 1939, 30 641-656 See also G Forlano, 
School learning with varying methods of pracbee 
and rewards. Teach Coll Contn. Educ, 1936, 
No 688, 114 pp 


through a meaningful unit, such as a headed 
section, and then try self-recitation This 
forces the reader to organize his thinking 
in terms of main ideas and does not inter- 
rupt study so often as to break the train 
of thought 

What form should this self-recitation 
fake? Many of tlie charactenstics found 
necessary for an effective technique in or- 
ganizing comprehension are also pertment 
here. Any such technique should be simple 
and automatic, it should be an aid and not 
a distraction to thinking The easier a reci- 
tation technique is and the less time it takes, 
the better. Recitation techniques of com- 
plete outlining, underlining, writing sum- 
maries, jotting down summary phrases, and 
discussion have been tried, and the system 
of reading a headed section and then jotting 
from memory a key phrase or so in die 
reader's own words has been found tlie 
most effective^"' If the reader feels unsure 
as he writes these summary phrases from 
memory, he can check back over the reading 
material And as he progresses through the 
chapter these cue phrases are arranged m 
outline form in order to present the ideas 
of the total lesson m an easily visualized 
form, Underlining is not particularly effec- 
tive as a recitation technique because die 
reader has merely to check back over the 
material and recognize important points and 
is not forced to check his understanding of 
die section 

It IS comforting to note that the tech- 
nique which was found to promote com- 
prehension (turning headings into questions 
which are read for and recited on) can also 
be used to retard forgetting One general 

“H F Arnold, The comparative efficiency of 
certain study techniques m fields of history, J Educ 
Psych , 1942, 33 449-457, M Bndge, The effect 
on retention of different methods of revision, Mel- 
bourne Univ, Educ Res Ser, 1.934, Uo 28, 
55 pp , C O Mathews, Companson of methods of 
study for immediate and delayed recall, J Educ, 
Psych , 1938, 29 ioi-io6. 

technique serves several ends' The heading 
turned to a question tends to cause reading 
for important meanings After reading a 
section, this same heading-question can be 
used as the basis for self-recitation to check 
whether ihe answer is known The self- 
recitation tends to fix the knowledge in 
one’s memory And (to be discussed more 
fully later) these heading-questions are 
useful in predicting quiz questions for later 
review This varied value of a single tech- 
nique IS used to advantage m a later section 
which presents an over-all technique for 
going about textbook studying (Survey 


Two other ways are also useful types of 
self-recitation, but demand tlie assistance of 
another individual Whenever the teacher or 
author provides a list of questions covering 
the main points of an assignment, these 
can be used for self-recitation If quizzes 
were used as learnmg aids rather than as end 
measures for purposes of grading, they could 
be useful in checking comprehension and 
in review. Discussion is another effective 
device because it is so easily done and em- 
phasizes understanding rather than mem- 
orizing It is usually difficult to find at 
convenient times for study another student 
taking the same course, and the urge to visit 
may be so powerful as to prevent an efficient 
use of study discussion 

3. Distributed learning, A relatively sim- 
ple way to inciease learning and to improve 
retention is to distribute the learning over a 
number of short periods instead of trying to 
master the entire task at one time Common 
sense would accord with the results of re- 
search in suggesting that this distribution 
would be favorable for routine memorizing 
since in such boresome tasks attention is 
hkdy to wander after the first few minutes, 
several short attempts with attention pre- 
sumably fairly high would be superior to long 
penods dunng which the student becomes 


bored and inattentive However, the same 
situation seems to hold for ‘logical” learning 
—not verbatim memorizing— as well In one 
experiment two groups of adults were called 
upon to read passages of a technical nature 
five times— one group five times consecu- 
tively in one sitting and the other once each 
day for five days A test given immediately 
after tlie fiftli reading showed a superionty 
in retention of only 4 per cent for the group 
using distributed readings, however, at tire 
end of two weeks this group showed 20 per 
cent greater retention, and 25 per cent after 
four weeks, as compared with the group who 
did all their reading in one day’-'^ This 
experiment is suggestive of the defects of 
cramming— there is reasonably good im- 
mediate recall, but rapid subsequent forget- 

The distribution of study sessions will 
vary as they are used to serve either of two 
functions the most efficient arrangement to 
obtain clear comprehension or quick learn- 
ing, and the most efficient arrangement to 
renew learning through review Suffice it to 
say here, since a thorough discussion of re- 
viewing for examinations will be presented 
later, that the rate of forgetting and the 
value of review near examination time are 
prime factors in determining tlie distribu- 

D McAustin, A study m logical memory, 
Amer / Psych, 1921, 32 370-403 

tion of review sessions Wlien it comes to 
trying for the first time to understand some 
difficult problem or learn some task de- 
manding exact reproduction as m a poem 
or foreign vocabulary, a quite different distri- 
bution of learning sessions is needed. Time 
enough should be taken on the first reading 
to get a meaningful view of the whole task 
and, rather than reread the lesson, evidence 
already discussed indicates that an imme 
diate effort at self-recitation is very worth 
while But how long should the student then 
wait for the next session? If he waits too 
long there will be so much forgetting that 
studying again will seem like a new task If 
too soon, the factors of fatigue and boredom 
may be operative One experiment shed 
some light on this problem Different 
equated groups tried reading a lesson as 
follows four times in one session, once a 
session each three hours apart, once a session 
each one day apart, and once a session each 
three days apart As will be seen in Chart 5, 
the four study sessions three hours apart 
was the best of the four plans In general, 
then, it would seem wise for a student with 
a difficult problem to give it a thorough try, 
then return to it later 
In planning distributed learning periods, 
some consideration should be given to what 

English, Welborn, and Killian, op at 



3 Hrs Apart 


1 Day Apart 

3 Days Apart 

0 XO 20 30 40 

Comprehension Scores 

Chart 5, Coinprehenaon scores made by equated groups who 
read a selection four times but with different spacings between the 
readings. (Based on data from Enghsh, Welborn, and Kilhan.) 


_]35 8 


IS done immediately after each period of 
study A similar task may interfere with the 
previous learning, especially if it is one de- 
manding rather exact reproduction, thus in 
memorizing a poem there will be more rapid 
forgetting if it is followed immediately by 
study of another poem than if some other 
activity follows Tire usual ten minutes 
between classes not only provides time for 
travel but also lets what is learned become 
“set” before the student has to start on new 
material Wlien studying in the evening, the 
student may well reward himself with a bnef 
respite aftei finishing a lesson and before 
starting a new one A rest at this time will 
make a break m the middle of tlie new 
lesson less likely 

It has been shown that forgetting can be 
retarded if a student becomes interested in 
the material he is reading, intends to remem- 
ber it, and distributes his study time Of 
further help, and probably most important, 
IS the use of a self-recitation technique 
after reading each headed section, tlie pre- 
ferred form for such self-recitation being 
“working notes ” The experimental findings 
of this and of the preceding section on select- 
ing and comprehending what is important 
provide a basis for devising a new, total 
method of studying which is highly efficient 
This IS the subject of the next section. 

Higher-Level S'ruDY Skills 

Various books have been written on spe- 
cial skills useful in reading books Some 
have emphasized increased speed of reading, 
others, techniques for getting the most stim- 
ulation from an author’s ideas Students, 
however, want a skill which will be particu- 
larly effective with school textbooks. 

J McGeoch and F McKinney, Retroacbve in- 
hibition in the learning of poetry, Amer J Psych , 
1954, 46 19-30. 

J Adler, How to Read a Booh, Simon & 
Schuster, 1940, M A Bessey, Active Reading, 
Appleton Century, 1941, N Lewis, How to Read 
Better and Faster, Crowell, 1944, I A. Richards, 
How to Read a Page, Norton, 1942. 

A new technique must be devised, since 
the methods of good students are too often 
inefficient and no one of the experiments 
above used the perfect method The findings 
of these experiments, however, contribute a 
scientific foundation from which a higher- 
level study skill can be devised They showed 
that a quick survey of headings and sum- 
manes before starting to read gave an orien- 
tation which speeded up reading and aided 
retention They showed that asking a ques- 
tion before starting each section also helped 
reading Other experiments showed that the 
very rapid forgetting which is so typical after 
reading can be markedly slowed down by 
die simple expedient of forcing oneself to 
recite from memory after reading Other 
experiments showed something as to the 
best timing of this self-recitalion during the 
study period Vanous studies emphasized 
die importance of understanding the larger 
meanings m die selection, and of seeing 
their pattern of relationship Oudinmg, re- 
lating the material to one’s interests, and a 
brief review when through reading were 
shown to help widi diis Still other experi- 
ments showed die value of distribution of 
effort in studying 

Tlie creation of a study skill which uses 
these findings, which satisfies the demands 
of school study, and which pleases the stu- 
dent with its efficiency is a challenge to the 
reading specialist The student wants am 
suggested method to help him (1) select 
what he is expected to know, (2) conipic- 
hend these ideas rapidly, (3) fix them in 
memory, and later (4) review efficieiith foi 
examinations The method must be moie 
efficient and less time consuming than ic- 
reading lessons And it should not be diffi- 
cult to learn. 

For years the writer has had students tiy 
out vanous mediods which such expeiiiiiciits 
have suggested, such trials have led to 
further refinements and suggestions One 
method has finally been devised which fits 


the criteria above, is more effective than tenal which follows is devoted to a descrip- 
typical study methods, and has found stu- tion of this study technique and to exercises 
dent approval. Further research may show directed toward developing such skill Fol- 
other possible refinements but it is felt tliat lowing this there will be some discussion 
this now represents a higher-level skill of of special techniques in studying foreign- 
great effectiveness for schoolwork The ma- language and non-prose materials. 


The title for this new higher-level study skdl is abbreviated in the current fashion to 
make it easier to remember and to make reference to it more simple The symbols stand 
for the steps which the student follows in using the method, a description of each of 
these steps is given below 

Survey i. Glance over the headings m the chapter to see the few big points which 
will be developed This survey should not take more than a minute and will 
show the three to six core ideas around which the rest of the discussion will 
cluster If die chapter has a final summary paragraph this will also list the 
ideas developed in the chapter This orientation will help you organize the 
ideas as you read them later 

Question 2 Now begin to work Turn the Erst heading into a question This will arouse 
your curiosity and so increase comprehension It will bring to mind informa- 
tion already known, thus helping you to understand that section more 
quickly And the question will make important points stand out while ex- 
planatory detail IS recognized as such This turning a heading into a question 
can be done on the instant of reading the heading, but it demands a conscious 
effort on the part of the reader to make tins query for which he must read to 
find the answer. 

Read 3 Read to answer that question, i e , to the end of the first headed section 
This is not a passive plowing along each line, but an active search for the 

Recite 4 Having read the first sechon, look away from the book and try briefly to 
recite the answer to your question Use your own words and name an example 
If you can do this you know what is in the book, if you can’t, glance over 
the section again An excellent way to do this reciting from memory is to )0t 
down cue phrases in outlme form on a sheet of paper Make these notes very 


Review 5 When the lesson has thus been read through, look over your notes to get 
a bird’s-eye view of die points and of their relationship and check your 
memory as to the content by reciting on the major subpoints under each 
heading. This checking of memory can be done by covering up the notes 
and trying to recall the mam points Then expose each major point and try 
to recall the subpoints listed under it. 


These five steps of the Survey Q3R 
Method— Survey, Question, Read, Recite, 
and Review— when polished into a smooth 
and efficient method should result m the 
student reading faster, picking out tire im- 
portant points, and fixing them m memory. 
The student will find one other worth- 
while outcome quiz questions will seem 
happily familiar because the headings turned 
into questions are usually the points em- 
phasized m quizzes In predicting actual 
quiz questions and looking up the answers 
beforehand, the student feels that he is 
effectively studying what is considered im- 
portant in a course 

Its Effectiveness 

Evidence of the success of this method 
has been obtained from several studies In 
one experiment several sections of a how- 
to-study class measured their reading ability 
(reading rate and comprehension accuracy) 
on a test which dealt with the history of 
Canada, they were then given practice in 
die use of the Survey Q3R Method for 
several days after which they took anotlier 
comparable reading test Before training, 
the average rate of reading for the classes 
was at the 34th percentile and after training 
it was at the 56th percentile, before training 
the average accuracy of comprehension was 
at the 43rd percentile and after training at 
the 53rd percentile In another experiment 
an attempt was made to measure the effec- 
tiveness of this method for examination 
preparation Two quizzes of equal difficulty 
were prepared, for the first quiz the students 
were permitted to study in their own inimi- 
table ways but for the second quiz they were 
shown how to predict questions The average 
number of errors on the first quiz was 15 but 
on the second quiz only 6 One of the most 
convincing arguments to the writer has been 
the comments of students who have tned 
it and found that it worked. Students have 

walked into class and said 'T predicted 15 
of the 20 questions he asked,” or “Boy, oh 
boy, I’ve been getting D's in chemistry but 
I got a B yesterday,” or “It looked like he 
had picked the quiz questions from my list ” 

Further Details of the Method 
The descnption above has given an over- 
all picture of the method Experience m 
teaching its use, however, shows that certain 
typical errors may occur, usually because old 
study metliods interfere Indicating these 
cntical points, so the student can be par- 
ticularly careful concerning them, is helpful 
in learning a skill These cautions are ar- 
ranged according to the steps in the method 
a Survey A survey of headings m a les- 
son should take only a minute Some 
students are so in the habit of reading 
on once they get started that, until they 
have learned how, they need to make 
a conscious effort to look just at the 
headings and then to estimate what 
the lesson is about. It is worth while 
to practice this skill by itself. Take 
some reading material on topics with 
which you are familiar, eg, news- 
papers, digest magazines, previously 
read textbooks, etc, glance over the 
headings in an article or a chapter, then 
make guesses as to what the material 
will actually say Check to see how 
well you have done. 

bandc Reading to answer questions. 
Changing a heading into a question 
should be a conscious effort to orient 
oneself actively toward the material 
to be read The reader should definitely 
have in mind what he wants to learn 
as he reads each section and not just 
passively read it line by line Habits 
from reading fiction often make it dif- 
ficult to read textbooks, for it has been 
found that most people read fiction m 
order to forget tlieir troubles and not 


to remember wbat is m the book. Such 
an attitude of comprehending for the 
moment, when earned over into text- 
book reading, gives rise to a delusion 
that since the ideas are comprehended 
as they are read they will, of course, 
be remembered and unconsciously or- 
ganized as answers to questions Such 
IS far from the truth Reading textbooks 
is work, the leader must know what he 
IS looking for, look for it, and then 
organize his thinking on the topic he 
has been reading about 
d, Reciting The tendency in reading is 
to keep going, but one should stop at 
the end of each headed section to see 
if he can answer the question asked at 
the start of the section As indicated 
before, this tends to check whether 
the reader has comprehended the ma- 
terial, and the recitation fixes the ideas 
in memory Furthermore, this insist- 
ence on answering the question makes 
it easier to force oneself to read with 
an active, inquiring attitude 
Self-recitation may consist of men- 
tally reviewing the answer or writing it 
out The latter is more effective since 
It forces the reader actually to ver- 
balize the answer whereas a mental 
review may often fool a reader into 
believing that a vague feeling of com- 
prehension represents mastery Further- 
more, the more sensory channels used 
in learning, the more effective it is, 
in writing notes one provides visual 
and kinaesthetic (muscle) cues as well 
qs verbal imagery in thinking about it 
But it IS very important that this note- 
taking require little time and energy, 
the notes should be exceedingly bnef 
It is here, m fact, that many students 
have the most difficulty with the 
Survey Q3R Method Some think they 
are to use old habits of lengthy note- 


taking where all details are copied from 
the book, usually as complete sentences 
This technique so disrupts the progress 
of reading that the tram of thought is 
lost Other students, when they spy 
something important, aie in the habit 
of stopping then to copy it into their 
notes— with one finger marking each 
phrase as they look back and forth be- 
tween book and notes It can truth- 
fully be said that many such students 
copy a sentence into their notes with- 
out ever having read it (for meaning) 
because as soon as they see something 
in italics they start copying 

The student will have to practice 
the type of working notes, as they are 
called, recommended here First, no 
notes are written until the whole 
headed section is completely read. 
Second, the notes are jotted down 
from memory and not from the book. 
And third, the notes should be in the 
student’s own words and should be 
brief, le, little more than a word or 
phrase Just as a public speaker’s notes 
usually consist of a list of topics as re- 
minders of what to talk about next, so 
tlie student’s notes should include only 
cue words and phrases to demonstrate 
to his own satisfaction that he knows 
what points are included Knowing a 
topic, the student can easily supply an 
explanation of it Such brief wording 
also keeps tire notes in compact form 
so that they can be easily visualized 
later in review 

The following sample of working 
notes based on the first five pages of 
die Art Reading test shows how points 
can be made to stand out (key words 
are italicized for emphasis) and how 
the indentations make visualization of 
die subpoints easier. Hie brief wording 
will not convey full meaning to a 

stranger, he should read the article, 
but the cue phrases are sufEcient re- 
minders of what IS in the article to the 
student who made the notes 

Notes on Art Test 

A Art— joining together, signify expenence 
B 2 classes 

1 Useful arts 

2 Fine arts — attempt to express beauty, 

a Artist identifies self with object, 
observer also 

b Shows effect not causes 
c Shows inspiration nature gives 
C Character of art 

1 Unity — one idea, no distractions in 

2 Composition — ^process of selecting 
and arranging 

a Harmony — consistency of charac- 

b. Balance — consistency of attrac- 

c Rhythm — consistency of move- 

3 Message of art is mood 

It IS difEcult to maintain an attitude 
of active attack on any type of work 
over long periods of time In industry 
it has been found more efficient to 
alternate periods of working at different 
activities Tlie change of activity is less 
boring and one can start each new 
period with zest In studying, an alter- 
nation of reading and note-taking makes 
it easier for the student to keep at his 
lessons and to maintain an attitude of 
active searching foi ideas It is easier to 
keep at reading until a headed section 
IS finished than it is to complete the 
whole lesson, therefore breaks in at- 

Some students find even tins amount of note- 
taking too laborious! Another technique is to jot 
down, or underline in the text, cue words or phrases 
which represent probable quiz questions TTie an- 
swers are not written These lists then provide a 
good basis for review If in reviewing, the answer 
doesn’t come immediately to mind, the student 
reads in the book 


tention are apt to come at logical places 
in the reading mateiial and so do not 
disrupt the student’s thinking as much 
This alternation of tasks, m fact, helps 
make concentration much easier in 
studying lessons 
e. Review Review immediately after read- 
ing should be brief, probably not more 
than five mmutes will be needed This 
IS certainly much faster than rereading 
the lesson The total outline should be 
looked over to get an over-all, easily 
visualized picture, but the review should 
not be limited to this As indicated in 
the directions, anotlier attempt at self- 
recitation makes sure that the material 
IS better fixed in memory 
Later reviews are also worth while 
because of the forgetting which takes 
place The factors influencing the 
efficiency of these delayed reviews will 
be discussed in tlie next project. 


In spite of all these do’s and don'ts, the 
Survey Q3R Method probably sounds simple, 
but so does golf or swimming Just as in 
learning any skill, this one will take much 
practice to make it highly effective and as 
habitual as your present methods And as 
with any new skills, this one may seem awk- 
ward and ineffective when it is first tried. 
So a senes of praehce exercises has been set 
up to give you training in the use of tlie 

Laboratory materials will be used at first 
because they are constructed so as to show 
what IS wanted and the counselor can more 
quickly check errors m method As soon as 
possible, however, practice will be earned 
out on your actual courses 
1 The first step in learning to use the 
Survey Q3R Method was descubed on 
pages 16-17 Here you learned to recognize 
cues in textbook wnting. 


2 Tlie second step was also completed 
then when you jotted down the list of cues 
in outline form This was in reality a first 
attempt at working notes It also showed 
how such brief notes can predict qmz 

3 Now that you understand what text- 
book cues and working notes are, the next 
step IS to get some practice doing die whole 
skill As m coaching baseball, your whole 
delivery should be observed and suggestions 
made on pertinent difficulties. Pracbce will 
be of two types 

a. Special reading assignments will be 
used m class for a senes of practice ex- 
ercises on the use of the Survey Q3R 
Method You will be observed while 
doing this, your notes will be evaluated, 
and, if time permits, quizzes will be 
given over these "assignments” 
b Dunng the weeks to follow you will 
also practice this method on some one 
of your courses, preferably one with 
much reading in it Keep checking 
with your counselor as to furtiier ways 
to improve your skill widi the Survey 
Q3R Method. 

While a student may become particularly 
interested in improving one aspect of the 
total skill, educational psychologists have 
found that a skill is learned most readily if 
it is always practiced as a whole Tlius in 
studying a lesson, you should cany out the 
whole Survey Q3R Method as rapidly and 
efficiently as possible When a lesson is com- 
pleted you can note the time it took and so 
obtain a measure of rate, your notes can be 
evaluated by the counselor, and later qmzzes 
can be analyzed to see how well the correct 
points have been predicted. 

Evidence of Improvement 
You Will, of course, be interested in seeing 
evidence of improvement from use of this 
technique. This may show up in various 

ways* reading rate may be faster, compre- 
hension accuracy may be higher, notes may 
be belter, and quiz questions may seem 
more familiar because they have been pre- 
dicted Charts for designating progress are 
provided below or are referred to elsewhere 
in this book Although minor fluctuations 
may occur in a graph due to chance dif- 
ferences in difficulty or variations m your 
own efficiency, you should find m time 
that the lines representing performance will 
gradually progress upwards Charting prog- 
ress provides assurance that your efforts 
are getting results and will help you and the 
counselor discover wheie there is still dif- 

1 Rate of Reading Note how many 
words a minute you are able to read on the 
average while completing a lesson Plot this 
on the chart on page 112. Rate with and 
without note-taking will be quite different, 
it will be mteiestmg to keep two lines on 
the graph one for rate with notes, the other 
for straight reading rate 

2. Notes The check list for rating work- 
ing notes is on the following pages In 
evaluating working notes as a part of the 
Survey Q3R Method, two characteristics are 
emphasized Do they cover the essential 
points? And are they in a good format, 1 e , 
wntmg reduced to a minimum, major points 
standing out with subordinate points in- 
dented, and written so that self-recitation 
can be earned out easily. Have the counselor 
rate your notes on this chart so you can 
see which aspects need further work 

3. Comprehension Accuracy and Predic- 
tion of Quiz Questions On the second chart 
below, record such measures of compre- 
hension accuracy as test scores and esti- 
mates of the per cent of questions asked 
whicli you were able to predict Great care 
must be taken in what is compared to what, 
success may be greater on a quiz in one course 
than it IS m another because the quizzes m 


the first course are easier So in plotting be- 
low be sure to mark each item with enough 
descriptive detail so that later comparable 
predictions may be joined up with it by a 
line The chart will eventually have several 
lines on it indicating progress in predicting 
quiz questions in one course, accuracy of 
comprehension on a series of reading tests, 
etc To keep these lines from becoming con- 
fused it may be well to make them of dif- 
ferent colors or of different types 
Scores are not always obtainable or best 
presented as per cent right Thus grades 
may be given only in a letter form of “A,” 
“B,” and “C”; or tlie instructor may indicate 

the average score for the class with which 
your score can be compared, or tlie test score 
itself may be used. You may plot any of 
these on the chart so long as they provide 
you with a visual evidence of progress 
4. Memory Students occasionally find 
that then notes agree with the questions 
asked, but they had trouble on the quiz 
when it was given This is evidence that they 
once knew tlie mateiial but it was forgotten 
Some such forgetting is normal, but if this 
difference is extieme it represents an aspect 
needing remediation Whenever you find 
missed quiz questions actually listed in your 
notes, turn to Project III for assistance. 


Each timR the student’s notebook is rated, use a separate column In general, rate the same subject 
each time The ratmg is done by checkmg each of the deficiencies found, and double-checking par- 
ticularly bad aspects Count the number of checks in each section and put this number in the box 
for each boldface headmg Then add all these numbers for the total score Plot this score on the graph; 
successive evaluations and plottmgs wdl show any improvement mode 

Name of course rated, and 

General Format: 

Handwriting illegible 

Too many notebooks 


Notebook too small 

Pages overfilled 

Unorganized notes, courses 
mixed together 

Loose, odd-sized pages 

Too much time on notes 

Too spread out 

Too compact 

Organization or Form* 

Poor labehng at top 



Need more indentation 



Just a hstmg of points 

Not m outlme form 

No numbermg system 

Use emphasis marks 

Hard to see organization 

Subtopics unrelated to head 





Phrasing of Notes 

Unnecessary wordiness 

Wording does not convey 
meaning of section 

Missed some of mam ideas 

Not fimshing headed sec- 
tion before writing notes 

Start with cue word 

In authoi’s words, not own 

Too meager for material 

Too much detail 

General Quality of Notes 

Ratmg on 10-point scale, 
with 0 as excellent, 5 as 
average, and 10 as ter- 
rible or no notes 

Total Score 

Graph Showing 





Tlie previous discussion has dwelt at length 
on techniques of studying the usual college 
textbook. Some reading material, however, 
is heavily loaded with diagrams, charts, and 
formulae, and some is even written almost 
entirely m a foreign language Such ma- 
terials demand different study skills than 
are used with prose. That is, the principles 
of learning still apply, but the total study 
method is redesigned to fit these special ma- 
terials The need for this is well illustrated 
when students try to read a formula at the 
same rate as the prose which precedes it 
The material which follows first discusses 
skills in foreign-language study and then 
study methods with diagrams, charts, and 

Foreign-Language Study 

Willie some students find the study of a 
foreign language easy and interesting, others 
find it one of their most difficult subjects 
Some of this latter group spend hours each 
day studying the strange language and yet 
find that they have made little progress 
Part of tins is due to differences in facility 
at linguistic learning, but learned factors 
also determine success in language courses. 
While occasionally a student may feel that 
he IS aphasic to foreign languages, the causes 
actually he elsewhere and are usually remedi- 

Some indication of the nature of these 
difficulties is shown in a series of experiments 
on factors related to success in German 
classes “ In the first experiment two groups 

P Larsen, J R Wittenborn, and E G 
Giesecke, Factors contributing to achievement in 
the study of first semester college German, / Exper 
Educ , 1942, 10 265-271, J R Wittenborn and 
R P Larsen, An empincal evaluation of study 
habits in elementary German, J Appl Psych , 1944, 
28 420-430, J R Wittenborn and R P Larson’ 
A factorial study of achievement in college German, 
f Educ Psych , 1944, 3 5 39-49. ’ 

of students, equal m ability but differing 
markedly in their success in German, were 
measured m a large number of character- 
istics that might be related to success in 
language. The only areas m which the two 
groups showed significant differences were* 
En^ish proficiency, desire to master a 
foreign language, daily preparation of lessons, 
habit of studying collections made on their 
papers, and reading German for ideas rather 
than translating words. In a second experi- 
ment, an analysis was made of the methods 
which students use m studying German The 
results showed that* (a) The poor students 
tended to postpone study but the good 
ones mastered each lesson and actually 
studied German when they sat down to do 
it (b) The poor ones said they had lots of 
trouble with grammar while the good ones 
didn’t, and said they saw grammar as a 
means rather tlian as the end purpose of 
their course in English And (c) the poor 
ones said they made no special effort to 
study declensions while the good students 
did, and also had a plan to use in attacking 
new German sentences and studied any 
correchons which the instructor made on 
their papers. 

In brief, these factors are of three general 
types motivation, English training, and 
special skills in foreign-language study Each 
of these will be discussed in turn 

Some students have difficulty because they 
really are not interested m foreign languages 
and only study them to fulfill requirements 
for a degree And even for those who are 
interested, the necessary routine practice 
does not provide interesting new facts such 
as the buddmg scientist finds m his study 
of chemistry It is little wonder that a stu- 
dent sometimes prefers to study other more 
interestmg courses first and finds it difficult 
to keep his mind on his language study. As a 
first step in making language study easier, 
a student must clarify in his own mind the 


values he expects to obtain from the study 
of a foreign language Since this whole prob- 
lem of getting down to work and learning to 
concentrate is the topic of Project IV, turn 
to that project if you are having trouble witli 
language study 

Training in English, more specifically in 
English grammar, is another important factor 
determining success in study of a foreign 
language Because greater use is made of 
grammar terminology m teaching a foreign 
language than in tlie teaching of English, 
experiments show that knowledge of English 
grammar is actually more higlily related to 
success in studying a foreign language than 
m studying English 

But the necessary grammatical terminology 
IS not as extensive as the size of a grammar 
book might indicate Following is a list of 
grammatical terms that an analysis shows are 
frequently used, and which teachers consider 
important, m foreign-language study “ This 

C and S L Pressey, Essential Preparation 
for College, Farrar & Rinehart, 1932 

list IS m addition to the grammatical terms 
which a college student would know from 
his work m English composition Test your- 
self on these terms to see if you can think 
of an illustration for each Any terms which 
cause difliculty can be looked up m an 
English grammar book, a dictionary, or in 
J A Meredith and W S Jack’s pamphlet, 
Outline English Grammar for Foreign 
Language Students (published by its autliors, 

Other practice materials dealing with 
English usage will be found in Project VIII, 
turn to it if you feel that English usage is a 
factor in your language-study problem. 

Special techniques for language study are 
also important The suggestions which fol- 
low deal with the twin problems of learning 
to read for meaning and learning vocabulary 
and conjugations A first suggestion is to 
read constantly for meaning rather than plod 
along looking up English equivalents Some 
students feel that they have read their lessons 
when they have dutifully looked up each 


Technical Vocabulary in Foreign Language Composition 

1 masculine gender 

2 feminine gender 

3 neuter gender 

4 possessive pronouns 

5 possessive adjectives 

6 relative pronouns 

7 interrogative pronouns 

8 demonstrative pronouns 

9 definite articles 

10 indefinite articles 

11 transitive verbs 

12 intransitive verbs 

1 3 regular verbs 

14 irregular verbs 

15 nominative case 

16 objective case 

17 impersonal verbs 

18 reflexive verbs 
19. auxiliary verbs 

30 infinitives 

31 predicate nouns 

22 indirect objects 

23 negabves 

24 mterrogatives 

25 prefixes 

26 suffixes 

27 positive degree 

28. comparative degree 

29 superlative degree 

30 imperfect tense 

31 perfect tense 

32 pluperfect tense 

33 active voice 

34 passive voice 

35 subjunctive mood 

36 imperative mood 

37 indicative mood 

38 inverted word order 

39 syllable 

40. declensions 

41. conjugations 
42 inflection 


word, but such translating gives little mean- 
ing and does not develop habits of expect- 
ing meaning, it is not learning to read Since 
reading for meaning is difficult the first 
time through a lesson, an immediate reread- 
ing provides this experience and helps fix 
the material in mind Thus rereading, which 
IS not effective in studying other textbooks, 
IS effective when learning a foreign language 
Further practice at reading for meaning can 
be obtained by reviewing previous lessons 
and by reading easy stories and newspapers 
A second suggestion is tlie study of any 
specific aspect of the language which causes 
trouble Thus, even in chemistry, it is im- 
portant to study tlie technical vocabulary, 
but in a foreign language it is imperative to 
put special study on vocabulary, conjuga- 
tions, and idioms Much of this is learned m 
reading selections, but some additional prac- 
tice IS necessary to fix in mind the meaning 
of frequently recurring foreign terms Self- 
recitation practice on such word lists is ex- 
tremely valuable While only brief use of 
self-recitation was shown to be very effective 
immediately after reading a headed section 
in history, m learning such things as foreign 
vocabulary or poetry it is most efficient to 
spend as much as four-fifths of the time m 
self-recitationi That is, in learning a foreign 
language much time will be spent in actual 
reading and rereading, but that part of the 
time spent in vocabulary study should em- 
phasize reciting from memory rather than 
mere reading of definitions.^^ A good way 
to do this IS to make a pack of vocabulary 
caids on one side of the card is written a 
foreign term and on tlie other its En glis h 
equivalent or the desired declension or con- 
jugation Such cards are made for all im- 

H A Peterson, Recitation or recall as a factor 
m the learning of long prose selections, J Educ 
Psych , 1944, 35 220-228, L C Seibert, A senes 
of experiments on the learning of French vocabu- 
lary, Johns Hopbns Umv Stud Educ, 1932, 
No 18, 106 pp 

portant or frequently recurring words Drill 
IS carried on by looking at the foreign term, 
thinking of its meaning and then checking 
on the reverse side The cards for those words 
that were not known are kept separate for a 
second trial, cards for known words are put 
in a separate pile and given an occasional 

A third technique in foreign-language 
study is the development of a three-level 
plan of attack on new material 

1 Try to foresee what is going to happen 
in tlie selection Before starting to read, it is 
helpful to read the title and briefly skim over 
the selecfaon, this general orientation greatly 
helps in recognizing the meaning of words 
or in guessing at tlie meaning of entirely 
strange words And as a student reads 
further in a selection, the story or theme be- 
comes clearer so that anticipation is easier, 
this attitude should be maintained through- 
out the reading 

2 Techniques of attack on sentences are 
also important In some languages the se- 
quence of subject, verb, and object differs 
from the pattern in English, the student 
should have this pattern clearly in mind 
and with difficult sentences make it a prac- 
tice to look for the words in that sequence 
rather than in the simple chronology of left 
to right The position of modifiers in some 
languages also differs from their position in 
relation to nouns and verbs in English, at- 
tention to this detail also helps with difficult 
passages Witli sufficient practice or with 
easy material, however, the language will 
seem so familiar that the student can get 
the sense of the sentence as he reads straight 
along much as he already does with Eng- 

3. The third level of attack concerns 
methods of dealing with unknown words 
Very often the context of a selection can 
indicate the probable meaning of a strange 
word, use context to guess at words and 


finish the sentence or paragraph before using 
the dictionary to verify your estimate Very 
often a familiar word root will represent 
part of a strange word or a known word 
may be linked with other unknown words to 
form a compound word In either instance, 
such analysis of the unknown word may be 
sufficient to suggest the correct meaning 
which can later be verified Hunches as to 
what a word means are right so often that 
a student should trust his first hunches and 
lead straight along for general meaning, 
then check for more exact meanings. This 
is more effective than translating each word, 
with much turning to the back of the book 
or to a dictionary 

Foreign languages are taught by different 
methods and with different emphases For 
instance, some instructors make much use 
of grammar or of exact translation while 
others emphasize rapid reading for whatever 
meaning can be obtained Some emphasize 
silent reading ability while others emphasize 
pronunciation It is obvious that each 
emphasis demands a somewhat different 
approach m studying. If you are having 
trouble with a language course, ask your in- 
structor for suggestions as to the best 
methods of learning the language as he is 
teaching it. 

The following references provide further 
discussion of techniques for learning a 
foreign language 

C Bird, Effective Study Habits, Appleton- 
Centuiy, 1931 Pages 78-83 

W E Bull and L E Drake, Aids to Lan- 
guage Learning Spanish, College Typing 
Co , 1941, 57 pages 

C C. Crawford, Studying the Major Sub- 
jects, published by the author, 1930 Pages 

C. C Gullette and L C Keating, Learning 
a Modern Language, Crofts, 1938, 24 

P Hagboldt, Language Learning, Umv Chi- 
caeo Press, 1935, 165 pages 

Studying Non-Prose Materials 

Most textbooks include charts, diagrams, 
tables, maps, and formulas as part of the 
text which the student is to read, and a sur- 
vey of current textbooks indicates that these 
forms of presentation are being increasingly 
used Students, however, have certain dif- 
ficulties in studying them Some students 
skip them because they want to keep on 
reading the text, other students read them 
as if they were prose; still others randomly 
glance over the tables and charts There 
are as definite techniques for studying charts, 
diagrams, tables, and formulae as there are 
for prose. 

There are two aspects to studying these 
non-prose materials, ability to read them and 
effective study techniques Knowledge of 
how to read these materials is discussed in 
Project VII along with other remedial read- 
ing problems This section deals with the 
study techniques which most effectively use 
this reading skill to learn quickly what is 
important, 1 e , an over-all plan of studying 
assignments which include charts, tables, 
formulae, etc. 

Non-prose forms usually supplement a 
prose text in order to emphasize and sum- 
marize important points They may illus- 
trate what several paragraphs or pages of 
text have discussed Obviously they should 
never be skipped as a half page which doesn’t 
have to be read. One approach in studying 
a lesson is to read a headed section, then 
look over the tables and charts before using 
self-recitation With a question in mind and 
having read the background discussion, the 
important points should seem to stand out 
in the charts and tables It may become ob- 
vious, in fact, that these non-prose materials 
are bemg used to emphasize and summarize 
the important points Thus, rather than a 
random glance, non-prose materials war- 
rant an analytic attack based on questions 
suggested by the author’s headings. 


In some courses, diagrams may be the 
fundamental means of presenting essential 
material. In zoology, botany, and physiology, 
for example, a drawing of an organism may 
be the primary device used to present struc- 
ture, or m industrial arts a wiring diagram 
may be used The prose text in these in- 
stances may be supplementary to the draw- 
ings If the course requires ability to repro- 
duce tins material m whole or in part, then 
certain techniques of study are important. 
Some students waste time staring at a draw- 
ing, possibly hoping, on tlie principle of time 
exposure in photography, that such a method 
will make the material sink m. The impor- 
tant thing IS to practice what you will have 
to do later— practice reciting. Look the dia- 
gram over trying to figure out its organiza- 
tion, i e , the electrical circuit or the blood 
circulation system, then push your book aside 
and try sketching the diagram from memory 
Part will be easy, but part will probably be 
too vague to be reproduced Now look back 
at the drawing with particular emphasis on 
the parts that were vague, then try sketching 
it again from memory Very soon a complete 
sketch can be made from memory This 
technique is the same general pattern used 
111 prose reading ask a question about how 
it works, look over the diagram to find tlie 

answer, then recite from memory to check 
what IS known and not known This self- 
recitation also helps to make the material 
stick in mind If the course requires only 
that you correctly label parts of a diagram, 
then practice self-recitation by covering up 
the labels in the book and naming the parts 
Formulae cause particular trouble in read- 
ing because they seem so small and are put 
right in with the prose text A reader tends 
unconseiously to read them at his prose rate 
and m his prose manner, 1 e , at a glance A 
formula, however, is a short eut for saying 
a great deal, tire only way to read one is to 
take it slowly and analyze it For instance, in 
a chemical formula the interaction of the 
constituent parts of the left-hand side need 
to be studied until the result or right-hand 
side IS understood Wlien a formula is not 
easily understood, students often try mem- 
orizing it, hoping that this represents com- 
prehension Since teachers typically alter 
the components of a formula when using it 
in a quiz, such memonzation leaves the stu- 
dent unprepared To overcome this tendency 
and to insure comprehension, it is useful to 
make up a simple problem and then apply 
the formula Since formulae tend to be so 
important, it is a good idea to be sure to 
cover them in review. 



A project on examinations follows rather 
naturally a project on how to study text- 
books Since students typically differentiate 
between studying a lesson for the first time 
to understand it and reviewing it later for 
an examination, the skills needed for each 
of these tasks are presented as separate proj- 
ects Tlie skills dealing with examinations 
are of three general types ( i ) preparing for 
examinations, (2) taking examinations, and 
(3) making use of returned examinations 
Each of these areas will be discussed in turn 

A Preparing for Examinations 

Knowing that an examination will come 
sometime after he has read the lesson, a 
student wants to set up a review schedule 
which, with the least effort, will place him 
at a peak of efficiency for the examination 
Research studies indicate not only the best 
timing for these reviews, but also something 
as to tlie most effective types of review 

Timing of Reviews 

Since forgetting takes place so rapidly 
after learning it is evident that reviews should 
come early when review will be easy and 
most effective Tire time-honored custom of 
cramming also has the value of returning 
memory to something of its original fresh- 
ness just before the examination Research 
studies show that both of these timings are 
more effective than review m between ^ The 
student’s problem is to distribute his review 

^ H A Peterson and others, Some measurements 
of the effects of reviews, J Educ Psych, 1935, 
a6 65-72 


times so that no single review takes much 
time and so that studying before an ex- 
amination does not become a hectic and 
fatiguing effort 

The best way of going about immediate 
reviewing after reading a lesson was discussed 
in the preceding project It was evident in 
Chart 2 that the immediate self-recitation 
and review which are parts of the Survey 
Q3R Metliod are of great help in keeping 
memory at a high level Another metliod fre- 
quently used IS rereading the lesson Reading 
and rereading during the same study period 
was shown not to be very helpful, but spacing 
this rereading with several hours m between 
was more effective tlian any other distribu- 

Certain principles are also of value m de- 
termining the distribution of review time as 
die student approaches an examination Tlie 
very size of the task of reviewing for a mid- 
term or final examination tends to lead to 
procrastination Tlie lengthy cramming ses- 
sion which finally occurs just before the ex- 
amination greatly fatigues the student so he 
cannot be as alert the next day on the test 
And during a given study period there is a 
tendency to get the next day’s lesson before 
starting to review, then tliere is rarely time 
for review The following principles have 
been found to help with these difficulties 
Several review times should be scheduled 
rather than one lengthy session A review 
time should be scheduled separately from 
study hme A definite segment of the lesson 
should be assigned to each review time so 
the task looks possible of completion and 



does not lead to procrastination. And finally 
a student probably should not review for 
more than an hour or two the night before 
an examination 

Between immediate review and review just 
before the examination there is need for 
some intermediate review to keep the ma- 
terial fresh in memory Because, as indicated 
in the previous project, memories tend to 
become reorganized in a dynamic way witli 
the passage of time, such intermediate review 
tends to keep ideas in line with the actual 
facts read An occasional looking over of 
one’s notes, with rereading on obscure points, 
will do much to reduce forgetting and will 
tie in previous material with what is then 
being studied 

Kinds of Review 

Just as there are most efficient methods 
for studying a lesson for the first time, there 
are most efficient metliods of review Further- 
more, it has been found that the closeness 
of the review to the original tune of study 
determines which method of review will be 
most effective In the Survey Q3R Method 
it was shown that an immediate self-reciting 
was much more efficient than rereading, 
on the other hand, if review does not occur 
for some time after reading, so much may 
be forgotten tliat self-recitation cannot be 
fully effective. This is demonstrated in an 

expenment in which large equated groups 
read a selection and were tested on it 42 
days later, in the meantime the various 
groups used different methods of review 
spaced at different intervals The results, 
summarized in Chart 6, show tliat recitation 
IS more efficient than rereading as a method 
of review soon after studying a lesson, but 
some two or more weeks later rereading is 
more efficient “ 

An active, organizational attack on ma- 
tenal is more effective than a passive ap- 
proach both in reading and in review In 
review tliere should be a prediction of quiz 
questions with an active searching for, and an 
organization of, the answers In review a stu- 
dent should use his notes or textbook head- 
ings to indicate probable questions When- 
ever an answer is recalled immediately, he 
can pass on quickly to the next question. 
Whenever recalling an answer is difficult, 
the student can skim and reread until tlie 
answer is found Such review through ques- 
tion answering provides a feeling of com- 
pleteness when the job is done that does 
not usually follow attempts to reread a whole 
book Students who undertake to reread six 
weeks’ or a term’s work usually find the task 
so enormous that tliey resort to skipping 

®A M Sones and J B Stroud, Review, with 
special reference to temporal position, J Educ 
Psych, 1940, 31 665-676 

Position I Position R Position in 

(Days 1 and 3) (Days 8 and 15) (Days 15 and 17) 

Chart 6. Relative effectiveness of two fands of review at 
three different intervals after imtial learning. (From Sones and 
Stroud ) 

about and merely glancing at pages here and 
there. Tire increasing accuracy with which 
a student finds himself studying the right 
questions (shown in the chart of question 
piediction m the preceding project) also 
gives him a feeling of energy well spent m 
review Rather than an attitude of “There’s 
no telling what he’ll ask” or “One has to 
know everything ” tire student predictmg 
questions feels definitely oriented with a 
realization that “These twenty things are 
sure to be asked ” 

Too much cannot be said of the value of 
notes for review Ratlier than being over- 
whelmed with a hundred or more pages 
to reread, the student with three to five 
pages of notes easily obtains an outlme 
picture of this material. Indentations in the 
notes make major points stick out and re- 
lationships among the major points easily 

What effect should the type of examina- 
tion have on review method? Most students 
believe that one should study differently for 
an essay than for an objective examination ® 
They feel that the objective examination is 
easier and therefore one has to study less 
hard, that is, one has only to recognize ratlier 
than recall the points Tliere is also a feeling 
that one should study details rather tlian 
organization of ideas when preparing for 
an objective examination Actually, it is 
equally hard to make good grades on either 
type of examination, and a method of study 
which emphasizes understanding the mam 
ideas and their relationships should be used 
for both That is, scores tend to be higher 
on tiue-false examinations because it is 
easier to recognize answers than to recall 
them and because of opportunities for guess- 
ing, but since all students have these same 

® E C Class, The effect of the bnd of test an- 
nouncement on students’ preparation, J Educ, Res , 
i 935 > 358-361, G Meyer, The effect on recall 

and recognition of the examination set in classroom 
situabons, / Educ Psych, 1936, 27,81-99. 


advantages, a given student will find him- 
self in the same relative position to the other 
students as if he took an essay examination 
And while objective questions may seem to 
deal witli “small points,” actual comparison 
of the topics of these questions with head- 
ings m the text will show a close similarity. 

Preparation for Final Examinations 

The principles which apply to preparing 
for quizzes also apply to final examinations, 
but because the latter so typically cover the 
whole course and count so much on grades, 
many students get excited and fall back on 
ratlier childish mediods of cramming. Be- 
cause of its importance, a special section on 
final examinations is included You may feel 
at this bme, howevei, that final examinations 
are a long way off, this section can be read 
now as a summary of the discussion thus 
far and should be considered more carefully 
near the end of the school term. 

Use the charts below to plan your review 
time for the last two weeks of the school 
term Wnte in your regular classes and the 
bmes for tlie final examinations W’rite in 
any other necessary activities, such as work 
and meetings. Now, write m your study and 
review bmes In doing tliis be sure to dif- 
feientiate between study time for daily les- 
sons in the last days of the term and review 
sessions, also label what course and materials 
are to be reviewed at each time Wednesday 
evening might look like this “7-8 30 Study 
Chaps 17 & 18 History; 8 30-g 30 Review 
Chaps 1-5 History, 9 30-9 45 relax; 9:45- 
io’i5 study French verbs and idioms, 10 15- 
10 45 relaxabon and so to bed ” Reviewing 
for a given course should be divided up and 
assigned to three or four spaced sessions; 
the last session before the examination may 
well be spent in looking over notes for the 
whole course. No review session should be 
very long; die task of recalling and organizing 
many ideas is so fatiguing that efficiency 


goes down rapidly after an hour, or an 
hour and a half, of review 
This ten-day period should be one in 
which you live normally The extra review 
time may cut down somewhat on your 
recreation, but you should he careful to main- 
tain usual habits of eating, exercise, and 
sleeping Examinations demand a “clear 
head” for thinking, staying up half the 

night will not produce this Do not fret 
and worry about examinations The night 
before examinations is too late to learn 
much in preparation, review the material 
thoroughly and then relax 
Review selecfavely Review the important 
points, especially those you have trouble 
recalling A good way to do this is to take 
the mam headings in your notes or m the 

Schedule of Bemew for Finals 
Befoie E^am Week 






8 00 

9 00 

10 00 

11 00 

12 00 

1 00 

2 00 

3 00 

4 00 

6 00 

6 00 

7 00 

8 00 

9 00 

10 00 


text and see if you can recite the main ideas not very efficient Reread sections only if, 

fiom memory Look up those items vnth after looking at a heading, you have trouble 

which you have trouble and try recihng remembering what it is about Thus you will 

again Or as previously suggested, guess tend to review in a different way than the 

what questions will be asked on each chap- lesson was first studied Ask questions, make 

ter and recite the mam points from memory, up illustrations for each topic, diagram re- 

The headings in the textbook, your class lationships, and discuss the points with a 

notes, and previous quizzes are all useful in friend 

this piediction of questions During the school term you will have tried 

Mere rereading is time consuming and question prediction many times and should 

Exam Week 






8 00 

9 00 

10 00 


12 00 


2 00 

3 00 

4 00 

5 00 

6 00 

7 00 

8 00 

9 00 

10 00 


have found it effective (see the chart on 
page 36) It should also help with your 
final examinations. To provide further super- 
vised practice, select some one of your final 
examinations and write out your predicfaons 
of all the major points which may be asked 
This can be done by jotting down topics or 
by marking these points in your notes with 
colored pencil Predictions made for previous 
quizzes can be used here Have your coun- 
selor check these for further suggestions 

B Taking Examinations 
Did you ever thank a teacher for giving an 
examination? In theory one ought to be 
grateful for the hours an instructor spends 
m giving a test so that you and he may 
know what has been learned and where 
further work is needed Almost all students, 
however, look forward to tests with trepida- 
tion and find the taking of the test some- 
what of an ordeal Rather than seeming like 
a cooperative effort, students often feel that 
teachers’ tests seem more like a battle in 
which each tries to outwit the other In any 
case the role of tests in determining grades 
places so much pressure on students that 
they often become upset during an examina- 
tion All too often they remember after the 
examination what they should have said. On 
other questions, they know die material but 
can’t see what the questions are driving at, 
or later, can’t see why points were taken off 
their grades Skills in taking exams, which 
will help with these problems, are discussed 

Emotional Excitement During the Examina- 

All tests are not equally upsetting If the 
questions cover familiar material, the student 
hurries to write down all that he knows. 
Unexpected questions, on the other hand, 
scare him so that sometimes he is blocked 

completely In the last pioject it was shown 
that reading to answer questions helps to 
organize learning so that it is remembered 
much better. If tliese study questions cover 
the same topics as in the examination, then 
it will seem familiar and easy Therefore one 
of the most effective ways of combating a 
tendency to “blow up” on examinations is 
to predict quiz questions and study up on 
their answers. As indicated previously, this 
can be developed into a highly effective skill 
And on questions not predicted, it has been 
shown that studying in this way is as effec- 
tive, if not more so, than the usual student 
attitude of “study every little thing because 
there’s no telling ” 

Students are sometimes bothered because, 
as they say, tliey know so much they don’t 
know how to begin to express it Or they 
get so engrossed m answering the early part 
of an examination that they have to hurry 
with die last part or omit it Habits of calm 
and systematic attack on a test help here A 
good instructor builds an examination which 
can be answered in the allotted time 
although it is usually planned so students 
shouldn’t dawdle on any questions 

A first step in starting an exam is to glance 
over the test to get some idea as to how long 
it IS and to see if certain parts count more or 
will take more time or may be easier to an- 
swer On the basis of such a thirty-second 
survey, you should then roughly budget time 
to each essay question or to each page or sec- 
tion of an objective test It pays to remember 
that aldiough all the questions are not 
equally easy, they all usually count alike, it 
IS better to work on many easy items and 
omit a few hard ones than vice versa A final 
suggestion on attitude is just to do your 
best Although every student would like to 
get every question right, it must be remem- 
bered that the test has been made difficult 
enough to give a range of scores for grading 
Think and write on one question at a time. 

Don’t worry about questions further down 
the list until you get to them 

Students often get unnecessarily excited 
just before an examination They hurnedly 
compare ideas as to what the answer is to 
some expected question and find themselves 
m disagreement Tlie ensuing frantic argu- 
ment among partially informed and mistaken 
students produces a feeling of insecure 
preparation which only serves to upset tlie 
student’s ability to think So, if you gel to 
the examination early, keep cool witli small 
talk Other students try to keep calm by de- 
laying their arrival at the ordeal until tire 
last minute with the result that they often 
arrive late This is upsetting and they may 
also miss opening instructions. 

Essay Examinations 

Each type of examination requires cer- 
tain unique skills and has its special dif- 
ficulties One common error m wnting on 
essay questions is to waste time wnting away 
from the subject Because of the press of 
time duimg an exam, the instructor has to 
limit what he asks for, he therefore directs 
the student not to wnte everything he 
knows about tlie topic but speafically to 
“list the causes,” “compare the outcomes,” 
“illustrate these terms” These key words, 
as they are called, must be watched for in 
essay questions, they help the student to 
write exactly on what is wanted Furtlier- 
more if the question says “list” or “outline,” 
the teacher is expecting a list or an outline 
and is annoyed at having to search out the 
answer in a rambling essay. 

Any question which asks for more than a 
brief definition needs to have an organized 
answer Yet most students start writing on 
the first idea that comes to mind after read- 
ing a question and then continue with what- 
ever ideas come to mind next, as a result 
some weird sequences of ideas are produced. 
The grader who has a list of points which 


should be covered, finds it difficult to de- 
termine how many points are included in 
such essays, the labor of checking back and 
forth to find the items puts him in a frame 
of mind to give a low grade It has been 
the water’s own experience that when he 
finds a test paper whose answers follow an 
organized sequence, he often feels like giving, 
and does give, a higher grade than the points 
listed would warrant An easy and effective 
way to obtain this organization is first to jot 
down quickly a sketchy outline of key words 
which stand for the ideas to be covered. 
These ideas remind the student of further 
ideas which he inserts at the correct spots 
in his list Wribng the essay then becomes 
a matter of expounding on each of the ideas 
listed Since the grader has to read many 
papers, he appreciates any cues which will 
speed up Ins reading It pays, therefoie, to 
number the main points m an essay or to use 
some visual system, such as outlining, to 
show the organization of the answer. Often 
a hastily drawn diagram will do much to 
demonstrate that you see the relationships 
among the ideas being presented 
Tliere is some conelation between length 
of answer on an essay question and its grade 
Of course, the student who knows the most 
will usually write the most, but one common 
failing of students is to feel that a few words 
carry as much meaning to the teacher as 
they do to the student himself A student 
may feel that quofang a definition from tlie 
text IS enough, but tlie grader wonders if 
these words have been really understood or 
merely memorized. Adding an illustration 
helps a gieat deal In a question which asks 
for “discussion,” do not list points only, but 
explain why they are important or how they 
are interrelated Elaboration to show full 
understanding is different from “padding,” 
which is readily recognized and resented. 
“Padding” means to bring m irrelevant 
points or to repeat points already made m 


order to £11 up space Explaining what you 
mean, giving illustrations, or showing tire 
implications of youi points aie different and 
much appreciated by the grader 

Simple mechanics in writing examinations 
may markedly affect grades For instance, m 
one experiment on the effect of legibility on 
grading papers, 43 teachers were asked to 
grade the same compositions at two different 
times— one time the compositions were writ- 
ten legibly, and the other time tlie same 
compositions were wntlen somewhat il- 
legibly The compositions in legible hand- 
writing received an average grade one letter 
higher than the compositions m illegible 
handwriting^ Examinations written m ink 
are more easily read than those in hard 
pencil Also, take a few minutes at the end 
of the hour to proofread your paper An ac- 
cidentally omitted “not,” or some otlier 
word, may grossly affect your grade Be 
sure that the questions and their parts are 
numbered correctly 

Objective Examinations 

There are also certain principles which 
assist in taking objective examinations Since 
every question usually has equal weight you 
should woik straight through the list of 
questions and not hesitate too long on those 
whose answers do not immediately come to 
mmd These hard questions should be 
checked 111 the margin and returned to later 
Such a system insures that all die easy ques- 
tions on the examination will be completed, 
lat“r questions may remind you of the an- 
swers to the ones skipped Be sure to go 
back over the examination to answer ques- 
tions that were omitted the first time 

Find out if there is a correction (a sub- 
traction) for guessing If the correction is 

W James, The effect of handwriting upon 
grading, Engl J , 1927, 16 180-185. 

not greater than rights minus wrongs on 
true-false questions, and rights minus 1/3 
wrongs on four-choice multiple choice, do 
your best on each question Witli cor- 
rections no greater than these, you should 
do as well by guessing as not guessing, and 
there is good psychological evidence tliat 
you will get more than a chance number 
right because of the operation of certain 
residual memories from material read If 
there is an overcorrection for guessing, such 
as rights minus 2 X wrongs on true-false 
questions, you should leave unfamiliar ques- 
tions blank® 

If a true-false question causes difficulty, 
the following principle is often helpful 
Most such questions are built on the pattern 
of bnefly describing two tilings and their 
degree of relationship to each other, le, 
“Some cats are black” The two “things” 
in each statement are usually true, statements 
are made false by changing the modifier so 
as to overstate or understate the degree of 
relationship Tire following senes of modi- 
fieis aie typically used 
All— most— some— no 
Always— usually— sometimes— never 
Great— much— little— no 
More— equal— less 

Positively related— not related— negatively 
Good— bad 
Is— IS not 

Wlien a student sees one of these in a 
sentence, he can usually test whether the 
statement is true by substituting the other 
words in that series If none of them makes 
a better statement than tire modifier already 
in the sentence, the statement is true Tlius 
when the above statement “some cats are 
black” IS tested by substituting as follows 
“All cats are black,” “Most cats are black,” 
and “No cats are black,” the original state- 

'G M Ruch, The Objective or New-Type Ex- 
amination, Scott, Foresman, 1929 

ment is shown to be true Knowing this 
common pattern a student can go to the 
Jcey word in true-false statements and not 
have to worry about possible exceptions to 
each word in the statement 

Many students have learned to look for 
the key words “no,” “never,” “every,” “all,” 
“entirely,” because they usually cause the 
statement to be false Tliat is, it is difficult 
to make any statement which is true of all 
or no items to which it refers. Knowing this 
tendency of students to look for these 
specific words, however, many instructors 
work hard to formulate some statements in 
which the use of these terms makes true 
statements, le, “An island is entirely sur- 
rounded by water ” “All men are mortal ” 

Care should also be used in answering a 
true-false statement containing two inde- 
pendent clauses If one of these is true and 
the other false, the whole statement must 
be marked “false ” 

In answering multiple-choice questions, 
certain choices can often be crossed out as 
obviously wrong This may reduce your im- 
mediate evaluation to one or two possi- 
bilities Read the directions If it says mark 
the one best answer, do not put more than 
one answer in the space provided Such in- 
consistencies are marked wrong In answer- 
ing matching questions in which a given an- 
swer may be used only once, it will obviously 
be helpful to answer the known questions 
first, and then study the few remaining 
choices as answers to the hard questions 
Mark out the answers as you use them In 
answering completion questions, it is better 
to fill in the best answer you can think of 
than to leave it blank, such answers often 
get complete or partial credit If the ques- 
tion calls for a word with a certain number 
of letters, use another word which cames a 
similar meaning if you cannot think of the 
correct word If the answer is quite familiar 
to you, but for the moment you are unable 


to recall it, go on and return to this ques- 
tion later Your changed point of view may 
assist in overcoming the previous mental 

New Types of Examinations 

Analysis of typical examinations shows 
that about 95 per cent of the items deal 
with knowledge of facts Though the aver- 
age instructor hopes that his students are 
also learning certain attitudes, points of view, 
ways of th inking, and ways to apply informa- 
tion, he assumes that students who know 
the most facts must be equally good in these 
otlier characteristics This is far from tlie 
truth, however, because experiments show 
that these characteiistics are not apt to be 
learned unless there is teaching and testing 
for them For these reasons many teachers 
are changing their testing practices to in- 
clude measures of these other aspects. 

Students have trouble with these new 
types of examinations not only because they 
may not have the characteristics which the 
tests are attempting to measure, but also 
because they just don’t know how to take 
tliese tests Students who are familiar with 
true-false examinations are often stymied by 
questions which give all the data needed 
right on the test blank and ask the stu- 
dent to determine with fine discrimination 
whether an accompanying statement is 
“true,” “probably true,” “probably false,” 
“false,” or there is “insufficient evidence” 
to say Tlie wnter has found that many 
students feel they don’t understand what 
these test items are all about and so resort 
to guessing On the other hand, a little ex- 
planation of how these tests are constructed 
has been found to increase students’ scores 
markedly Thus students at Ohio State Uni- 
versity who analyzed their errors on a 45-iteni 
test of this type were able on the average 
to improve their score on a second test by 
10 points, furthermore such practice on ex- 


amples m physics transferred to similar 
items in zoology Tlie purpose of this section 
IS to show that with a little training a student 
can demonstrate his ability on these tests as 
well as he now demonstrates his knowledge 
on true-false tests 

Techniques for measuring points of view, 
ways of thinking, and ability to apply infor- 
mation are not as well worked out or as 
standardized as they are for the usual objec- 
tive or essay examination So tlie form of 
these tests tends to vary from campus to 
campus and from course to course. Two 
currently emphasized examples are given 
below as illustrations of these new types of 
tests Both attempt to measure accuracy and 
the kinds of constant errors which students 
make in thinking They are known as “inter- 
pretation of data” and “application of pnn- 
ciples” tests 

An interpretation of data test gives all the 
necessary information right in the test and 
asks the student to determine in terms of 
this whether each of a senes of statements 
IS true or false, probably true or false, or 
whether tliere is insufficient evidence to say 
The test is scored not only as to the number 
correct but also as to the frequency witli 
which a student is “too cautious” and “too 
gullible” m handling data That is, the test 
measures whether a student has learned to 
use data without reading too much or too 
little into it In making these test items, a 
standard pattern is used- If a statement is 
directly verified or denied by the data given 
it IS “true” or “false.” On the other hand, 
it is “probably true,” or “probably false” 
under the following conditions* (a) a slight 
extrapolation of a curve, (b) an interpola- 
tion between points in a graph, (c) the 
behavior of a major part estimated from the 
behavior of the whole, and (d) an experi- 
ment repeated under comparable conditions 
And a statement has “insufficient evidence” 

under these conditions (a) comparison 
made between data given and data not 
given, (b) a cause is attributed for the data, 
(c) a value judgment is made in terms of 
the data, and (d) a too extended extrapola- 
tion is made. A student who knows these 
patterns wdl more easily recognize what a 
given item is driving at and so be able to 
react to it more intelligently 
In an “application of principles” test, the 
student not only answers a question but also 
checks the reasons for his answer from a list 
which IS provided Tliese reasons are also 
constructed to fit a pattern, in this case, the 
incorrect ones are worded so as to resemble 
the types of erroneous arguments that people 
commonly use These variously disguised 
arguments thus represent potential “booby 
traps” to catch the unwary thinker, some 
diagnosis is possible from an analysis of the 
types of errors for which a student tends to 
fall. Following is tlie pattern of errors com- 
monly used, (a) reasoning by false analogy, 
(b) merely restating the conclusion, (c) ref- 
erence to similar happenings, (d) appeal to 
authority, (e) use of ridicule, (f) teleologi- 
cal reasons, (g) irrelevant reasons, and 
(h) untiue statements Again it has been 
found that students who understand how 
these items are made are better able to 
demonstrate their ability on these tests, they 
at least know for what they are being tested 
Many instructors vary the form of their 
items from tliat indicated above and other 
types of tests are being constantly experi- 
mented witli It IS therefore difficult to know 
what a student will run into on a given 
campus Rather than provide specific train- 
ing exercises, it is suggested that the student 
analyze his exams to see if they include 
items which attempt to measure these non- 
mformational aspects and with which he has 
trouble Have your counselor assist you in 
analyzing how such items are constructed. 

then make a definite attempt to improve 
your skill on such tests 

C Making Use of Retukned 

Your score on a test does not in itself 
indicate how well you have done Tests 
differ m length and difficulty so that a score 
of 70 may be excellent, average, or failing 
You need some standard with which to com- 
pare your score, 1 e , letter giade equivalents 
for your score, the average score of the class, 
or something as to tlie range of scores in 
the class Having determined your level of 
performance, your next step is to determine 
what was wrong with }Our attack on the 
examination Most students, however, don’t 
take this step Having seen then grade, tliey 
compare notes with othei students, argue 
with the teacher that a certain question 
wasn’t fair, or brood on the thought that 
they hate exams. 

A quiz is a quick and easy way of reciting 
on what is important in the course The 
items missed are those that need further 
study Questions that give difficulty are often 
repeated later to see if students have mas- 
tered them If you do not see how die correct 
answer is derived, ask the instructor for an 
explanation. But m any case use each quiz 
as a practice review which shows where fur- 
ther study will be needed before the final 

Much can also be learned from a test as 
to what the next one will be like What 
kinds of questions were asked definitions? 
interpretation? discussions? problems? Were 
they primarily from the text or from the 
lecture? Were they die ones you had ex- 
pected? And of those you hadn’t expected, 
where did they come from? What was wrong 
With your answers not complete enough? 
poor distribution of time on the important 
parts of the test? questions omitted and 


careless mistakes? Very often the instructor 
will wnte suggestions on the paper for im- 
proving your answers If not, and you cannot 
determine what to do, ask the instructor 
sometime after class. 

Practice So much for a great deal of 
advice, the important thing is to try these 
skills out on actual tests to see if they work 
and to polish them to a level of efficiency 
Much of what is stated here ties in directly 
widi die mediods of study discussed in the 
preceding project, skills winch improve 
comprehension and retention are also useful 
with examinations Some practice exercises 
have already been referred to in this project. 
To aid students, the whole program of prac- 
tice on examination skills is summaiized 
here Set up a regular practice program 
along the following lines and check with 
your counselor for suggestions 

1 Look up the question topics from 
some old quizzes m the index of your text- 
book Do these topics stand out m the text? 
Do they represent headings or other items 
set off by typographical cues? 

2 Select some outside course in winch 
you will make regular predictions of ques- 
tions on quizzes Check diese predictions 
with your counselor for suggestions or addi- 
tions and for ways to speed up making the 
predictions. Make such a set of predictions 
for a final examination, also 

3 After each such predicted quiz is re- 
turned, count or estimate the per cent that 
has actually been predicted Record tins on 
the chart on page 36 

4 If practice examinahons are used, 
answer the following questions 

a Did you do better on the second than 
the first test? Did the class? Do you 
see how the Survey Q3R Method can 
easily be used? 

b Analyze these practice tests for key 
words in the true-false items. Can you 


tell which words in a statement make 
it false or if changed would easily 
make it false? 

c Analyze these practice tests for key 
words in the essay questions Did you 
write directly to the point in your 
answers? Did you give what was wanted 
and in the form requested? Have your 
counselor go over your essay answers 
and make suggestions as to possibilities 
for improvement in style 
5 Bring in available tests, essay and otlier- 
wise, from other courses for suggestions 
from your counselor as to possibilities for 
improvement in method 

6 At the time of final examinations, re- 
read the section on final examinations and 
fill in the time chart 

7 Students wishing to read further on 
how to take examinations will find the fol- 
lowing references interesting and worth- 

S L Ciawley, Studying Effectively, Prentice- 
Hall, 1936 Pages 72-83 
R W Frederick, How to Study Handbook, 
Applcton-Ccntury, 1938 Pages 291-348 
H C McKown, How to Pass a Written Ex- 
amination, McGraw-Hill, 1943 
A W Ham and M D. Salter, Doctor in the 
Making, Lippincott, 1943 Chaps 5, 6, 
and 7 



Many students complain that they have 
difficulty in settling down to work and in 
concentrating, that in hurrying from one 
thing to another they seem to get very little 
accomplished, or that with so much to do 
they cannot relax and enjoy themselves On 
the other hand, almost every underclassman 
admires some senior who appears to com- 
plete all his work at a high standard, who 
has time for social activities and recreation, 
and who seems unflurried and unworried 
about his work Since this senior was prob- 
ably a typical freshman at one time and 
since skill m concentration is acquired and 
not inhented, what skills must he have 
learned to enable him to succeed so much 
more easily? 

Basically much of his success is due (i) to 
the development of work-study skills, (a) to 
the development of habits of efficient time 
use, (3) to the setting up of better study 
conditions, and (4) to motivation Wlien 
this senior studies, one finds that he wants 
a quiet room, that he gets right to work, 
that a voice has to be raised to attract his 
attention, that he emiihasizes the most im- 
portant parts of Ills assignments rather than 
reading every word, and that he finishes a 
job without unnecessary interruptions Every 
student would like to be that way too— it 
would make life so much easier! 

The first of these areas, the development 
of work-study skills, has already been dis- 
cussed in Projects II and III The other 
three areas, 1 e , habits of efficient time use, 
study conditions, and motivation, will be 
discussed as separate divisions of this project. 

Since inability to get down to work or to 
concentrate may be due to many possible 
causes, an analysis of each individual's diffi- 
culties IS necessary Each division will start 
with some queries or other forms of self- 
analysis in order to focus attention on the 
issues which are of primary importance to 
the reader Following this, means of im- 
provement will be discussed 

Habits of Efficient Time Use 

Students’ difficulties in the use of time 
tend to be threefold (1) they have feelings 
of guilt because they think they don’t study 
enough, (2) tliey waste time in moving 
from one activity to another, and (3) they 
have difficulty in settling down to work even 
after tliey have made up tlieir minds to 

Most students feel that they ought to 
study more than tliey do Many have feel- 
ings of guilt whenever they stop to talk or 
go to a movie But as has already been indi- 
cated, good students actually don’t study 
more tlian poor students, they are just more 
efficient when they do study The piimary 
remedy for study difficulties is more effec- 
tive metliods of study ratlier than more 
study time Good students have good times 
m school and it is characteristic that they 
usually worry less about needing to study 
than students with lower grades It is not 
a purpose of this project to try to get you 
to study more hours, in the case of “grinds," 
in fact, part of the remedy is to get them 
to spend less time in study 

The average person usually feels that tlie 



hours m the day pass rapidly with too little 
accomplished Pait of the difEculty lies in 
the lack of a planned roubne of activities 
With a continuing attitude of “what next?” 
one has to be constantly making decisions 
about next steps Such a person responds 
sensitively to distractions about him, he no 
sooner starts something tlian he is reminded 
of several other pressing matters With little 
or no system to a person's activities, every- 
thing seems to demand immediate attention. 
Two examples will show how, without some 
habitual routine, time seems to be frittered 
away Tire average student with classes at 
nine and eleven behaves somewhat as fol- 
lows converses after class (lo minutes), 
smokes a cigarette (5 minutes), mails a 
letter (15 minutes), starts for tlie library 
but meets a friend (15 minutes), then be- 
cause of tire time starts for tlie next class. 
Or, in the evening tins typical student starts 
prodding himself to go to work immediately 
after supper, begrudgingly gives himself 
until seven to talk, then with self-recnmma- 
tion extends this time unbl 7 30 and then 
at 8 finally drives himself to work On 

settling down he finds that he doesn’t know 
tlie assignment and has to fill his pen, once 
started he has to stop m order to help his 
roommate with some algebra Study is fur 
ther interrupted by the “necessity” of plan 
ning a week-end tnp and telephoning for a 
date Later he passes up going out to eat 
with some friends but then finds that he 
can’t study after that so he goes out to eat 
alone The next day he says he spent the 
whole evening trying to study. 

Concrete evidence of the difficulty stu- 
dents have in settling down to study and 
then keeping at it is given in the following 
studies.’- Students entering a library room 
to study were observed during their first ten 
mmutes, it was found that little more than 
half of this time was spent productively. 
And efficiency after the first ten minutes 
was not much more effective. 

^ F K Bernen and J L Kennedy, How qmcHy 
do students start studjang, School and Soc , 1942, 
55 482-483; D C Troth, A ten minute observa- 
tion m the library, School and Soc , 1929, 29 336- 
338, Helen Randall, A Study of Reading ElEciency 
Over Various Time Intervals and Under Different 
Work Conditions, Master’s thesis, Ohio State Univ , 


Rate in Words £er Minute 

CHAitT 7. Rates at which students read comparable selections during thirty-minute periods under 
different conditions- (a) reading for an immediate quiz, and (b) reading for a later qmz in an ap 
parendy unhmeii situation and with more study the next day seeming possible, le, similar to 
normal study conditions (Smdothed curves adapt^ from Randall ) 


In one experiment, students reading for a fact, peoples’ interests and requirements 
test several days hence and not knowing differ so much diat no norm can be set, 
that their rate of reading was being meas- what is the best distnbution of time for one 
ured (le., similar to the usual study situa- individual will not be particularly efficient 
tion) read only 6o per cent as fast during for another Table i, which summarizes the 
30 minutes as they did on similar material distribution of time of several hundred 
when they knew they were taking a reading women m a state university, shows how 
test (See Chart 7 ) Indicative that mdi- variable the use of time can be for students, 
viduals differ in the degree to which they Critical judgment cannot be made of the 
apply their reading skills while studying is total time which a student gives to different 
another finding m this same study Knowing lypes of activity, but it can be made of 
a person’s rate on a test, one can predict his extremely unbalanced patterns, i e , all work 
rate of reading during apparently untimed and no play or vice versa 
study only 5 per cent better than just guess- Much more productive to the average 
mg! It’s a case of the tortoise and die hare, student is an analysis of this time diary to 
some plod steadily along to finish first and find examples of inefficient mixing of activi- 
others, more hare-brained, interrupt their ties during a unit of time Thus a student 
work to do this and that, may find that instead of spending an evening 

at study as he intended, he has actually 
intemiptcd this activity so often that he 
Self-Evaluation jpgnj. jgjj jjaif of the period produc- 

Fill in the accompanying time chart to tively, or he may find that some extra hours 
show how you now spend your time Select between classes have been frittered away 
several days this week during which you Try rearranging die times you studied or 
agree to make an effort several times a day enjoyed recreation into more consecutive 
to mark down by 15-minute intervals how periods Does more time seem available than 
you have spent your time Be accurate— it did during the hectic rush on those days? 
include loafing, talking, walking to class, Later on, principles for the placement of 
recreation, etc different activities during the day will be 

A first reaction to a time diary like this is presented, on the basis of this information 
to see if there has been enough or too litde odier inefficiencies in this time diar} 
study, sleep, or recreation As a matter of then be noted. 

Table 1 Week-Day Distribution of Tune in Hours and Minutes of Ikeshmen Women, Data Given for 
Median, Tirst Quartile, and Third Quartile ® 





8 hr 0 mm 

7 hr 30 imn 

8 hr 30 mm 


1 hr 13 nun 

1 hr 0 mm 

1 hr 26 tmn 


3 hr 07 nun 

2 hr 39 mm 

3 hr 35 mm 


3 hr 06 mm 

2 hr 18 mm 

3 hr 52 min 



2 hr 34 mm 

4 hr 18 min 


1 hr 39 min 


2 hr 21 imn 


1 hr 50 mm 


2 hr 14 mm 


52 mm 

33 mm 

1 hr 11 mm 


2 hr 08 mm 

1 hr 15 mm 

3 hr 03 mm 

’ From unpublished data of M V Bean and E A Gaw Used with permission The times do no! total 
24. hours because “work" and “travel" were calculated only from, those tune schedules listing them. 




Study Habits Questionnaire ® No right out of 23 

Answer each of these questions by writing in one of the following words (oi its niunber) (1) nevei, 
(2) seldom, (3) sometimes, (4) often, or (5) always. 

Time Distiibution 

1 Do you have a plan of work for each day? 

2 If so, do you stick to it? 

3 Does youi work prevent you from engaging in social activities? 

4 Do you allow time for exercise? 

5 Do you get enough sleep? 

6. Do you have certain horns that you regularly spend m talking and recreation? 

7 Do you eat at the same hours each day? 

8 Do you tend to spend too much time on social and recieational activities? 

9. When you study at night, how long is it usually from the time you close your book until you 
are m bed? (Indicate the tune m minutes ) 


10 Do jOLi feel llial ion lave to '])e’'d loo much tine 'ludiiig'’ 

11 Do lou icel I hat vou ought lo '.pend mud- t me po'?blo '(iidi’nE? 

. 12 Do jou get ten^c and ii.'.iou'. wheuiou 'liid' , o' wonj aboul join woild’ 

1 3 Do veil teel mo ip iblo o doing i oiii m oi k‘’ 

14 Do vou I'j to cmuplete a Ir^-on I o.o o .iUo\ .ig intcuiptioii- to lake place'’ 

15 l\ilh a loui-houi rionoh .i^ignitienr noi’Id \ou tij to toinplele it at one ‘•iltmg li llu'» 
than at ui loial auioiciit tinici'’ 

Wo'k II ibil> 

10 Do vou study dunng the houi between t” o chis'ea, s.'v bete een a 9 aim .in 11 o'clock'’ 

L Do JOU ha\e lioiibic ‘ '•(ltl’'in down lo voik al the beg'nr ng o' i> stiuh' pciiod'’ 

1.8 Wl'cn \on dinh do vou Jico lerrh gci nt), walk .aboul gl.mec.aa papei oi magazine, oi dj 
otliC Hungs wlinh iiifciMi|)l vou/ i.o.k’ 

19 Do von d.Milic.'uu m clii'-s oi i.hen vou si oubl be "-turij ’>ig ’ 

20 Do vou dimj a given cmiisc eacn week d.iy m the s.ini( place .ind a( the <-air.c lime'’ 

21 Do V on get lo cl,is= oi su dov.ji („ siudv , only to find that you do not have voui notebook, 
pen, textbook, oi othc. laalc’i! P 

22 Do vou get V o'li vvoik m on u ne’ 

23 Do vou immcduUely go on lo the next le-on when yon Inuo completed Ihe one you aie 
w 01 king on’’ 

^Thc-o .ind Llie (lucstion- used l.’lei 
M E 'I'rovci’a Siudj (hic'>tioiin,iue vv 
Psychology, Ilarpei, 1915 bbed with pei 

concerning studv toi'dn-r.ii- aic ail.-iitcd .loi 
Ill'll ai),ic.ais in lliu Iab')iato'i/ ^ o'khooh m 

11 r, I’lc'M'v jiiie 

Applied jLdoaihon/ii 


The questions whose numbers are fol- 
lowed by periods should be answered “often" 
or “always” while those question numbers 
not followed by periods should be answered 
“seldom” or “never ” The answer to ques- 
tion 9 IS “30 minutes or longer ” There is 
seldom a paragon, even among good stu- 
dents, who can honestly answer all of these 
correctly The items missed indicate which 
suggestions in die following discussion will 
be most pertinent 

Program for Improvement 
Developing habits of efficient time use is 
a somewhat different proposition than many 
students believe it to be A person is efficient 
not because of any superb display of will 
power used to force himself to keep on the 
job, but rather because he has developed 
habitual patterns or sequences of activities 
A person who knows what he wants to do 
next and who gets down to work quickly 
usually goes about his work with no particu- 
lar feeling of effort m “keeping his nose to 
the grindstone” Two homely examples of 
activities in which most people are efficient 
will illustrate- The average person doesn’t 
have to be constantiy reminding himself to 
remember to eat, even when engrossed m 
some activity his attention turns to eating 
at the right time This occurs because he has 
built up habits of eating at a regular time 
He also has litde trouble concentrabng on 
eating because every day at this time and 
place he has always devoted himself to eat- 
ing. Another example is the greater ease one 
has m following a time schedule of classes 
which meet daily at the same times than in 
following a schedule which changes daily 
After several weeks on a constant schedule, 
the student goes by habit from one class to 
the next one, he does not have to prod him- 
self to go, he seems to follow the routine 
without much thought One would say that 
this student finds it easy to concentrate on 

getting to class and he is less easily distracted 
by friends and activities he sees on the way 

It should also be evident that ability to 
concentrate and use time efficiently does not 
mean drudgery or following a dreary routine 
In fact, these habitual skills should make 
life seem more interesting. Thus some people 
let habit get them to their accustomed eat- 
ing places on time while they visit and joke 
Other people, because of a habitual routine, 
are even able to get to an 8 o’clock while 
still enjoying a half-sleep 

Tliere are three steps m developing skills 
in effective time use working out an effi- 
cient time schedule, following this schedule 
until work habits develop, and applying con- 
scious effort to certain work rules Each of 
tliese will be discussed in turn 

1 Development of a Time Schedule 
School programs are so planned that every 
student should be able to have a suitable 
balance between study, recreation, eating, 
and sleeping. When a student feels too 
hurried, he will probably find that rearrang- 
ing his use of time— his whole time— will 
help The time diary filled out earlier shows 
where inefficient use of time tends to occur 
With this information and a little experi- 
menting, an efficient time schedule can be 
worked out Use the first of tlie following 
Time Charts to write out this proposed 
schedule Experience m using it will prob- 
ably suggest the need for some revision, so 
after a week’s use of this initial time chart 
make a final time chart. 

In making out these charts, the following 
steps and pnnciples will be of help First, 
write m those activities for which the time 
IS more or less set, such as eating, sleeping, 
class hours, and outside work. In doing this, 
be sure to allow adequate time for eating 
and sleeping. 

Next indicate the hours during which you 
expect to study each subject That is, don’t 
just say “Study from 7 to 11” but say “Study 










7 30» 

8 00 

9 00 

10 00 

11 00 

12 00 

12 30 

1 00 

2 00 

1 , ' 

3 00 



4 00 


- — - 

4 30 

_ , ' 

6 00 

5 30 




6 00 


6 30 


7 00 



7 30 


8 00 


8 30 


9 00 


- - 


9 30 


10 00 



10 30 


11 00 

i r 

“ Enter classes m red pencil 


Week beginning 











8 00 

9 00 

10 00 

11 00 

12 00 

12 30 

1 00 

2 00 

3 00 

4 00 

4 30 

5 00 

6 30 

6 00 

6 30 

7 00 

7 30 

8 00 

8 30 

9 00 

9 30 

10 00 

10 30 

11 00 

“ Enter classes m red pencil 


Week beginning 


history from 7-8 30” and “Study chemistry 
from 8 45-10 ” Typical students average 
somewhat less than two hours of study for 
each hour of class— an often-quoted univer- 
sity standard. Furthermore, research shows 
that good students differ from poor students 
more m effective use of study time than in 
the amount * Rather than planning to study 
extra hours if doing poorly, you should learn 
to make more effective use of your time 
Any student who is averaging much more 
than two hours daily in preparing for a given 
subject should look to otlier projects for 
more effective study skills 

Having filled m these various activities, 
you will normally find that there are still 
some hours left over These are your reward 
for time well spent, these hours are for rec- 
reation Students with heavy outside work 
schedules may find little time left over 
Such students report that outside work nor- 
mally affects hours of recreation more than 
anything else Studies of working students, 
however, show that they, with few excep- 
tions, make as good grades and are as well- 
adjusted socially as the non-working stu- 
dent® And it IS interesting to note that 
students with work schedules usually com- 
plain less about pioblems of concentration 
than non-working students, their full sched- 
ules require them to follow a habitual 
routine and so form concentration habits 

‘AC Eunoh, The amount of reading and study 
among college students, School and Soo , 1933, 
37 102-104, J G Jenkins, Student’s use of time, 
Personnel /, 1931-1932, 10 259-264, D G Ryans, 
Some observations concerning the relationship of 
time spent at study to scholarship and other fac- 
tors, / Educ Psych , 1938, 30 E G 

Williamson, The relationship of number of hours 
of study to scholarship, / Educ Psych, 1935, 
26 682-688 

® S C Newman and R L Mooney, Effects of 
self help employment on the college student, J 
Higher Educ, 1940, 11 435-442, M E Wagner, 
H P Eiduson, and R J Morris, The effects of 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration employ- 
ment on college grades, School and Soc, 1937, 
45 25-26 

In assigning definite hours to study and 
recreation, certain principles are of assistance 

a Normally, it is better to study an as- 
signment just after the class m which 
it IS given if the class is usually a lecture 
section, or just before the class in which 
It will be used if emphasis is on recita- 
tion or discussion 

b In studying over long penods of time, 
it IS worth while to stop for a few 
minutes between chapters or between 
change of subjects® Such a period of 
stretching and relaxation allows one to 
attack the next lesson with renewed 
energy and, more important, it prevents 
the immediate study of a diffciciit suli- 
ject matter from interfering willi ihc 
process of remembering— a jisicholngi- 
cal effect known as retro.ici.'C inliibi- 

c. It IS better to study a subject c\crv 
day at the same time than to li.uc 
occasional long sessions 1 his daily 
routine develops habits which facililalc 
deciding what next to do, 111 getting 
down to work, and m conccii lulling 

d. Allow a “slowing down” peiiod be- 
tween the end of studying and sl.irling 
for bed Such a period of icl.'x.ition is 
apt to make going to sleep much casici 

e Make use of vacant houii between 
classes Tliat is, the horn between a 
9-0’clock and an 11-o’clock class ii a 
poor tame for visiting, it can lie spent 
in study so as to reduce ihc evening’s 

f. From 4 to 7 p M. IS the usual period 
for recreation during the week Idan to 
use as much of this period .u possible 
for such purposes 

2, Habitual Use of Time Schedule 
Having developed an efficient lime schedule 

®I A Gentry, Immediate effects of 11*1 ci pel, 'cd 
rest penods on learning performance 7 ( icJi Coll 
Conbi Educ, 1940, No 799 


for the school term, the next step is to follow 
it until yon habitually turn from each ac- 
tivity to the next one It is a good idea to 
place the proposed time schedule where 
you will see it frequently, e g , in the front 
of your notebook or on the wall of your 
room Try to follow its pattern each day 
Gradually the habit of turning from one 
particular activity to another will develop, 
getting down to work and concentrating will 
begin to seem much easier 
It cannot be emphasized too strongly tliat 
this aspect of developing skill in concentra- 
tion and effective use of time is not based 
on merely understanding how important it 
IS to study, nor is it a matter of making a 
decision really to get down to work. It is a 
matter of habit development This will take 
much practice and, to keep yourself at it, 
you should check your use of time occasion- 
ally or have your counselor do it 
A time schedule should not be an inflexi- 
ble thing which gets in the way Wlieii 
special events or opportunibes occur, re- 
arrange your schedule, but during the normal 
course of events use the basic habit pattern 
to guide the flow of the day's activities 
3. Applying Work Rules The purpose 
of the above program is to develop a tend- 
ency to turn habitually to a next scheduled 
activity, a student can help this tendency 
along by knowing and consciously applying 
certain principles of time use As William 
James once said, the way to develop a habit 
is to do the act at the first opportunity and 
to let no exception take place A nght mental 
set will go a long way toward helpmg the 
above habit formation For instance, don’t 
wait for a suitable mood before studying; 
begin studying at your regularly set tune 
Likewise, try to finish all your work within 
the time limits set, do not rob yoursdf of 
lecreation time. Don’t worry about all the 
work to be accomplished-^-there is a time 

scheduled for everything Don’t carry extra 
books around— you should know which are 
scheduled for studying And don’t waste 
time trying to figure out what to study first 
—take tlie subject scheduled 

Once you are at the study table, try to go 
nght to work, force yourself to postpone 
other activities until later Check yourself 
whenever you start to daydream. Set a time 
or page limit on your work because it is 
easier to keep at a lesson for 20 more 
minutes or five more pages than it is to 
promise yourself to study all evening Try 
to finish your work within tlie time limits 
set, if you should finish early take a short 
rest period 

Study Conditions 

Study conditions affect in three ways the 
ability to get down to work and to concen- 
trate (a) Distractions tend to draw the 
student’s attention away from his work, 
(b) Poor lighting, inadequate ventilation 
and noise tend to be fatiguing (c) Study 
materials not readily available cause the con- 
tinuity of work to be broken m order to 
hunt for them 


A self-evaluation can be only preliminary 
at this point Some technical information as 
to the best conditions for study will be pre- 
sented, then a summary section for self- 
evaluabon will be provided in conjunction 
with the seebon on plans The questions 
which follow, however, will help indicate 
which suggestions are most pertinent in the 
discussion of study conditions 

All the questions below should be an- 
swered “seldom” or "never” except for 
questions 11, 13, and 14 Question 13 should 
be answered “usually” or “always” and the 
answers to questions 11 and 14 will be found 
in the discussion below. 



Study Conditions Questionnaire No right out of 15 

Answer each question by writing in one of the following words (or its number) (1) never, (2) .-olcloiii. 
(3) sometimes, (4) usually, or (6) always A few questions are to be completed by writmg in oflioi 
answers as directed 


1 Do you prepare for bed befoie domg some of your studymg? 

2 Do you study some of your lessons w'hile m bed or while stretched out on the da^ cnpoi t ' 

3 Is your room used for many informal meetings durmg the evenmg'* 

4. Is your room near some disturbing source of noise? 

5 Do you have pictures or thmgs that you like to look at on oi near your study tabic? 

6, Do other people m your study room distract you? 

7 Does the temperature of your study room make you feel uncomfoitable? 

, 8 Is your studying interrupted by thmkmg about various personal problems and woiiip?? 

9. Is your studying interrupted by thinking about various mteresting events in the ncai 


10 Do you have trouble obtaining the materials that you need for study? 

11 How much clear table space do you have for study? That is, about how long and how wide 
is the free space on your desk? 


. 12. Do you have much glare on your book? 

13 Does enough light fall on your book when it is m the position m which you normally have 
it when you study? (See directions below on use of the light meter ) 

14 What type of hghtmg do you have? (a) gooseneck or study lamp; (b) overhead light, 

(o) mdirect hghtmg, (d) 

16. Is it generally noisy where you usually study? 


Background Information 
1 It IS often difficult to concentrate on 
studying because it is more fun to concen- 
trate on other doings in college A textbook 
]ust isn’t as interesting as a photograph on 

the study table or a talk session in the same 
room, and at the library there are other 
distracfaons Something as to the range of 
tliese distractions m a library is summarized 
in Table 2 


Table 2 Types and Frequency of Distinctions Intel rupting the Library Study of College Men and 
Women (Adapted from Troth ) 


Per Cent of Total 

Men Women Both 





Aimless lookmg around 




Aimless leafing through books 




Students walking by 




Vamty oases 




Attracted by certam mdividuals 








Reading and wiitmg letters 




Arranging hair and clothes 











These results might seem to indicate that 
any place but the library would be better for 
study But actual evidence indicates that 
students who study in the library get better 
grades than students who study elsewhere^ 
The experimenter found that these two 
groups did not differ in intelligence, yet the 
ones who studied in the library obtained 
grades 4 of a grade point higher, 1 e , almost 
half the distance between a C and a B. This 
greater effectiveness of library study is prob- 
ably due to various things, besides having 
fewer distractions than the student’s room 
The environment is one always used for 
study, so the surroundings act as stimuli 
which set off habits and attitudes of study 
All necessary study materials tend to be 
more readily available there And there is 
more desk space The expenment has its 
moral, however, some consideration should 
be given to determining how distractions in 
die library can be cut down Probably the 
best solution is to seek a small reading room 

Eunch, The significance of library reading 
among college students. School and Soc, 1932, 
36 92-96 

in the library, find a corner and face the 
wall Later, if you wish social contacts, move 
to the center of the mam library room 

Distractions m the student’s own room 
can also be cut down Fix it so while sitting 
at the study table you can’t see any pictures, 
souvenirs, or blotters with football schedules 
on them Face your study table to the wall 
and not looking out into the room or out 
of a window A book can seem more inter- 
esting if it has only to compete with bare 
surroundings It is nice, on the other hand, 
to decorate one's room, but divide it off into 
different areas Place pictures and souvenirs 
where studying won’t interfere when you 
want to meditate upon them with affection 
Eliminate all interesting sounds, le, radio 
programs and conversations, during study 
hours.® Arrange with fellow students to set 

® P Fendnck, The influence of music distraction 
upon reading efficiency, J Educ Res , 1937, 31 
264-271, H B Hovey, Effects of general distrac- 
tion on the higher thought processes, Amet J 
Psych , 1928, 40 585-591, Brother Richard, The 
relationship between freshman marks and study 
environment, J Educ Res, 1935-1936, 29 589- 



up a few house rules to maintain quiet 
during periods restricted for study 
In spite of all these precautions, some 
sounds are bound to occur and will naturally 
tend to be distracting, but a student can nse 
above such minor interruptions by chal- 
lenging himself to keep at Ins work for the 
designated study period. 

2 Various stimuli can also be used to 
promote concentration Study habits are de- 
veloped and set in motion not only by 
repeating a sequence of activities (discussed 
earlier) but also by repeating the same sur- 
roundings every time one studies If the 
same situation is always and only associated 
with studying, it has been found that a 
student becomes conditioned to concen- 
trating on his studies whenever he is in that 
situation, A frequently used example of this 
phenomenon is the manner in which a 
standard situation promotes sleep Before 
going to bed one may not feel particularly 
sleepy but changing to bed do tires, lying 
down on a soft bed and pillow with covers 
over one, and turning the light out all pro- 
duce a combination of stimuli to which 
people are conditioned to respond by going 
to sleep Note how much harder it is to go 
to sleep in a strange bed and surroundingsl 
Similarly in studying, if students study the 
same subject in Ae same place at the same 
time every weekday, the surroundings all 
tend to suggest study and so help concen- 
tration It also seems evident that the place 
in which one studies should not also be used 
for letter writing, card games, day dreaming, 
etc, if used only for studying, one is re- 
minded only of studying 
Posture can also produce stimuli which 
remind you of work, other postures may sug- 
gest relaxation Take a cue from the way 
people behave when listening to an inter- 
esting lecture— they sit erect or even strain 
forward to obtain each idea Similarly it is 
advisable to sit erect in a straight chair while 

at the study table. It is even a good practice 
(and not bad etiquette) to put your elbows 
on the table while studying That is, study- 
ing demands an attitude of active work, 
using the above posture helps to maintain 
this attitude Relaxing m an easy chair, on 
the other hand, is not conducive to concen- 
tration Worst of all is dressing in pajamas 
before starting to study in the evening and 
then lying on the davenport or bed while 
studying Being conditioned to go to sleep 
when in tins g.iib and ponlion the skidciil 
has diiEculty coiicculMtmg 11 ho loams lo 
stay awake ulnlo doing this, he may aho 
tend to stay awake when he icUiC'. 

3 Allow adequate space loi all (he in i- 
terials you will have to use Ki ichciibuelil 
concludes, on the basis of a slucK ot Ihc 
needs of over 230 studciils ,u Ihc UnivcrsiLv 
of Ilhnois, the "desk should be, foi a 
single individual, apjnoxnnaLeh 30 b\ 4S 
inches m size ’ ’ Colled ,ill nc^ossais mate- 
rials before slaihng !o studv, so iliat they 
will be at hand when needed 

4 Noise and pooi hghlnig .iic two un- 
necessary cau'cs of fatigue in studs mg Noi'C 
not only tends lo distiacL Ihc studenL fioin 
his work, but Ihcciicigi deuiindcd in I mug 
“not to pay altenlion to d” voais a pcison 
down quite lapidlv l'’or inslancc 111 one 
study It was found (hat stcnogiaphcrs woik- 
ing in a noisi room liii Ihc ke\s hardci and 
fatigued more cpnckK than did ^teiiogiaphcrs 
working m a rclatisch quiet 100m 

Tliere are ihicc ciitcria loi good lighting 
(a) adequate and well dislributcd illunmia- 
tion, (b) absence of glare, and I'c) light 
placed so as not lo sliiuc into the cu'S 
Kraehenbuehl's suuc\ ol the kinds of lights 
students use shossccl that ouh about 5 per 
cent would be coiisiclcicd salisf.idors in 
these terms. Gooseneck lamps and tliosc 

®J O Kiaetiuibudil, Sl'ith ratillK.-. 111 C>)!’'gc. 
Dormitories, Publu.iliO'i No 232 St.i ut , 
for the Prevenboii of Uliiidncas 


with "cute” silk shades were the most fre- 
quently used types of lights and were among 
the poorest in lighting efiBciency Studies at 
the University of Minnesota show that a 
student should “never read with less than 
5 foot-candles of light Where diffusion of 
light IS quite unsatisfactory, use 5 to 10 foot- 
candles When the illumination is well dis- 
tributed, use 10 to 15 foot-candles If no 
glare due to faulty distribution of light or 
to other factors is present, higher intensities 
may be employed with safety, but without 
gam in efficiency and comfort ” “ These 
studies also show that (a) Indirect or well- 
diffused lighting is best, fatigue is fostered 
by lights that shine in tire eyes or cause glare 
on tlie paper (b) There should not be too 
much contrast between ttie lighting on one’s 
work and that on the surroundings, there 
should be an over-all illumination in the 
room of about 3 or 4 foot-candles (c) Col- 
ored (monochromatic) light does not have 
any advantage over daylight or common 
forms of artificial illumination in producing 
more efficient reading or less fatigue 

A light meter must be used to measure 
the amount of light given off by a lamp, 
since type of glass, distance from die book, 
and efficiency of reflecting surfaces affect die 
amount of light produced A light meter 
may be obtained from the counselor to 
measure the illumination in your study 
room“ If this illumination is inadequate 

“M A Tinker, Illumination standards for ef 
fective and comfortable vision, J Consulting Psych , 
1939, 3 18 

To measure illumination, stand the light meter 
vertically to the surface being read and the candle- 
power illumination will be indicated by the pointer 
Readings can be made above 75 foot candles by 
clipping the metal plate over the light sensitive cell 
of the meter and multiplying the foot-candles on 
the scale by 10 When not being used, the plate 
can be clipped to the bottom of the meter While 
a carefully worked-out illumination survey for a 
room is quite involved, sufhcient accuracy can be 
obtained for student use by measunng the illumina- 
tion on the surface being read and in the immediate 

and you wish to impress your landlord, the 
following clause, written into each housing 
contract at the University of Illinois, may 
be of use “Each man, if he so desires, is 
entitled to 100 watts of electric light” 

Since the gooseneck lamp is so frequently 
the study lamp available, the following sug- 
gestion is given for making it more effective 
Face tire lamp toward the wall at your side 
and place a shiny white sheet on the wall 
to act as a reflector If necessary, increase 
the wattage of the bulb, and you will have 
a fairly satisfactory lighting system Or the 
light can be diffused by placing tracing cloth 
over the face of the reflector In this case, 
some way will have to be devised to allow 
the air to circulate about the heated bulb 

Program for Improvement 

Some specific activities are listed to help 
demonstrate how study conditions do affect 
concentration and to suggest remedial possi- 
bilities to the reader Carry out each of the 
following projects 

1 It is surprising and enlightening to see 
how often students are distracted as they 
study Seeing this in others will make you 
more sensitive to distractions in your own 
case. For the following exercise go to a 
library and watch an individual for a period 
of 10 or 15 minutes as he studies If it is a 
person in this how-to-study class, your check- 
ing will later be of use to him It is better 
to have the person at some distance so that 
your observing will not be noticeable to him. 
Every time there is a change in his behavior, 
even though but a brief glance about the 
room, tabulate it below This check list is 
similar to the list in Table 2, an interesting 

The student should use care m handling the light 
meter Although the cell is not easily damaged, it 
should not be exposed to bnght sunlight for any 
appreciable length of time, the cell cover glass 
should be kept clean, and the meter should not be 
subjected to sudden jolts or blows 


comparison can be made with it when this 
checking is completed If this observation 
proves interesting, something as to individual 
differences in distractibihty can be obtained 
by observing and tabulating the behavior of 
several individuals 

Check List of Woik Behavioi 

Willie it is not convenient to tabulate 
each thing which tends to distract your own 
studying, you should take mental note of 
the things which take your attention away 
from studying Possibly you can arrange with 
a friend to observe your studying and check 
the number of times you aie distracted, giv- 

ing some indication of the causes Or one 
of the other students m this course may use 
you as a subject for observation and will turn 
his ratings over to you 

2 Survey your own study room for evi- 
dence of surioundmgs which are distracting 
Are there pictures, souvenirs, etc., near 
where you study? Is a radio played or do 
students talk while you try to study? Also 
survey your room for adequacy of lighting, 
ventilation and clear table space for study 

3 On the basis of the earlier self-evalua- 
tion questions, the above checks, and your 
own observations, fill in the evaluation of 
your study conditions (page 70) and what 
you plan to do about them Be specific as to 
difficulties and plans 


Tlie discussion thus far has suggested 
improving use of time and concentration 
through developing an efficient time plan, 
following it until habits develop, and re- 
moving distractions which interfere with 
concentration But something like leading a 
horse to water, he really has to want to 
dnnk before he will consume any. The will 
to study IS an important, if not the most 
important, determiner of effective use of 

Many students say that college work is 
not interesting to them By a characteris- 
tically human projection, they often state 
tliat this IS due to their uninteresting courses 
and teachers It is a mistake, however, to 
assume tliat a course must be entertaining 
to be interesting Students in medicine and 
law are vitally interested m their courses, but 
the material is not sugar coated with jokes 
and stories Tlie college authorities, by pre- 
sentmg a subject, certify that the content is 

12 D D Feder and J S Kounm, Motivational 
problems m student eounseling, J AppI Psycli , 
1940, 24 273-286, M E Wagner, Studies in mo- 
tivation, Umv oi Buffalo Studies, 1936, 13, No. 5 


Area What’s Wrong Specific Plans 

Auditory distractions in room 

Visual distractions in room 

Personal worries and inteiests 
which distract 

Auditory distractions at hbrary 

Visual distractions at library 

Constancy of study conditions 
to stimulate study 

Posture while studying 

Adequacy of lighting 

Adequacy of work space 

Availability of materials 

useful and therefore of interest The cause 
of lack of interest in college work almost 
always lies with the student himself If he is 
not interested m college, or if he is unable 
to apply himself to his work in spite of an 
expressed interest in it, he needs to under- 
take a serious evaluation of his problem 

The purpose of this section is not to try 
to convince any student that he ought to be 
interested m college work Rather a student 
needs to think through what his interests are 
and what they mean for him. Tire mateiial 
which follows will he of some assistance in 
such "thinking through ” 


Why Isn’t College Work Interesting to 

Some Students? 

Tliere arc many possible reasons The 
following are the primary explanations of 
why some students can’t get interested 
enough to study while other students in the 
same courses are interested 

1 In the first place, few people are com- 
pletely unmotivated, oi not interested m 
anything Laziness is an expression of lack of 
interest in immediately available activities, 
not a cause of it It is characteristic that one 
likes to do some things and dislikes to do 
certain others Occasionally one of the latter 
IS college work A general apatliy or lack of 
energy would strongly suggest the need for 
a medical examination 

2 Personal problems seem of such im- 
portance that worry about them dispels 
inteiest m college work Such threats to 
personal security must be eliminated before 
continued interest m study can return. See 
Project XIII for a discussion of this 

3 Many people are not interested, and 
rightly so, m doing college work For some, 
college attendance may not represent the 
best step toward attainment of success They 
might like business or trade schools much 
better These schools provide training for 
entering well-paid occupations for which 
some people have Uie ability and interest 
Such training can usually be obtained m 
less time than m college and it often results 
m faster advancement for these individuals 
than if they had attended college. In other 
instances, direct entry into woik may be the 
best path towaid success In our democracy, 
these various forms of education do not have 
any superiority over each other, each pre- 
pares for different aspects of life, and differ- 
ent types of persons are best suited to each 

Other students are not yet vitally inter- 
ested m preparations for adult living and a 
vocation, they are, therefore, little interested 

in the work of college classes Some students 
go to college apparently for no better reason 
tlian because their friends are going or they 
can think of notliing else to do Each student 
needs to determine, for himself, what he 
expects of further education and, in terms 
of tins, what he should do Project XI on 
Vocations will be of value in helping the 
student to determine his best potential areas 
of preparation. 

Sometimes a student realizes that it is a 
waste of time for him to continue in college 
but feels that it would be a disgrace to leave 
In this case, it is only necessary to point out 
that the majority of students who enter col- 
lege do not graduate, most of these leave 
quite voluntarily One study of the academic 
history of freshmen entering a college at 
Ohio State University found that only 35 
per cent graduated from the same college 
they had entered as freshmen, 17 per cent 
transferred to other colleges in the university 
but all did not graduate, 33 per cent with- 
drew voluntarily from the university to turn 
to other means of preparation, and 15 per 
cent were dismissed “ 

4 If the analysis of your plans indicates 
the need for further college attendance but 
you still cannot become interested in your 
studies, you may find tlie following discus- 
sion helpful It briefly describes some aspects 
of the genetic development of interests which 
affect college work Some of the points dis- 
cussed may give insight into the origin of 
your own difficulty. 

It IS obvious that people’s interests differ 
with their age, a study of these changes 
shows that they tend to follow certain defi- 
nite sequences Wliile the subject is much 
too complex for a thorough discussion here, 
five examples aie given of ways in which 
interest in schoolwork may increase or de- 

D Bennett, Mimeographed report, Ohio 
State Univ, 1939. 


crease with such maturation The student 
may see in these examples a basis for his 
own or, at least, otliers’ lack of interest in 
college work 

a Childhood interests tend to center 
about immediate ratlier than delayed 
goals A penny in tlie hand for candy 
IS preferred to a nickel in die bank 
toward a pair of roller skates As a 
person grows older, he becomes more 
aware of the importance of delayed 
goals Yet some adolescents, although 
highly valuing ultimate school success, 
are unable to resist putting off their 
studying when other more immediately 
interesting activities present tiiem- 
selves, I e , going along with friends to 
a movie instead of studying for a mid- 
term the next day. The mature adult, 
however, has the ability to weigh values 
m terms of his own future welfare and 
can plan his time and direct his ener- 
gies accordingly Thus a person may 
study because of die future social or 
vocational values of the subject It 
must be admitted, however, that even 
adults find it difficult to make text- 
books seem as interesting as attaining 
some immediate goal And for die less 
mature it is even more difiicult. 

One common misconception about 
good students needs to be corrected 
here, however. Good students have 
good times and do not spend their 
time 111 dreary drudgery For instance, 
fewer good than poor students answer 
"yes” to the question “Do your studies 
tend to prevent you from parhcipahng 
in social activities?” And analysis of the 
activities of Phi Beta Kappa students 
shows them to belong to and he leaders 
in more extracurricular activities than 
the average student^* 

Newcomer, The Phi Beta Kappa student. 
School and Soo , 1927, 25 2^, W R Voorhis and 

b Young children seem to be just natu- 
rally curious about the nature of things, 
but as older students, many become 
hesitant about asking questions. Some- 
times this IS due to having previously 
received too many inadequate answers, 
sometimes it is due to a dislike of 
admitting a deficiency, and at other 
times questions are withheld for fear 
they will be interpreted by other stu- 
dents as a form of “apple polishing” 
Each of these instances is unfortunate, 
if any one of them strikes home with 
you, it may be well to back up and 
give learning about the world a new 
try Learning can be funi 
c Personal qualities which are tliought 
important differ at various age levels 
Tins provides a third illustration of a 
genetic change which tends to affect 
interest in college Physical prowess is 
admired by young children During 
adolescence, appearance and good fel- 
lowship are apt to be weighted heavily 
because these traits are considered im- 
portant for acceptance by a fraternity 
or by the opposite sex Adults also con- 
sider the reactions of others to them- 
selves as important but are apt to put 
it in better perspective Intellectual 
competence is given its greatest empha- 
sis among adults Tliese trends are 
illustrated in Chart 8 which shows the 
relative degree to which various traits 
are admired at different grade levels 
Since a person will work hardest for 
what he most values, college courses 
may or may not appeal to a student. 
For the adult who desires intellectual 
competence, college work will seem 
vital and interesting, this has recently 
been dramatically illustrated by the in- 

A C Miller, Influence of college training upon 

success after college as measured by judges’ estimates, 

J Educ Psych , 1935, 26 377-383 


tense motivation of many returned war 
veterans in college work At the other 
end of the distribution are some college 
students who are still adolescently en- 
grossed m belonging to a group and in 
being esteemed for prowess m high- 
school-like activities Such individuals 
are not ready for college work and will 
not find it interesting In between these 
two extremes are ranged the rest of tlie 
college students That interest m doing 
schoolwork is not the strongest motive 
in the life of the average student is 
illustiated by a study comparing how 
hard students will woik for a professor 
and for a fraternity^*’ Ten freshmen 
fraternity initiates, on the last evening 
of a very strenuous “hell week,” were 
required to spend about two hours in 

L S Hadley, Scholastic adjustment problems 
of the returning veterans, Eduo Res Bull, 1945, 
24 87-92 

F B Knight and H. H Remmers, Fluctuations 
in mental production when motivation is the mam 
variable, / AppI, Psych , 1923, 7 209-223 

working arithmetic problems, they 
were told that tlie tests were a part of 
their evaluation for admission to the 
fraternity Later 54 students working 
under noimal classroom conditions 
were asked to do the same tasks The 
fraternity neophytes, although fatigued 
and haiassed, did a third more prob- 
lems than tlie group working under 
normal classroom conditions 
Another interesting illustration of 
how differences m motives may in- 
fluence studying is shown in the giaclcs 
made by social fraternity initiates be- 
fore and after initiation and those made 
by Phi Beta Kappa candidates under 
the same conditions^'' Fraternity and 
non-fiatemity freshmen were matched 
as to year of matriculation, grade point 
average, and hours of credit the first 
semester. The grades of these two 
groups were then compared through 

H C Lehman, Motivation college marks and 
the fraternity pledge, / Appl Psych , 1935, 19.9-28 


successive semesters Chart 9 shows 
that after initiation (based on grades 
the first semester) die fraternity stu- 
dents never again did as well as tlieir 
matched colleagues The brohen line 
IS inserted as a reasonable guess as to 
how well the fraternity students might 
have done the first semester had they 
not been interested in becoming eligi- 
ble for initiation, the difference is 
about 2 of a grade point Fraternity m- 
itiation standards are thus a useful 
stimulus to studying for one semester, 
but this experiment also shows that 
many college students are in great 
part motivated to study for reasons 
other tlian interest in knowledge and 
preparation for after graduation The 
Phi Beta Kappa students, on the other 
hand, had no such letdown after initia- 
tion. One can more nearly assume for 

them an interest in learning for learn- 
ing’s sake. 

d Although the usual sequence of de- 
velopment during adolescence is from 
being primarily interested in social ac- 
ceptance toward being interested in 
working on deferred goals, entrance to 
college may temporarily cause a re- 
gression in behavior for some students 
The average high-school senior has 
fiiends and is respected in his com- 
munity, he therefore feels secure 
enough to go about selecting an oc- 
cupation and preparing for it and for 
other aspects of his projected adult life 
He eagerly looks forward to Ins college 
studies But when first away at school 
this feeling of social acceptance dis- 
appears much to his distress and, if 
Ins efforts to make friends and obtain 
status are constantly denied, he yearns 
for the security of home, 1 e , is home- 
sick And little studying will be done 
until tins personal problem is settled 
Through “ice-breakei” parties and 
other informal activities, the college 
attempts to help students make friends 
quickly Also because of this problem, 
it IS expected during the first school 
term that freshmen will return home 
more often than sophomores in order 
to rebuild tins feeling of social security. 
In time, friends are made and the 
problem is settled 

Some students, however, have a dif- 
ficult time of it. For instance, if not 
bid by a social organization they may 
spend all their time worrying and may 
even want to leave college They be- 
come so emotionally tense about it 
that they can’t study, and getting be- 
hind in dieir studies only adds to the 
tension Or because of their great in- 
terest m being accepted they may 
emphasize all the methods and be- 

haviors that made for popularity in 
high school, absorption m such ac- 
tivities makes them appear more im- 
mature in orientation than they were 
in high school and certainly is not 
conducive to college achievement 
Some realization of this psychological 
mechanism may help bring about a 
more realistic adjustment 
A fifth illustration of a genetic change 
m interest which affects college work 
IS the shift from the desire for parental 
praise to a desire to stand on one’s own 
feet Opportunity to obtain praise from 
adults IS one among many reasons why 
young children like school Also while 
the child IS in school in the early 
grades, the teacher becomes something 
of a parent substitute and so the child 
will work under authoritarian sugges- 
tion But during adolescence, adult 
praise becomes less important than 
piaise from companions, and there 
may even be a reaction against parental 
authority as the adolescent tries to be- 
come an independent adult Many stu- 
dents unconsciously generalize the ob- 
ject of their rebellion to include any 
form of superiority— teacher, school- 
work, rules, and law Tliey feel that 
they know as much as adults, hence 
they resent suggestions Since they be- 
lieve that they are already fully ma- 
ture, this stage is characterized by lack 
of interest in college work But it is 
interesting to note that while sopho- 
mores often feel this way, professional 
and graduate students rarely do 
Adolescents are typically ambivalent, 
however, they want to be independent 
yet are so used to being told what to 
do at home and in school that many 
feel lost m college when someone 
doesn’t keep after them The writer 
recalls one student who announced 


that he had enrolled in the how-to- 
study course because he needed some- 
one to get after him now that he was 
away from home, college authorities 
icfuse to be the “J™ninV Crickets” 
for students 

The last two examples of genetic changes 
m motivation have emphasized difficulties 
which sometimes occur when adolescents 
change m their attitudes toward persons 
Ihcir own age and toward their parents As 
indicated, such students may have difficulty 
with schoolwork until their immediate prob- 
lem IS solved, but other individuals may im- 
merse themselves in their schoolwork m 
order to forget their troubles Such persons, 
however, usually show other signs of im- 
maturity and their intense interest in school- 
work IS not healthy They need as much 
help in making these transitions as do stu- 
dents who show other types of over- 


The above discussion gives some notion 
of how different motives affect student be- 
havioi and of the changes which take place 
in tlieir emphasis as a person grows older. 
It is difficult to evaluate one’s own pattern 
of motives because the average person has 
not given much thought to it and wants to 
think as well of himself as he can More- 
over, motives are so nebulous as to be dif- 
ficult to evaluate In fact, it is usually easier 
to recognize otliers' motivational patterns 
tlian one’s own It will be helpful, however, 
to attempt some evaluation Some may dis- 
cover that they have been kidding them- 
selves with verbalizations about vocational 
preparation whereas they really have more 
important interests Others may realize that 
tliey have been continuing activities based 
on earlier interests and are not giving their 
present values much consideration 

Tire following analyses are easy to com- 


plete tut difficult to answer frankly Unless 
you are candid with yourself, however, they 
will be of little value 

1 Evaluate youi own interest maturity 
in terms of the five sample developmental 
sequences listed below, they arc the ones 
which were just discussed Look back over 
things you used to enjoy or thought were 
important, see how much you have grown 
Do you have to go back many years before 
you can see a change? Compare yourself to 
other adults, are you able to see comparable 
steps for furthei growth? 


1 Health condition 

2 Distracted by personal problems 

3 Not interested in college 

a College is not the most suitable source of 

b Came only because fnends came and 
nothing else to do 

4 Maturity level of motives 

a Immediate goals much stronger tlian de- 
layed vocabonal goals 
b Curiosity inhibited 
c Value other characteristics more than 
scholarship and intellectual development 
d Upset by lack of friends and chance to 
participate in worthwhile group activities 
e In process of emancipation from adult 

2 In order to make more concrete a study 
of the stiengths and conflicts of motives, 
ten situational questions are listed below 
Don’t answer them the way you think your 
counselor wants you to, or your mother 
would want you to, or even the way you 
think you ought to The “right” answer to all 
tliese questions might well be “yes,” but the 
writer has found few undergraduates who 
could honestly answer all of them that way, 
Tlie value of the “no” answers will be to 
suggest how motivational patterns may con- 
flict with schoolwork. 


Yes No. 

Yes No. 
Yes No 
Yes No 

Yes No 

Yes No 
Yes No, 

1 You diseovei at 5 p m that you have no assignments to prepare for the next day but 
have a mid-term exam for day after tomorrow A friend wants you to go to a 
movie Noimally m such a situation, would you study? 

2 A regular two-hour laboratory class is cancelled one day because of difficulty with 
plumbing Noimally m such a situation, would you study? 

3 When you spend an evening in study, do you spend more than three-fourths of the 
time in actual reading and study? 

4 A basic but not required course in your major is given only at 8 A M , another course 
which IS acceptable in the major but actually not quite ns good for your needs as the 
other is avadable at 10 a.m Would you take the 8 o’clock course? 

5 Do you spend more tune a week (not countmg Sunday) m studymg than m all tjrpes 
of social recreation? 

6 You haven't been home for three weeks and there is as much school work for the 
conung week end as usual Would you stay on the campus and study? 

7. When an mstructoi asks if there are any questions about what he has just piesented, 
you do not hesitate to ask about something which you do not undei stand. 

8 You would rathei have a grade pomt aveiage 5 of a pomt higher than be elected to 
a well-lcnown, semihonoiaiy campus oiganization 

9. Twms of your own sex and with pleasing personahties are m your class You would 
rather have as a fiiend the one who is outstanding as a student than the one who is 
popular with the opposite sex and m activities. 

10 Assuming that it took an equal amount of effort and would produce equally successful 
results, you would rather wiite for publication a shoit paper in your major field than 
manage the campaign of a candidate for president of the student government, 

Yes No 


3 “Why do you want to make good as tliey affect your schoolwork This rank 
grades^” A list of typical reasons given by order need only be rough and approximate 
students is indicated below Winch ones since it is difficult to interpret and weigh 
of these most motivate your schoolwork? these values carefully, Wlnle such a rating 
Which ones are the least important? Rank device is too unreliable for accurate measure- 
these reasons in their older of importance ment, it will tend to stimulate your thinking. 


To secuze a better future lecoimnendation for a job 

To indicate that I am actually learnmg soraethmg new facts, how to thinlc, etc. 

To wm out m competition with some other peison or peisons 
To please my family 

To be eligible for mitiation and student activities 

To uphold a reputation alieady gained among my associates and friends 

To win special honors and lecognition 

Just to meet the requirements foi a degree 

To gam the respect of my instructors 

It IS a matter of little mteiest to me 

If interested in comparing your rating cussion. In the method of paired compan- 
to those of other college students, look at son winch was used each statement was 
Table 3 winch summarizes the reactions of paired with every oilier statement and the 
over five hundred students to this question student chose from each pair the stronger 
Tlieir method of rating was more elaborate reason for his schoolwork. The importance 
than you were asked to use, therefore tlieir of a reason was then obtained by adding up 
ratings have some significance for tins dis- its number of first choices. Table 3 shows 

Table 3 The Rank Order from Highest to Lowest of Reasons Given by Different Groups of Students 
to the Question “Why Do I Want to Make Good Grades?” « 








Job recommendation (JR) 





Evidence of learmng (EL) 





Competition (0) 





Please family (PE) 





Be eligible (BE) 





Reputation (R) 





Win honors (1^) 





Just to graduate (JG) 





Respect of instiuctor (RI) 





Little interest (LI) 





Adapted from 8 C Eriksen, An expeiimental study of mdividual differences in scholastic motives, 
J Educ Psych , 1940, SI 507-516 


the relative importance of these reasons for 
freshmen, juniors and seniors, women, and 
men The letters in each column refer to 
the keyed list of reasons to the left It will 
be noted that wanting good grades for “job 
recommendation” and for “evidence of 
learning” rank first and second for all groups 
The changes in relative importance of “be 
eligible” and “respect of instructor” be- 
tween the freshman and later years may be 
partially indicahve of changes in scholastic 
motivation with increasing maturity The 
differences between men and women are 
also interesting 

4. The tliree exercises above have been 
lithe devices for increasing your insight 
into your motivational pattern Little of the 
total picture of your motivabonal pattern, 
however, has been covered If lack of in- 
terest m schoolwork is a real problem with 
you, little progress can be made unless there 
is a thorough exploration of tlie whole 
problem A discussion with your counselor 
will be of help Another particularly effective 
device is to make an outline summary of 
your interests as they relate to college work 
This process of verbalizing helps make clear 
what your values are Such questions as the 
following should be covered Are you in- 
terested in college? Why? Are you more 
interested m other activities? Do you under- 
stand why? What implication does this 
discussion of your interests have for your 
future plans? 

Methods of Focusmg Interest on College 


Many students feel that they are quite 
interested in their schoolwork but find 
it difficult sometimes to settle down to study- 
ing The following suggestions are some 
devices which will help focus one's interest 
in schoolwork on the immediate course or 

1. Since the abstract nature of textbooks 

makes it difficult for them to compete in 
interest with football schedules, photo- 
graphs, or talk sessions, one can study better 
if these distractions are eliminated from the 
immediate study environment Methods of 
doing this were discussed in an earlier part 
of this project 

2. Students sometimes find that clari- 
fication of their vocational aims increases 
interest m courses related to their vocational 
preparation “ Project XI contains mateiials 
for assisting with such vocational thinking 
Turn to it now if this approach seems 

3 Make practical applications of the ma- 
tenal you are studying Try to see the rela- 
tions between the facts you study and the 
problems you will face m your chosen voca- 
tion If you are not able to do this, ask your 
instructor for assistance in making such ap- 
plications All too often students approach 
courses as so much memory work rather 
than as being full of mteiestmg facts Rote 
memonzation is rarely of interest, but under- 
standing things is 

4 Persons who have had work experi- 
ence are usually more highly motivated 
Work expenence apparently makes the 
vocational goal seem more clear cut and 
better understood and, therefore, more im- 
mediate Also read all you can about your 
chosen vocafaon, it will help to focus your 
interests on college work 

5 Techniques of imagining more im- 
mediate goals assist m focusing interest more 
sharply Studying as though there is to be 
a quiz in a few minutes may be hard on 
your blood pressure but it will arouse your 
interest in preparation Setting time limits 
for study, as outlined earlier in this project, 
gives an immediate goal of completing your 

V Marshall, The life career motive and 
its effect on college work, / Educ Res, 1935-1936, 
29 596-598, E G Williamson, Scholastic motiva- 
tion and Uie choice of a vocation. School and Soc., 
1937 ' 4 ^ 353 - 357 - 


work within the time limit This also helps 
resist recreational distractions since you will 
soon be through studying and able to relax, 

6 The more one knows about a subject 
the more interesting the new facts will 

7 The story behind the discovery of facts 
IS often as interesting as any adventure tale 
Unfortunately, the stories get pretty dncd 
out by the time they appear in a textbook, 
but the library contains books of real in- 
terest about the work you are doing Often 
this IS the purpose of collateral readings As 
a rollicking example, lead the story, “Tuitle 
Eggs for Agassiz,” by D D Sharp, which 
appeared m the Atlantic Monthly m 1932 
(volume 150, pages 537-545) 

8 The analysis of errors makes a problem 
seem much simpler and therefore easier and 
more interesting to overcome Foi instance, 
it would seem more interesting and chal- 
lenging to improve writing the letters 0 
and n which accounted for 50 per cent of 
a person’s illegibilities, than it would just to 
try, without such a diagnosis, to write more 
clearly. Thus, in this and m other courses 
find the cause of your difficulties and you 
will become more interested 

9 Knowledge of progress makes work 
seem much more interesting Try to obtain 

even rough measures of how well you are 
doing and make a graph of your progress. 
You will probably be suipiised to find out 
how interested you are in making the line 
go up Set up a goal on the graph and move 
your line toward it as you complete the 

10. The technique of asking questions, 
developed m Project 11 , aiouses curiosity as 
you read and so makes the material seem 
more intcicstmg Another technique is to 
make up pioblems to solve, this will not 
only increase your interest but also insure 
that you comjirehend the material 

Practice Suggestions for improving mo- 
tivation will not do much good unless they 
arc tried out Take your least interesting 
course and, m light of the discussion above, 
write out the specific steps which you could 
take to increase interest m it. Try this on 
an assignment and then check with your 

Further information as to the factors 
which motivate student work will be found 
in the following references 

C. Bird, Effective Study Habits, Appleton- 
Century, 1931, Chap 1 

A W Ham and M D Salter, Doctor in the 
Making, Lippincott, 1943, Chaps. 2, 3, 4, 
and 8 Very interesting reading. 



Term papers are a typical part of many 
college courses They should he more than 
a few pages of quotations copied out and 
fitted togetlier, and in the upper-division 
courses they are supposed to be rather ex- 
tensive treatises Because instructors have 
to pass rapidly over many interesting points, 
papers and oral reports are assigned so the 
student can dig out the information he 
wants and also obtain credit for it College 
reports are, therefore, real investigations of 
interesting topics by inquiring minds Some- 
times such papers are good enough to be 

The expected make-up of a report varies 
somewhat from course to course, but tliree 
general characteristics are desired by all 
teachers: (a) evidence tliat tire student has 
studied different sources in order to stimu- 
late his thinking, (b) presentation in an 
acceptable form, and (c) evidence of origi- 
nal thinking As with most activities, a re- 
port may be done the hard way or easy 
short cuts may be used. This project pro- 
poses to demonstrate these short cuts so 
better reports can be written witli no greater 
expenditure of effort or time 

On the first of these desired character- 
istics, i.e, evidence of resources studied, 
much energy is often wasted in inefficient 
search The writer has found that even in 
advanced classes some students work much 
harder at a paper than the average student 
but get lower grades because they do not 
know of the simplest library aids The first 
part of this project deals with these library 
resources and short cuts 

On the second characteristic, i c , correct 
form, students arc often bothered as to the 
form in which a teim paper should be pre- 
sented and are ignorant of any peculiarities 
of style expected in a given subject field. 
The teachers, on the other hand, expect 
the reports to be in good form, i e , the his- 
tonans want tiie repoits styled as historical 
essays and the scientists as scientific dis- 
cussions Facts presented in correct form 
receive higher grades than when the same 
facts are presented in the usual English 
essay form Tire second part of this project 
indicates resources giving simple directions 
for report writing 

On the third cliaiacteristic, i.e., evidence 
of original thinking, much depends on the 
ability of the student. But if a student finds 
it easy to obtain resource material, is stimu- 
lated by it and has a plan for writing the 
paper, he should have the time and energy 
for doing some onginal thinking Some sug- 
gestions will also be made which will foster 
such originality m papers 

A. Use of the Libeary 

The primary resource for college work, in 
addition to textbooks, is more books Be- 
cause of the large number of them which 
have to be used, some system of cataloguing 
and protection is necessary, yet this very 
system is unfamiliar to most students and 
so may act as a barrier rather than a help 
in the use of the books Acquaintance with 
library books is often limited to the reserve 
loom where a student's request for an as- 
signed book is all tliat is necessary Such 


students do not know of the wealtli of ma- 
terial which the school supplies, they do not 
know of one of the best and simplest ways 
of finding maleiials for term papers, and, 
probably worst of all, they miss interesting 
books on topics about which tliey are 

Concrete evidence that knowledge of the 
library is related to school success and that 
even the average senior doesn’t know 
enough about the library is shown by a study 
at Ohio University ^ Tlie expenmenters with 
the aid of other faculty members con- 

Year in College 

Chart lo Success of students on a test of 
“beginning worlcmg knowledge in the use of the 
library”, the median and the range of scores tor the 
middle 50 per cent are shown for each college 
year (Adapted from Louttit and Patnek ) 

M Louttit and J R. Patnek, A study of 
students' knowledge in the use of the hbraiy, 
I. Appl. Psych,, 1933, 16 475-484. 

structed a test of essential information about 
the library Its items represented "beginning 
of a working knowledge m the use of the 
hbraiy” When 441 students took the test, 
it was found that knowledge ot the library 
was related to grade point average even 
when tlie effect of intelligence on both 
scores was canceled out The results sum- 
marized m Chart 10 also show that the 
average student, even among the seniois, 
knows only about 60 per cent of these 
essenbal items and litde, if any, growth m 
knowledge of the library takes place during 
the four years m college And the small 
rauige in scores between the fiist and third 
quartiles indicates that most of the students 
are about equally ignorant as to use of the 
library It is evident that students need 
training in use of the library. 


How much do you know about the 
library? You may feel that you are pretty 
good at It since you are familiar with public 
and school libraries Tliree tests arc pro- 
vided to measure your skill and also to act as 
training units Each has been carefully made 
so as to cover tire essential aspects of library 
service which every student ought to know 
Much more technical and professional aid 
can be found in a library but it seems best 
to limit these diagnostic tests to minimal 
essenbals The fiist test covers infoimatron 
as to what is in the library The second test 
measures your skill in the actual use of 
library aids After scoring these two tests and 
studying up on your weak spots, you will be 
ready to try your skill on the third test- 
preparing a bibliography for an actual term 
paper It will show how hbraiy aids can 
short-cut tlie wnbng of good term papers. 


I, Test oi InfoThiatiOR About the Library Tins test covers the important aspects of the 
library which the typical student needs to know Tlie test is in foui sections A, Dictionary 
Card Catalogue, B, Paits of a book, C, Indices and Abstracts, and D, Plow to Use the 
Reader’s Guide The key for scoring your answers is on page 243 in Appendix II 
Place your score (No. right) in the correct box below 


Lowest Q 2nd Quartei 3id Quarter Top Quarter 


What will be the alphabetic order of the following title refeiencos in the dictionary caid catalogue? 

Indicate the proper ordei by mimbeiing ( 1 , 2, 3, 4, 01 5) on the piopei line to the left. 

1 A Manual of Deternnnative Mineralogy (by J V Lewis) 

2 Social Organimaiion and Disorganization (by S A Queen) 

3 Tlie American College (by A P West) 

4 Annotated Bibliogiaphy on Adult Education {hy Y M Pioctor) 

. 5 A Syllabus on Vocational Guidance (by V A Teeter) 

If a statement is trae, circle "T”, if it is false, cucle “F ’’ 

TP 6 All classified books are listed m the dictionary caid catalogue 

T F 7. The location of a book in the library is indicated by the call number on the dictionary 


TPS The airangement of the dictionary caid catalogue is the same as that of boolis on the 

TP 9 A card m the catalogue saying “Robms, see Birds” means that theie is nothing m the 
library on robins 

T F 10 A student interested in the American Revolution can get started in tracing bibliogiaphy 
by lookmg up any of the followmg subject headings m the dictionary card catalogue 
American Revolution, Revolution, American, U. S — Histoiy — ^Revolution, 

T P 11. A book written by Samuel Clemens should be listed m the dictionary card catalogue 
undei the name “Mark Twam” since he is more widely known by that name 

T P 12, A book wiitten by Zono and translated by Kiesow would be entered m the caid catalogue 
under both names 

T P 13 Cross reference (1 e , see, and see also) m the dictionary card catalogue and in periodical 
mdices are foi the teclimcal use of the librarian and hence of httle use to the student. 

T F 14. Library books assigned by an instructor will usually be found on reserve and will always 
be listed m the dictionary caid catalogue 



the left Write the lettei of 


Find the best answer m the right-hand column for each statement oi 
that answer on the line to the left of each statement 

16 The card m the dictionary caid catalogue on which you A 
would find listed a book by John Ruslan B. 

16 The card m the dictionary card catalogue on which you C. 

would find a book called “The Tides of Life.” D 


17 If you wanted infoimation for a paper on “Indian A 
Arrowheads,” what would be the best topic to look up? B 

18 If you wanted information for a paper on “The Religious C 
Music of Indians, ” what would be the best topic to look D 

19 If you wanted information for a paper on “Pocahontas,” E. 
what would be the best topic to look up? 




Author card 
Index card 
Title card 
Subject card 
Bibliography card 

Bow and Arrow 
Indians of North America 
Indians of North America — 

Indians of North America— 

Indians of North America — 
rehgion and mythology 
Music, sacred 


L4 Leybum, James Graham. 

Frontier folkways [byj James G Leyburn . New Haven, 
Yale umversity press, London, H Milford, Oxford university 
press, 1936 
X, 291 p 24^””. 

"Published on the Louis Stern memorial fund p pii] 

Bibhography p [2731-288 

1 Frontier and pioneer bfe 2 Manners and customs 3 Man — 
Influence and environment 4 Sociology i Title n Title. Folkways 


Library of Congress 

Copy 2 (_) 

Copyright A 81816 [6] [910] 573 4 

20 The location of the book in the library is mdicated by (1) the author’s last name, (2) the 
number m upper left-hand comer, (3) the title, “Frontier Folkways " 
r F 21. The number in the upper left-hand comer is based on the Dewey Decimal system rather 
than the Library of Congress system 
. 22 The book was published m what year? 

T F 23. This book contains a bibhography which could he used for further readmg 
. . 24. In how many different places wdl cards for this book appear in the dictionary card catalogue 
of the usual hbrary? 

T F 25 A card for this book wdl be found if you look up the subject "Sociology.” 

T F 26 A card for this book will be found if you look up the subject “Pioneers ” 




Find the best answer m the right-hand column foi each statement on the left Write the lettei oi 
that answer on the line to the left of each statement 

27 Pait which gives an outline of what the book contains 

28 List of refeiencGS given at the end of a chapter or at the end of a 

29 Page on which name of publisher appears 

30 Place to look up location of mmor but important topics m the book 

31 Section which states why the authoi wiote the book 

,32 Part at end of book containing additional mfoimation not m the 
text propel 

33 Statements in small print at the bottom of some pages 

A, Glossary 
B Copynght 
C Pieface 
D Footnote 
E Bibliography 

F, Title page 

G, Index 

H Appendix 
I Table of contents 


Followmg are some indices, abstiacts, and other bibliogiaphical sources commonly found in college 

a Readers' Guide to Penodical Literature 
b International Index to Periodicals 
c. Agriculture Index 
d Art Index 
e Education Index 
f Industrial Arts Index 
g Science Abstracts 

li Psychological Abstracts 
1 Biological Abstracts 

] TJ S Catalogue and Cumulative Booh Index 
k New Yoik Tines Index 
1 Book Review Digest 

m Public Affaiis Information Service Bulletin 
n Vertical File Service Catalogue 

In answenng the following questions use the list of lefeience works given above Place the letter of 
the correct title on the hne at the left of the question 

34 The best place to find recent articles on “intelligence testing." 

36. Articles on “the teachmg of wood woik m the schools,” 

36 Articles for a paper on “mural paintmg ” 

37, Articles for a paper on “the divorce problem ” 

38 Articles for a paper on “testing cows " 

39 Where find the date on which a lecent major event occuiied 

. . 40 Where find the publisher and cost of a book not in the hbraiy 

... 41 Where find a summary of critical evaluations of a book you have not seen. 

If a statement is true, circle “T”, if it is false, circle “F ” 

T F 42 Some books contain bibhographies, this mformation is listed on the dictionary card for that 

r F 43 Bibliographies on some topics are published as separate bulletins, these are hsted in the 
dictionary card catalogue. 

T F 44 The alphabetical entires m typical periodical mdices are by author and subject although 
both are not always included 

T F 45 The Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature may enter an aiticle m its alphabetical listing 
by author, by subject, and by title 


T E 46. The Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature bsts new books as well as magazine articles 
r P 47 The best way to obtain a bibliogiaphy of books fiom the dictionary card catalogue is to 
use the title cards 

r P 48. Good modem encyclopedias contain well-written articles on many topics assigned for 
papers or studied in college classes 


Directions The faemg page is an excerpt fiom the Februaiy, 1945, issue of the Readers’ Guide, 
line numbers have been added to the left to help m identifying the mateiial to be used in answeriiiK 
the questions below. Answei each question in terms of the ime or lines refeired to 

T F 49. The magazine reteiied to m line 31 appeals once each month 
T P 50 Line 29 means that Thickstun is Blanc’s leal name 

T P 51 The magazme m which the story referred to in Ime 28 appears can be found by looking 
up M Y Lull 

T P 52 The woid “Ams” m Ime 12 refers to a heading which will appear among the “ A’s” in the 
alphabetical listmg 

53 The numbei which appears before the colon ( ) m each listmg lefers to (1) the year, (2) the 
page the aiticle starte on, (3) the volume number of the magazine 

54 The number which appears just after the colon ( ) m each listmg refers to (1) page number, 
(2) year, (3) volume number 

T P 55 The symbol “por” m hne 26 mdicates that a picture of Morgan Blake appears in the 

T F 56 The symbol “il” m hne 14 means that the article contains illustrations 

67 The symbol “ ” in line 18 means that (1) the magazme appears late in December, (2) the 

article is paiticularly good, (3) part of the article appeals on later pages m that issue, i e , 
back among the adveitisements 

T F 68 If interested m writmg an article on the blind, some additional refoienoes might be found 
by lookmg up the headmg “Spoits for the blind ” 

T F 69 The phrase “see also” as m Ime 47 means that additional leferences may be listed under 
the topic or topics which are listed just below 

T F 60 In line 16 one finds that additional mateiial might be found if he looked up either "Avia- 
tion” or “Physiological aspects ” 

61 How many articles are listed which deal with “Black maikets"? 

. 62 How many articles are listed as dealmg with printing and writmg systems foi the blmd? 

. 63. In hnes 20 and 21, Earl Blaik is the (1) author, or (2) subject, of the article hsted. 



1 BLACK markets 

2 Beef m tioufale tab Bans W p 17-18 D 23 ’44 

3 Bootleg nylons F Brook Bead Digest 46 66-8 F 

4 '45 

5 Ceiling on hoof? Bans W p 17-18 N 25 ’44 

6 Lend fleece, how American Gl’a and officeis have 

7 acted as supply agents for French black-market 

8 operations Newsweek 25 49 Ja 8 ’45 


10 Blackbird antics Nature Mag 37 499 N '44 

11 See also 

12 Ams 

13 BLACKMAN, Thomas M 

14 Bare goose, il Natur Hist 63 407 N ’44 

15 BLACKOUTS, Physiological See Aviation — Physi- 

16 ologioal aspects 

17 BLACKSTOCK, Josephine 

18 Play in battle diess Ind Woman 23 376-7 -f- D '44 

19 BLADES, Hacksaw See Saws 

20 BLAIK, Earl Henry 

21 Biogiaphy, por Cur Biog Ja '46 

22 BLAIR, Walter 

23 Ugliest man in the world, story Am Mercury 

24 60 166-8 F ’46 

25 BLAKE, Morgan 

26 Columnist-penologist, por Newsweek 24 46 D 

27 18 ’44 

28 BLAME It on love, story See Lull, M Y 

11 Laboratory Problem in the Use of 
Library Aids. Your how-to-study laboratory 
IS equipped with various sample library aids 
The next step is to see if you can actually 
use them correctly The second test has 
been prepared especially to fit the local 

college situation, when you are ready for it, 
ask your counselor for a copy This exercise 
will cover the use of tlie dictionary card 
catalogue, the Book Review Digest, and 
various indices, abstracts, and encyclopedias 
If any part causes trouble, the counselor will 
be glad to help you 

Program for Improvement 
1 Did you know how to use the library? 
How did you compare to other college stu- 
dents? Even though you may have scored 
higher on these tests than die average 
student, the honor is a dubious one since it 
has already been shown that the average 
student knows little about the library An 
even more realistic goal is to understand 
everything in these tests since each item has 

29 BLANC, M. S See Thickstun, W R it auth 

30 BLANCHARD, Jamce 

31 Blind street, poem Christian Cent 61 1228 0 

32 25 ’44 

33 BLANCHARD, Normal J 

34 Making cm tains Sch Aits 44 137 D '44 

35 BLEEDERS disease See Hemophilia 


37 Blind are not apart M M Geffner il Survey 

38 81 14r-lG Ja ’45 

39 Meet destiny with your head up! L Boooelh 

40 Etude 02 021 N '44 

41 My love is blind Mrs A Schmid Am mag 

42 138 45H-D’44 

43 Scouts without sight S S Jacobs il Sat Eve Post 

44 2 17 6 Ja 13 ’45 

46 Strictly iieisonal. It’s fun to see again F F Bond. 

46 Sat B Lit 28 14^15 P 3 ’45 

47 See also 

48 Sports for the blind 

49 Pnrtlvng and wrdvng systems 

60 Beading for the blind Moon system Hygeia 

61 23 140 F ’45 

82 BLIND, Boobs for the 

63 See also 

64 Books — ^Phonograph records 


56 See also 

67 Blind 

been carefully selected as basic to under 
graduate work 

Read up on those items which you missed 
An interesting booklet entitled the Library 
Key and written by Zaidee Brown (Wilson, 
1938) explains how to use the materials re- 
ferred to in the above tests Tlie following 
are other excellent references* 

C Alexander, How to Locate Educational 
Information and Data, Bur Publ , Teach- 
ers College, 1941, 2nd ed See especially 
Chaps 4, 7, and lo 

M Hutchins, A S Johnson, and M S Wil- 
liams, Guide to the Use of Libraries, Wil- 
son, 1938, jdi rev ed An excellent book 
showing the best resources for different 
subject fields 

I G Mudge, Guide to Reference Books, 
American Library Assoc, 1936, 6th ed. 
The authoritative guide to published 
reference materials 

C M. Wrachell, Reference Books of 1935- 
37, ig^8-igsfo; 1941-43, American Li- 
brary Assoc TTiree supplements published 
to bnng the 6th ed of Guide to Reference 
Books up to date 

® Used with special permission of the publisheis, The H W Wilson Company 


2 . Study a map of your library so as to 
familiarize yourself with tlie locabon of re- 
sources, particularly the card catalogue, in- 
dices, and general references Take bme 
to browse in the reference section so as ac- 
tually to see where these resources are 

3 When these two steps are done, and 
only then, try the following “real library 

project.” It tests your ability to use your 
knowledge of the library in preparing for 
an actual term paper To try this project 
before completely understanding the library 
setup will result only in confusion and 
waste of time On the other hand, if you 
are familiar with the basic uses of libraries, 
this part of the project will be quite 

III. Term Paper Library PTO]ect Parts A, B, and C can be filled out m class, Part D has 
to be done at the library Do this project on your own, do not bother the librarians. If you 
need help, ask your counselor or other students (if you feel they know the answer) . 

Evaluation . . .... 

A. Select a term paper topic in an area in which you are interested (If you have a paper to write in 
some course this term or if you know of a topic which can be used m a later course, use that topic ) 
The topic IS 

B Under what headings would you expect to find references to articles and books dealing with your 

1 . ... . . 2 . . .. 

3. . . 4. 

6 . . . . 6 . 

0. What reference sources would it be best to use’ (When this section is filled out, star the three 
resources which will probably be of the most value for this topic ) 

1 What index or abstract journals? 

2. Will the dictionary card catalogue be of much help? 

3. Will an encyclopedia be of much help? If so, which one? 

4. Will you have special problems of biographical data, current events, statistical data, smaU 
items of necessary mformation’ If so, where should you look? 


D, List below at least ten references for your topic Use the three sources “starred” above and more 
if you wish, include books as well as journal articles Do not list just any references on your topic, be 
selective so as to list a well-rounded selection of the best sources 


B. Writing the Paper ^ If you have the opportunity, look over 

An early and major step has already been 
taken toward writing a report through com- 
pleting the library projects above, you have 
a complete bibhogiaphy, or at least a good 
start on it, for a term paper Writing the 
paper itself, however, also presents difficul- 
ties for many students Some find it difficult 
to express their ideas in writing, some have 
to labor so hard over grammar and punctua- 
tion that little energy is left for creative 
writing Others have trouble with organizing 
their ideas and others with the format ex- 
pected on a term paper Appioaches to these 
difficulties are discussed here. 

some term papers that have received good 
grades In what ways do they differ from 


About the only way to measure your skill 
and difficulties in writing term papers is 
actually to analyze some you have written. 
The following will give a basis for determin- 
ing where remedial work is needed 

1 . What grades have you received on 
past term papers? What comments were 
written on them? 

3. Have your counselor look over some 
of your former papers and make suggestions 
as to specific ways in which they might be 
improved Old essay exams also offer a basis 
for constructive suggestions on writing. 
Primary areas of diEculty should be checked 

. Legibility 
. Capitalization 

Sentence structure 
. . Specific errors m format 

. General form 

... .Length 
. Bibliography 

. . . Headings 

.... Paragraphing 

... .Organization 
Development of ideas 


Progiam for Improvement 

With what aspects of term paper writing 
do you have the most difficulty? Suggestions 
for improvement are presented in three 
sections English usage, form, and organiza- 
tion and writing of the paper Emphasize 
those sections which are the most pertinent 
and then complete step 4 

1. If one of your difficulties lies in cor- 
rectness of written expression, turn to 
Project VIII Most persons with this dif- 
ficulty have seen comments like “poor Eng- 
lish” or “poor spelling” written so often on 
their papers that they feel they never will 
become proficient Project VIII will show, 
however, that college students having such 
difficulties really know most of the rules of 
English usage but have trouble with just a 
few frequently recurring items When a stu- 
dent sees that two or tiiree simple rules ac- 
count for ovei half of his errors, a remedial 
program seems easy and feasible 

2 Other students have difficulty in de- 
ciding what the correct form is for a term 
paper Details as to length, expected di- 
visions, use of headings, bibliographical 
form, use and form of quotations, use of 
footnotes, etc , all cause confusion and make 
it difficult to devote full energy to express- 
ing one’s ideas An easy way to help with 
this difficulty IS to study a model term 
paper and then lefer to it as problems of 
form arise One of the best sources here 
IS a model term paper which itself tells 
how to write a term paper The reference 


C S Cooper and E J Robins, The Terai 
Paper, a Manual and Model, Stanford 
Univ Press, 1934 

Since the form of term papers sometimes 
varies from one subject field to another, 
one should also find out what requirements 
tlie instructor has m mind and, if available, 
look over former term papers in that course 

Further references on writing term papers 
will be found in the following: 

R W Fredenck, How to Study Handbook, 
Appleton-Century, 1938 Pages 173-180 
How to gather materials for a topic, pages 
181-200 How to write themes 

J C Hodges, Harbrace Handbook of Eng-. 
Iish, Harcourt, Brace, 1941 Pages 376- 
396 Includes a specimen term paper. 

3 The major difficulty for some students 
lies in organizing a term paper. They 
scarcely know where to begin or end, tlrus 
some just start wntmg, keep on adding tins 
and that, and stop when the paper seems 
long enough Since a job plan helps in ex- 
pediting any type of work, the following 
plan should do much to make your approach 
to writing a term paper easier and more 

a Select a topic. It should be big enough 
to provide plenty of material for 
wnting but not so big as to be suitable 
for a book. Look up several tentative 
topics in an index such as the Readers’ 
Guide and select the one that has the 
best available bibliography 

b Build your bibliography As suggested 
in the first of this project, use indices, 
abstracts, the dictionary card catalogue, 
encyclopedias, etc, to obtain a select 
bibliography Read these for ideas. 
Keep notes on your readings so that 
later they can be referred to, making 
unnecessary a return trip to the library 
If tliese notes are kept on cards, they 
can later be put in some topical order 
and thus aid in tlie organization of 

c Keep an idea page A paper is usually 
assigned for some time before it has to 
be written During tins interval various 
ideas often come to mind which ought 
to be included in tlie paper If these 
are not jotted down at once, they are 
often forgotten by the time you start 


on the paper Use a page in your note- 
book to )ot down these ideas; then 
when you are ready to wnte, these brief 
notes will serve as reminders Instances 
of things to ]ot down are news events 
and stories which illustrate your points, 
and also new angles on your paper 
which occur to you A premium is 
placed on originality m a paper so this 
device will do much to increase the 
quality of your paper. 

d Outline your paper in detail In writing 
essay examinations it was suggested 
that jotting down a brief outline before 
starting to write would produce a bet- 
ter answer This is even more true in 
writing term papers because the wealth 
of material to be covered makes it im- 
possible to organize as one writes This 
outline should be very complete, each 
idea to be covered should be men- 
tioned in the outline. Use cue words 
and phrases and not complete sen- 
tences, as rearrangement seems neces- 
sary scratch out items and wnte them 
in at better locations. Finally, when 
the outline is completed, the organiza- 
tion of the paper stands out clearly. 
The major points in the outline repre- 
sent the headings for sections of your 
paper With each point in its place 
m the outline, the job of writing 
merely requires that each point in turn 
be changed into a sentence or short 

e Write the paper, dash it off from the 
outline and polish it later It is difficult 
to keep many things m mind as you 
write. Devote your initial wrihng efforts 
to getting your ideas stated, tliis initial 
draft can be gone over later in order to 

correct English mistakes and to put in 
headings, references, and footnotes 
Dashing this first version off helps a 
writer keep his attention on his theme 
rather than getting lost in details, and 
the sentence ideas tend to flow into 
each other much better Usually all 
needed corrections can be inserted in 
this first draft, but if necessary, parts 
can be cut out and pasted in order 
f Type or rewrite the paper Legibility 
and good form in a paper have a great 
deal to do with the final grade As was 
indicated in connection with writing 
essay examinations, papers legibly writ- 
ten will average lo per cent higher 
grades than the same papers written 
somewhat illegibly Reread this final 
version to be sure that a word or phrase 
has not been accidentally left out and 
to correct misspellings or illegibilities, 
g. Submit the paper in an attractive form 
since the over-all impression also in- 
fluences tlie instructor. Put the paper 
m a binder Put the title, your name 
and the course number or name on the 
front Number the pages And the 
most attractive feature of all, hand the 
paper in on time. 

4. Do you have any papers to write tliis 
term? If so, the material on library usage 
earlier in this project will have given you a 
start. Discuss your plans for tliis paper with 
your counselor, he will be glad to assist in 
evaluating your outline and written report 
The instructor who assigned the paper and 
your English instructor will also be glad to 
answer any questions you may have Very 
often papers for your English course and for 
other courses can be combined. 



Because students learn through class par- 
ticipation and their work is evaluated from 
it as well, it IS important that effective class- 
room skills be developed Students, however, 
frequently feel inadequate in these skills. 
Many students are afraid to recite in class 
and are even more terrified of volunteenng 
in discussion or of asking questions Most 
students have difficulty in determining what 
should he learned in a lecture, and know no 
good way to remember what they do learn. 
Some students wnte as rapidly as they can 
to record what is said, but because of such 
a secretarial attitude scarcely understand 
what they have wntten, others write noth- 

ing Still other difficulties arise because some 
students do not understand that certain 
classroom mannensms and practices offend 
the teacher and so react to the student’s 
detriment Principles relating to these prob- 
lems will be presented under four headings’ 

(1) Improving Ability to Handle Lectures, 

(2) Improving Ability to Discuss and Re- 
cite in Class, (3) Improving Class Manners, 
and (4) Having Conferences with the 
Teacher As a preliminary step, however, 
answer the following questions in terms of 
your present classroom practices; items 
missed will help point up the discussion 
which follows. 




Evaluation of Classroom Behavior No right out of 18 

Answer each of the following questions by wntmg in the word (or its number) (1) never, (2) sel- 
dom, (3) sometimes, (4) often, or (6) always 

1 Do you take notes on your lecture classes? 

2 Do you keep your notes in one notebook at least 6X9 mches m size? 

3 Do you recopy your notes after takmg them in a lecture? 

4 Do you write as fast and as much as you can durmg a lecture? 

5 Do you use shorthand m takmg notes? 

6 Do you look over and edit your notes after class? 

7 Do you sit near the back of the classioom oi near a door or wmdow? 

8 Do you participate when there is classroom discussion? 

9 Do you feel nervous and afiaid when you have to participate m class discussion? 

10 When you don’t understand something that has been explamed m class, do you ask ques- 
tions when given the oppoitumty? 

11 When the instructor calls for volunteers, do you offer yourself? 

12 When leviewing foi a quiz, do you tiy to predict from your class notes what will be asked'’ 

13 When having trouble m a course, do you try to talk to the instructor after class or to have 
a conference with him? 

, 14 Do you cut classes durmg a school term? 

16 Are you late to class? 

. . 16 Do you stack your books or put your coat on just before the bell rings? 

17 Do you whisper to other students while the teacher is lecturmg or leading a discussion? 

18 Do you hand in term reports and other papers on or before the due date? 

The questions whose numbers are fol- 
lowed by a period should be answered 
'"often” or “always” and those without 
periods should be answered “seldom” or 
"never” The reasons behind these answers 
are presented in the folloiving discussion 

fmproving Ability to Handle Lectures 
The first thing is to sit where you can 
easily hear the lecture. Many students gravi- 
tate toward the back of the class or sit next 
to a door or beside a window In all three 
of diese places students are subject to many 
distractions Students at the back of the 
room have to look past all die other students 

in order to watch the instructor, their at- 
tention IS constandy distracted from the 
lecturer as these intervening students squirm 
in their seats, whisper, or drop things Stu- 
dents sitting by a door or window are also 
distracted by occurrences outside the class- 
room. Studies of students' preferences as 
to seat location and of the relationship be- 
tween classroom position and grades show 
an advantage for the center of the room, 
toward the front ^ Also sit where material on 
die blackboard can be easily seen and, if you 

R Farnsworth, Seat preference in the class 
room, J Soc Psych , 1933, 4 373-376, C R Gnf 
fith, A comment upon the psychology of the an 
drcnce. Psych Monog, 1921, 30 36-47 


have difficulty in hearing, sit where you can 
hear better and watch the speaker’s lips 

Students have as much difficulty with 
picking out what is important and re- 
membering It in lectures as in reading® A 
basis for the solution of tins problem can be 
found through appreciating the three pur- 
poses of lectures (1) to present matenal 
not otherwise easily available to students, 
(2) to explain important points which 
might cause difficulty, and (3) to elaborate 
on important points through further ma- 
terial and explanation Since a teacher’s class 
time IS limited, great selectivity must be 
used m determining what is to be discussed 
Whatever is said m class should, tlierefore, 
be important But students say, “Not witli 
the teachers I’ve heardi’’ But even these 
teachers would affirm that important points 
were being illustrated So the crux of the 
problem in learning how to listen to lectures 
IS How can one determine what is im- 
portant and how can one remember iP 

This sounds familiarly like the problem 
in reading textbooks Both textbook wiiters 
and lecturers tiy to make only a few major 
points m a chapter or lecture but have to use 
a great deal of explanatory detail in order 
to make these major points clear Tire prob- 
lem IS to learn how to spot these major 
points Lectures usually contain fewer cues 
than textbooks and, being extemporaneously 
presented, the cues are not nearly so clearly 
emphasized And even though such organi- 
zational cues as inflection, topic sentences, 
and summary statements may be skillfully 
presented, the average student is not trained 
to spot them Just as most students pay 
little attention to headings m books, so most 
students know little about typical cues used 
in lecturing To begin with, the average 

“ R P Larsen and D D Feder, Common and 
differential factors m reading and heanng compre- 
hension, / Edac Psych , 1940, 31 341-252, E M 
Spencer, Retention of orally presented materials, 
/ Educ Psych , 1941, 32 641-655 

student usually has a mistaken notion as to 
how much is covered in a lecture He usually 
thinks that “lots and lots” of points are 
covered whereas actually they will range 
from a couple of major ideas to half a dozen 
minor ones It is the old story of the little 
boy overwhelmed at the number of trees 
rather than seeing them as an orchard ar- 
ranged m rows with these rows arranged 
by species of fruit 

Students usually go to one of two ex- 
tremes in approaching this problem, both 
are bad Some students, feeling that every- 
thing said IS impoitant, write madly trying 
to put everything down, those who know 
shorthand feel happily prepared These per- 
sons are so busy m a stenographic way, how- 
ever, that they scarcely understand a thing 
that is said Tliey may feel that they can 
study their notes later, but this is seldom 
done and if done represents double labor. 
At the other extreme are those students who 
say that it is impossible to both listen and 
write and anyway it is difficult to know what 
to wnte They feel that the best approach is 
to listen and watch carefully so as not to 
miss anything, note-taking would therefore 
be a distraction These individuals may 
understand tire lecture as it is being pre- 
sented but they usually do not isolate tlie 
mam points and have no basis for later 

In lectures, as with textbooks, the core 
ideas are important A student needs to iso- 
late these core ideas and to see the explana- 
tory material as such This is done by watch- 
ing for cues whidi the lecturer gives A 
lecturer usually starts with a topic sentence, 
and he may close a topic with a summary 
statement He usually indicates the number 
of important subpoints by such cue state- 
ments as “the three parts,” “the five results,” 
etc Lecturers may use inflection of voice to 
make a point stand out, they often repeat 
important points or pause significantly or 


even precede a statement by saying, “This 
next point is important” A student then 
should listen attentively and, through such 
cues as the above, try to determine what 
mam point is being developed Wlien this is 
decided, he should wiite down a brief note 
summarizing the point He then listens 
again until the next point is made, etc By 
the end of a class hour possibly not more 
than a half page of notes will have been 
taken Tire writing will not have been laboii- 
ous and the several statements written will 
be very helpful later for review 

Insofar as possible, try to show organiza- 
tion in your notes Label them as to major 
topic, and indent subpoints so that the 
major ones stand out Since it is sometimes 
difficult to determine the exact organization 
as tlie lecturer proceeds, it is worth while 
to take a couple of minutes at the end of tlie 
class, or that evening, to glance over tlie 
class notes so as to mark important points, 
indent subpoints, etc In such revising, it 
may also become obvious that in your haste 
too little has been written, therefore add 
further clarifying statements Typing class 
notes, on the other hand, is generally a waste 
of time That is, typing is hard work for 
most students and legibly written notes will 
do just as well. 

Notes which show organization make 
major points stand out and are more easily 
visualized in memory In order to make in- 
dentations which enhance this visual pat- 
tern, it is necessary to have a large notebook; 
such larger paper costs little more than the 
smaller size Furthermore, the ideas from 
one or several lectures can be put on one 
large page so their relationship can be more 
easily seen. Little notebooks are cute and 
easy to carry but are inefficient for class 
notes. And probably worst of all is the use 
of backs of envelopes and odd sheets of 
paper for note-taking, these are difficult to 
organize and keep collected. 

As was true with notes on readings 
(Project II), an outsider’s evaluation and 
coaching often quickly suggest worth-while 
ways to Simplify and improve classroom 
note-taking. Have your counselor check your 
notes against the Check List in Project II, 
then try to improve your technique of taking 
notes Successive ratings with this Check 
List should show improvement m your 
notes, and lectures should begin to have 
more organization for you 

Improving Ability to Discuss and Recite in 


Practically every teacher spends some 
time in class discussion and student recita- 
tion, some teachers devote most of their 
class time to it. There are seveial reasons for 
this The give and take of discussion in- 
creases student interest and emphasizes 
understanding rather than memorization of 
ideas Recitation, as was shown in Project 
II, tends to fix ideas in memory so they are 
forgotten less rapidly, class discussion plays 
the same role And through listening to 
questions and ideas presented, the teacher 
can evaluate what students know The fol- 
lowing two experiments give an indication 
of how important discussion is in school- 
work- In one, an accurate count was kept 
of how many times each student partici- 
pated in classroom recitation and discussion, 
this score, as well as the student’s intel- 
ligence, was then compared to the grades 
each received at the end of the school year.® 
It was found that “test grades were in- 
fluenced more by the activity of a child than 
by his intelligence” Of course, it may be 
assumed that the students who knew the 
most might tend to recite the most, but this 
IS not the complete explanation In another 
study, college students were measured in 

®W W Carpenter and M K Fort, What effect 
do viators have upon recitation? /. Educ Res, 

1930, 23 50-53 


their ability to influence each other in dis- 
cussion When this ability of students was 
compared to their success in class, it was 
found that “students able to influence their 
classmates most in discussion situations were 
also able to influence their teachers most 
favorably and get the highest marks” 
{r= 38) 

Yet fear of reciting or discussing in class 
IS one of the most frequent problems men- 
tioned by students In a check list of 90 
items in which students were to rate how 
they compared to other students in their 
class, more students put themselves in the 
bottom fifth on the item “speak up in class 
discussion” than on any other item® An- 
other indication of this same problem is 
obtained from the use of a “Guess Who” 
test In this type of test a descriptive state- 
ment is read and the students guess who in 


the class it best describes When the item 
“this IS the student who is most afraid to 
discuss in class” is read, more students men- 
tion themselves tlian on any other iterai 
Why are students afraid to participate in 
class discussion? A large number of college 
students, when asked to analyze why it was 
difficult to obtain discussion m class, listed 
25 different causes ranging from teaching 
procedures to student attitudes® Among 
the most important were the four student at- 
titudes listed in Table 4 Characteristic of 
all these student attitudes is a fear of ap- 
pearing inferior to others Tins fear is not 
simply limited to what the teacher ma;^ 
think because fear of what classmates may 
think IS probably an even greater deterrent. 
For instance many students are willing to 
ask questions after class but not before 
their classmates. 

Tabm 4 Student Attitudes Which Inhibit Student Questioning in Class (Adapted from Earkendall ) 

These Attitudes Affect Recitation Seldom Sometimes Frequently Very 
or never often 

1 Students fear ridicule 2% 19% 46% 38% 

2 Lack of preparation 2% 8% S8% 52% 

3 Dislike to expose ignorance 1% 16% 41% 42% 

4 Timidity — 14% 44% 42% 

Analysis of class discussions tends to in- 
dicate that students fall into three types' 

(1) the “off-the-beam” or “disturber” type, 

(2) the quiet unknown, and (3) the leader. 
Fear of being classed in the first of these 
categories inhibits many students, unluckily 
they then fall into the second class, un- 
known to teacher or students Evidence of 
these student types is obtained through use 
of a “Guess AWio” test which contains a 

^ R H Simpson, Those who influence and those 
who are influenced in discussion, Teach Coll. 
Coiitri Educ , 1938, No 748, 89 pp 
®J A Wnght, A study of high school students’ 
insight into their problems and resources, unpub- 
lished Master’s diesis, Ohio State Umv., 1944 

series of items ranging from “this student 
can’t say what he means” or “tins student 
seems most tiimd in class discussions” to 
“tins student’s discussion is interesting and 
to the point” or “this student is easily heard 
and understood.” Tlie test is scored in two 
ways (i) the total number of times each 
student’s name is mentioned and (2) the 
number of times each student's name is 
mentioned on favorable items minus the 
number of times it is mentioned for un- 
favorable items. The results from administer- 
ing such a test to two small classes are sum- 

®L A Kirkendall, Factors inhibiting pupil ques- 
tiomng in class, / Educ Metli, 1937, 16:359-362, 


marized m Chart ii. It will be noted liiat 
the distribution falls into a V shape At 
the left are the individuals who received 
many but almost entirely negative votes. In 
the middle are those whom scarcely anyone 
remembered in thinking about the class, it 
IS surprising to note how many “non en- 
tities” can exist even in small classes And 
at the right are the accepted leaders of the 

What then can be done to help students 
participate in discussions? The primary dif- 
ficulty to overcome is the fear itself The 
procedures suggested below seek to give the 
student a feeling of assurance so he will 
venture a comment in class Once started, 
most students have little difficulty thereafter 

1. Since it is obvious from the above re- 
sults that most students feel themselves less 
able tlian others to speak up in class and 
secretly admire those who do, theie is good 
reason to try it Wlien a student realizes 
that other students are not the critical 
judges he thought, it is less difficult to talk 

2 Since most instructors foUow their 
textbooks rather closely, one can usually pre- 
dict what will be discussed in class Prepare 

yourself on a few items which will surely 
come up, then seize the opportunity to re- 
cite when these topics appear 

3 When class discussion emphasizes an 
exploration of points of view on some issue, 
hazard your own opinion Such discussions 
move forward only as there can be dif- 
ferences of opinion to clarify the point at 
issue In such a situation your opinion is 
probably as good as the next person’s The 
previously mentioned study on student in- 
fluence on others also showed that students 
with definite opinions influence others 
more than those who aren’t sure and, of 
course, more than those who don’t speak up. 

4 A good way to read is to apply what 
you are studying to different practical situa- 
tions. A good form of class participation is 
to suggest such applications and if you can’t 
think of any, ask how such material might 
apply in a given situation. An instructor is 
pleased to find students thinking rather than 
memorizing m a course. 

5 Start participating m class discussion 
early m the school term. At that time the 
class IS not yet organized so that even ques- 
tions which are beside the point are ac- 


ceptable And once started in a class, most 
students have little difficulty thereafter 

6 Wlien something is not understood, 
ask questions Instructors know that stu- 
dents don’t understand everylliing in their 
lessons and many of them ask from time to 
time if there are any questions m order to 
clarify issues before they are included m 
tests If the instructor doesn’t ask for ques- 
tions, he will usually be happy to help out- 
side of class 

7 A maxim m army life is "don't volun- 
teeri” An equally impoitant maxim m col- 
lege life, when a teacher asks for persons to 
work on special projects, is “volunteei”' 
When special projects are used in a class, it 
is usually planned so that all students wiU 
eventually have something to do Those 
who volunteer early impress the teacher 
with their interest m the work, moreover, 
early acquaintance with the instructor actu- 
ally does much to liven the work during the 
rest of the terra 

As indicated earlier, the mam problem is 
getting started An analogy to the treatment 
of stuttering may be helpful here Stutterers’ 
emotional fear of stuttering, especially m 
social situations, increases their tension so 
they are even more apt to stutter One as- 
pect of treatment is to get them used to 

speaking in strange situations, many such 
experiences tend to reduce this emotional 
tension and so decrease the tendency to 
stutter They also have trouble getting 
started, so some clinics send the stutterer 
out with a slip of papei and tell him not to 
come back until he has talked to someone 
and had the paper signed indicating this 
fact Such drastic treatment need not be 
used on you, but a first step is to resolve to 
discuss in some dass today “if it kills you ” 

Improving Class Manners 
One approach to “how to win grades and 
influence teachers” is to be considerate in 
class This does not mean excessive polite- 
ness but just common courtesy Just as rules 
of etiquette make it easier to be comfortable 
and get things done at dinners and social 
gatherings, so the following simple rules of 
behavior m the classroom make it easier 
for students and teacher Teachers work 
hard and tend to become irritated by stu- 
dents who constantly violate these rules 
1 Don’t cut classes The absent student 
misses part of his instruction and teachers 
occasionally react negatively toward chronic 
cutters While number of absences is not 
highly related to grades, the data shown in 
Chart 12 indicate for a large number of stu- 


dents in a midwestern university that per- 
sons earning low grade point averages tend 
to cut much more than most students ’ And 
not only are much cutting and low grades 
associated but there is a linear relationship 
all the way down Merely attendmg class 
every day will not insure a B average, but 
conversely it can be said that cutting fre- 
quently may make it difficult to get 

2. Be on time' Some people have dif- 
ficulty getting to class on time Sometimes 
tins is due to the preceding class being too 
far away, if so, be sure to tell your instructoi 
Others find it hard to get places on time, 
as for instance to an eight o’clock In one 
study, a record was kept of what time stu- 
dents arrived at their eight o'clock classes 
Wlien the grade point average of students 
who were on tune or even early was com- 
pared to the average of those who were 
late, it was found that “tlie early students 
had a grade of B, whereas the late students 
had a grade of G plus”® Tire following 

Jones, Class attendance and college marks. 
School and Soc, 193:, 33 444-446 
® G J Dudycha, An objective study of punctual- 
ity m relation to personality and achievement. Arch 
Psych , 1936, No. 204, 53 pp., also C L Nemzek, 

chart shows the typical distribution of time 
of arnval at class, most students come a few 
minutes early, but a minority straggle in for 
some tune after the bell rings. They are a 
distraction to the class and to the instructor' 

3. Carry your share in class On a hike 
you wouldn’t let someone else carry your 
pack In class don’t take the attitude ot 
daring the instructor to try to interest you 
When llie instructor states an issue for dis- 
cussion, don’t “let George do it” but take 
some responsibility for moving the discus- 
sion along The quicker it is discussed, the 
quicker the class can move on 

4. Classes, like many activities, sometimes 
get boring, but you should not show it It is 
all nght to look at your watch, but only 
occasionally, and don't check to see if it is 
running Don’t stack books and put your 
wraps on before the bell rings because the 
commotion will disturb the rest of the class 
A coach would jerk a player who started 
easing up before the game was over, an in- 
structor resents students who can’t "take 

The value of amount of tardiness and absence for 
direct and differential prediction of academic suc- 
cess, J Eiper Educ, 1938, 7 4-10 


it" for 50 minutes Don’t whisper to others 2 If a conference has to be arranged at 

in a lecture class, whispered comments are 
interesting to those about and so distract 
them from attending to the lecture If you 
have ever talked to someone who continu- 
ally looks about as if his mind is on other 
things, you know how instructors sometimes 
feel m class 

5 Get reports in on time or earlier Most 
students put off writing reports until the 
last minute if not until a couple of days after 
that But a theme takes no longer to wiite 
on time than later Teachers appreciate get- 
ting repoits on time, or even early, because 
they plan their work to handle tliese papers. 
Since a late paper means a sjjccial session 
of grading, the irritation is usually sufficient 
to cause a lower grade to be given. 

Having Conferences with the Teacher 

Many students feel that an instructor will 
think they are “apple polishing" if they ask 
for a conference Actually most instructors 
enjoy the opportunity to work with and 
know their students individually Part of 
their college job is to hold conferences witli 
students from their classes Certain courte- 
sies are helpful, however 

1. If the instructor has time, questions 
can be asked before or after class This in- 
formal opportunity makes it easy to have 
conferences without much effort. 

another time, make an appointment with 
the instructor and then be sure to keep it 
It may be acceptable to “stand up” other 
students, but teachers’ schedules are too full 
to be used up by missed appointments. 

3 Questions can be asked m several ways, 
some more effective than others In discuss- 
ing a quiz, it isn’t as effective to ask “How 
come you marked me off?” as “What type 
of material should I have included?” Tlie 
latter will usually bnng a sympathetic ap- 
proach to your problem. 

Tins project has emphasized four aspects 
of improving classroom skills and in each 
case has suggested methods of overcoming 
any difficulties You should make a definite 
attempt then to do each of these things 

1. Take notes on lectures and have tlrem 
evaluated according to the chart in 
Project II 

2 Make a definite effort to start par- 
ticipating in classroom discussions, sugges- 
tions were made to help you get started. 

3 Notice what things students do in 
your classes which distract other students 
from the lecture or discussion, then make 
a definite effort to improve your own class- 
room manners 

4. If you aie having trouble in any of 
your courses, have a conference with tlie 


Deficiencies in the three R’s affect the success 
of many students in college' For instance, tests 
show that some college freshmen read no bet- 
ter than the average fourth-grader, that some 
cannot do a single problem in long division, 
and that some cannot recognize pronouns in 
a sentence Difficulties such^ as these prevent 
otherwise capable students from completing 
their lessons, from doing physics problems cor- 
rectly, or from translating a foieign language 

Studies have shown that these difficulties 
are often limited to a few specific errors or bad 
habits and that, with individualized help, quite 
astounding gams can be made For instance, 

rate of reading can be doubled, improving the 
wnting of foul letters will account for over 50 
per cent of legibility difficulties, and learning 
a few specific constructions or words will 
ehminate a large percentage of grammatical 
or spelling errors 

With tins in mind, it is proposed to make a 
survey of your basic skills (you have already 
completed some of the tests) in order to deter- 
mine in which areas, if any, you need par- 
ticular assistance Because many of these tests 
are quite long in order to provide adequate 
diagnosis, most of the tests foi Part Two are 
grouped together m Appendix I Page refer- 
ences are made to these tests as they are needed, 



Because of the great emphasis placed on 
long assignments m textbooks and reference 
books, reading ability is an important de- 
terminer of school success ^ For this reason, 
higher-level skills in reading were discussed 
at length m Projects II and III But some 
students are prevented from making full use 
of such higher-level skills because of de- 
ficiencies in certain aspects of basic reading 
skill, 1 e , word-by-word reading, poor habits 
of comprehension accuracy, inadequate vo- 
cabularies, or inability to read graphs and 
tables When deficient or lacking m such 
abilities, a student is like a machine with 
a bent wheel, he can operate only at reduced 
speed and with much waste of energy Tlie 
present project is devoted to tlie diagnosis 
and treatment of deficiencies in these as- 
pects of reading skill Tests for self-evalua- 
tion are included in this project and m Ap- 
pendix I so that you can determine which 
sections will be of most interest 

General Characteristics of Reading 
A discussion of three general character- 
istics of reading provides a basis for under- 
standing the diagnostic sections into which 
this project is divided 
1. Various experiments show that there 
are many reading abilities, not just one. A 

H Anderson and W F Dearborn, Reading 
ability as related to college achievement, J Psych , 
1941, 11 387-396, M E Broom, A note on silent 
reading comprehension and success in academic 
achievement in a state teachers college, / Appl 
Psych , 1934, 18 561-565 

person who is expert at reading fiction may 
not be proficient at reading non-fiction for 
information Since student lessons deal pri- 
marily widi die latter, reading non-fiction 
IS emphasized here Skill m leading dif- 
ferent types of non-fiction may also vary 
because of differences in vocabulary, style of 
writing, and what is wanted from die selec- 
tion It IS important, therefore, that reading 
diagnosis be carried out on textbooMike ma- 
teiials, eg, non-fiction assignments which 
include graphs and tables and which are fol- 
lowed by quizzes 

2. Students show different levels of read- 
ing skill which vary not only quantitatively, 
as in rate, but also qualitatively. Four such 
levels are heie described ^ 

(a) The most inefficient level is word- 
by-word reading Here the reader 
goes at an exceedingly slow rate and 
makes little, if any, adjustment to 
the difficulty of the reading material 
For instance, in one experiment with 
such readers in college it was found 
that they read a selection from an 
easy elementary-school reader at the 
same rate as one from a difficult 
graduate textbook® Such students 
usually have high enough intel- 
ligence and vocabulary, their diffi- 
culty seems to he in a carry-over from 

®F. P Robinson and Prudence Hall, Studies of 
higher-level reading abilities, J Educ Psych , 1941, 
32 241-252. 

® I H. Anderson, Studies in the eye movements 
of good and poor readers. Psych Monog , 1937, 48, 


oral reading of certain perceptual- 
motor habits of perceiving one word 
at a time* Students reading at this 
level present a special problem in 
rate training 

(b) Most students are at the second level 
of reading shill — flexible adjustment 
of rate to changes in difficulty and 
purpose The nature of this skill is 
well illustrated by the bottom three 
lines in Chart 14 They show diat 

Chart 14 Change m rate of reading dif- 
ferent subject matters during three successive 
three-minute intervals (From Robinson and 

students' rate of reading over 9 
minutes was adjusted to differences 
in difficulty in the three selections 
Further, it shows that these readers 
start out at a good rate but gradually 
adjust their rate to the difficulty of 
the text, word-by-word readers, on 

* F P Robinson, The role of eye riiovements in 
reading, Univ Iowa Studies, 1933, No 39, Ja pp 

the other hand, make no such ad- 
justment and read straight along at 
the same rate The dip in the 
"geology” line is a further example 
of rate adjustment, in this case to a 
difficult table in the text Not all 
readers have to slow down in this 
way on these selections, foi instance, 
students who have a background of 
training in art can read the Art 
Reading Test straight along withorit 
slowing down So one appioach to 
remedial work is to increase a stu- 
dent’s background of information, 
le, vocabulary and information in 
his subject fields A second approach 
is to piovide training in higher-level 
reading skills such as are described 
in the next two levels 

(c) The dnrd level is the use of the con- 
text of a story to piecomprehend 
what IS coming The "fiction" line 
in Chart 14 illustrates this This 
fiction story is easy to comprehend 
so about half of readers read straight 
along at the same rate for the whole 
nine minutes; other students on 
catching on to the story, however, 
use their ability to halfway guess 
what IS going to happen to speed 
up their later comprehension Such 
precomprehension is very useful in 

(d) The fourth and highest level reading 
skill IS the ability to benefit from 
typographical and writing cues in the 
text, die Survey Q3R Method is an 
example of such a skill. 

Such an analysis shows the need 
for diagnosis of special disabilities in 
rate and of factors which affect com- 
prehension ability The use of con- 
text and typographical clues has 
already been discussed under the 
Survey Q3R Method 


3 The third aspect of reading to be re- 
viewed IS an analysis of the basic factors 
which determine reading ability These fac- 
tors are well shown in an expenment m 
which 100 college students took 25 dif- 
ferent reading and other types of tests ' The 
results on each test were correlated with 
every other test and these several hundred 

E Hall and F P Robinson, An analybc 
approach to the study of reading skills, J Educ 
Psych 1945, 36 429-442 See also F B Davis, 
Fundamental factors of comprehension in reading 
Psycbometncka, 1944, 9 185-197, R S Langsam, 

A factor analysis of reading ability, / Exper Educ , 
1941, 10 57-63 


correlations were then subjected to a rather 
involved method of statistical treatment 
known as factor analysis Through this tech- 
nique of mathematical analysis, the educa- 
tional psychologist IS able to determine how 
many different, independent traits are in- 
volved in determining the scores on all of 
the ongmal tests In addition, a study of the 
factors which each test tends to measure 
enables him to descnbe these traits which 
have been isolated The following factors 
were found and identified in this experi- 
ment, below each factor is listed the tests 
m tins book which measure it 

1 Rate of comprehending material written m an mductive style 

Rate on Art Reading Test words per mmute 

2 Rate of comprehending material written in a non-inductive style 

Rate on Geology Readmg Test words per mmute 

3 Attitude of comprehension accuracy 

Comprehension accuracy on Art Readmg Test percentile 
Comprehension accuracy on Geology Reading Test percentile 

4 Vocabulary 

General Vocabulary Test* percentile 

Dictionary Test your quartile 

6 Ability to read non-piose materials 
Table Reading Test your quartile 
Chart Reading Test youi quartile 
Map Reading Test your quartile 
Formula Reading Test your quaitile 


Diagnosing Your Reading Ability 

The first step in this project is to com- 
plete these tests so that you may have a pro- 
file of the abilities which determine your 
reading skill Except for the General Vo- 
cabulary and the Dictionary Tests which 
appear later in this project, all the other 
tests referred to above are located in Ap- 
pendix I Directions are given with each 
test, although some assistance in timing will 
have to be given with the Art and the 
Geology Reading Tests When completed, 
correct each test from its key in Appendix II 
Norms for tlie Art and Geology Reading 
Tests are given below and norms for the 
other tests are included later in this project. 
When you have completed these tests, 
wnte your results in above as a general sum- 
mary of this project and also on the Sum- 
mary Sheet at the back of the book. 

Some special directions are needed for 
scoring the Art and Geology Reading Tests 
The number of the line marked at the end 
of the lo-minute interval gives tire average 
number of words read per minute Table 5 
shows how well a student’s rate compares 
with that of other college students (superior 
readers in the general population) in terms 

of percentile ranks Thus if his words per 
minute on the Art Reading Test were 238. 
his percentile rank would be 50, or equal 
to that of tlie average college ifreshman If 
his rate had been 285 words per minute 
(this number is halfway between 270 and 
300 or the 80th and 90th percentiles on the 
table), he would interpolate and say that 
285 words per minute is equal to the 85th 

Comprehension accuracy in reading is de- 
termined by dividing tlie number of ques- 
tions a student answers correctly by the 
number of questions asked about the ma- 
terial he has read That is, if he got 10 ques- 
tions right out of the 20 questions asked 
about die material he read on the Art 
Reading Test, his per cent right would be 
50 (Students who wish to save themselves 
some work in long division will find that 
the table on page 213 can be used to trans- 
late fractions into per cent ) This 50 per 
cent right, however, does not indicate how 
he compares to other students, so this num- 
ber is looked up in tlie right-hand part of 
Table 5 to find his percentile rank It will 
be seen that 50 per cent right on the Art 
Reading Test is about equal to tlie 10th 

Table 5 Peioentile Ranks for Rate Scores and for Comprehension Accuracy Scores on the Art and the 
Geology Readmg Tests 


Rate in Words 
per Minute 

Art Geology 

Comprehension Accuracy 
m Per Cent Right 

Art Geology 



































































Plan of This Project 

Did you have difficulty with any of these 
tests? What are the characteristics of your 
reading difficulty? You will be interested m 
finding the causes and methods for treating 
them The subdivisions of this project are 
arranged to fit the above analysis, i e , 
(A) Rate of Reading, (B) Comprehension 
Accuracy, (C) Vocabulary and Dictionary, 
and (D) non-prose reading skills for tables, 
charts, maps and formulas If a test has 
shown that you have difficulty in any of 
these fields, you will be interested in the 
remedial exercises suggested in that section 

A. Rate of Reading 

The two aspects of reading that show the 
greatest improvement during the freshman 
year in college are rate of reading and vocab- 
ulary. Rate of reading is intimately related to 
the number of fixations that the eyes make 
as they move across the page. A record of 
such eye movement patterns is shown in 
Chart 15 Such a record is obtained by pho- 


tographmg the eyes as they move across the 
page and tlien projecting the film on the 
original text where the location of each fixa- 
tion is marked Each line, therefore, repre- 
sents a fixation, tlie numbers at the top of 
the lines indicate their sequence, and the 
numbers at the bottom their duration in 
thirtieths of a second It will be seen that 
good readers make fewer fixations and le- 
gressions than poor readers do 

If conditions can be set up within the 
individual so that he makes fewer slops and 
tlierefore longer jumps, he will read at a 
much faster rate Reading rate is primarily 
determined by comprehension facility which 
will be discussed later m this project Tire 
present section deals with a specific condi- 
tion that seems to cause a slow rate even 
though comprehension ability is good, Tliat 
IS, a carry-over of oral-reading habits into 
silent reading often makes an individual 
look at one word at a time and so develop 
a habit of reading slowly This word-by-word 
reading was tlie lowest of the four levels of 
reading ability described above. 

Eye Movements of a Good Adult Reader 
Mr| Black was fajadly h|irt. His colored servant 

eav| that hi^ master hjid b^n left |to die and 
larried him to I the nearjest town. Theri he bunted 

Eye Movements of a Poor Adult Reader 

!^lai^k wp 

|5 ,6 .8 .7 p .9 .11 

I hurt. I His 

saw|%lfary!s lma|er ha/ bff tf to*]d|ie 

'8 fiol8il2'n V '9 fio '9 I9 ,'j7 13® ® 

carjied ^i| to |th|e ^earjijt tow|n. The|e|h| |h|il|ed 

Chart 15 Eye movements of a good and a poor adult reader 
for the same material (From G T Busivell, How adults read, Suppl. 
Eduo. Monog , 1937, No 45 Used with permission ) 



1 Are your rate percentiles consistently 
quite low (lowest lo per cent)? 

2 Do you tend to read the Art and 
Geology selections at about the same rate 
during each time interval? The first number 
marked shows the amount read during the 
first 3 minutes, the second number minus 
the first gives the amount read during the 
second 3 minutes, and 75 per cent of the 
difference between the last number and the 
second will give the rate for the third 3 

Tabulate these results here: 

First Second Third 

3 mm 3 roin 3 mm 



3 Do your lips move while reading? 

Program for Improvement 

If the above evaluabon shows that you 
have a habit of reading slowly, the following 
remedial suggestions will be of value. If 
your slow rate seems to be due to compre- 
hension difficulties, however, you should 
turn to Sections B and C of this project for 
remedial suggestions 

1. Practice reading more rapidly than you 
do now and in a short time you will develop 
a habit of reading faster. One must be care- 
ful m thus pushing his rate not to sbm and 
miss the meaning of the selection The way 
to read might be best illustrated by the way 
a student would read when he discovers that 
in ten minutes there will be a quiz on a 

lesson that he hasn’t read. This student reads 
very rapidly yet gets all that he can out of 
the lesson At first, reading in this way may 
be fatiguing— if so, take short rests to write 
notes on what you have lead Later, this or 
a faster rate will become habitual Read all 
your work m this manner, halflrearted prac- 
tice IS of little value Use any free time you 
have in tins classroom for practice on rate 
The simplicity of this method of improv- 
ing rate may make it appear misleadingly 
easy Continued effort must be exerted, how- 
ever, to produce gains It will be difficult to 
remember to keep pushing your rate as you 
read, and the unaccustomed method will 
temporarily be more fatiguing and less pleas- 
ant tlian your usual comfortable speed You 
will have to plan a definite program of prac- 
bce each day and faithfully carry it out 
Since practice will be the main aid to im- 
provement and since rate is least hampered 
by easy mateiial, each person ought to do 
quite a bit of rapid reading of such outside 
matenal as newspapers, novels, and maga- 
zines Tlie form on the next page may be 
used for keeping a record of your outside 
reading, if needed, extra sheets may be ob- 
tained from the counselor 
2 It rs drfficult for a person to determine 
his improvement day by day because of tire 
tendency for rate to fluctuate with change 
in difficulty of the material and, without a 
record, one is unable to remember his earlier 
scores Hence it is important to measure rate 
of reading several tunes each week and plot 
these results on the following graph Fluctu- 
ations up and down may occur from session 
to session, but the line should tend to pro- 
gress upwards with practice This visual 
evidence of improvement gives great encour- 
agement to carry on further practice and 
also indicates when a satisfactory rate has 
been attained At tlie end of the term 
another standardized Rate and Comprehen- 
sion Test will be given so that gam from 



practice during the term can he shown with 
two comparable tests. 

The Rate Graph is prepared as follows 
Along the left-hand edge of the paper are 
marked word-per-mmute values in steps of 
10 for each interval, eg, 150, 160, 170, etc 
Along the bottom mark the date of each 
test— the initial Rate and Comprehension 

Tests at the left-hand edge, the first weekly 
test on the next line, etc As you plot each 
rate score, connect that dot with the previ- 
ous one by a line To minimize the fluctua- 
tions due to differences in diEculty of 
material read, read the same book each time 
And use a book that demands “reading” 
(sociology, history) rather than “detailed 



btudying” (algebra, a foreign language) In 
estimating the amount read, count the 
words in a full page and multiply this by 
the number of pages read Divide this num- 
ber of words by the number of minutes it 
takes to read that chapter 
Care must be taken, while measuring rate, 
to make sure that you are comprehending as 
you read This can be insured by writing a 
summary paragraph about what you have 
read when measuring rate. Tliese summary 
paragraphs may also be used to evaluate your 
ability to summarize. 

3 Lip movement, whispering, and point- 
ing with the finger while reading all prevent 
lapid reading These acts do not aid compre- 
hension and should be eliminated 

4 Since comprehension difficulties are 
usually the main determinants of rate of 
reading, exercises to improve vocabulary, to 
learn to read for questions, and to improve 
organization will result in faster as well as 
better comprehension Tlie methods for im- 
proving these are given in the following 
sections of this project Practice with the 
Survey Q3R Method also usually results in 
improved rate of reading All these should 
be pracfaced in addition to the rate exercises. 

B. Comprehension Accuracy 
Students read in order to comprehend 
and be stimulated by the ideas m a selec- 
tion; the major emphasis in training should, 
therefore, be on improving comprehension 
The characteristics of effective comprehen- 
sion vary with the requirements of the situa- 
tion, so a first step is to define the nature 
of the undergraduate task 
Analysis of undergraduate textbooks and 
quizzes show that they are pnmarily trying 
to put across a limited number of basic con- 
cepts m each subject field The great amount 
of detail in a text is there to elaborate and 
illustrate these essential concepts. 

1. A first characteristic of the student 

task IS, therefore, to select and comprehend 
these basic concepts, 

2. A second characteristic is to complete 
this comprehension within a reasonable 
amount of time Thus students frequently 
complain that their lessons take too long to 
read, consequently they seek ways of increas- 
ing their speed of comprehension, 

3. A third characteristic of the student’s 
reading job is the adoption of a level of 
comprehension accuracy which will most 
effectively complete the assignment. For in- 
stance, some students are capable of better 
comprehension but think that shallow skim- 
ming of a lesson is all that is necessary. Other 
students, believing that a student must know 
"everything,” read so carefully as to have 
difficulty in completing their lessons and 
often get lost among die mass of detail they 
are emphasizing Tliese three characteristics 
of the student reading task are treated more 
fully below. 


The Art and Geology Reading Tests each 
provide two measures which are of interest 
here Tlie rate of reading scores, except in 
those instances where they are abnormally 
low due to word-by-word reading, are m 
reality measures of the speed with which 
you were able to comprehend the selections 
That IS, they provide a measure of how 
rapidly your background of vocabulary, 
knowledge of these fields, intelligence, etc , 
permitted you to read these selections. Is 
your rate of comprehension for non-fiction 
material at a satisfactory level for you? 

While It IS generally true that when a 
student reads more slowly and carefully his 
comprehension accuracy tends to increase 
and when he skims his accuracy score tends 
to go down, the Art and Geology compre- 
hension accuracy tests actually measure an 
aspect of reading which is uniquely different 
from the fectors measured by the rate tests. 


The directions ask the student to read in 
the manner in which he normally studies 
his assignments The comprehension accu- 
racy score then represents a measure of the 
level of comprehension accuracy which he 
thinks IS sufEcient to answer quizzes, i e , is 
a measure of his attitude toward study 
material (The rate test indicates how fast 
he can comprehend at that levd ) It is im- 
portant that a student leam to adjust the 
level of comprehension accuracy with which 
he reads to an efficient level foi college 

So look over your reading rate and com- 
prehension test scores and note below if 
either the rate or the comprehension accu- 
racy scores indicate need for remedial work 
on tins section. 

1 Selecting and Comprehending the 
Mam Points Effective study consists of 
“reading with one’s head instead of one’s 
eyes.” The student must learn to read with 
an active attitude of seeking what is impor- 
tant and subordinating what is merely ex- 
planatory He must rise above rather passive 
comprehension of each succeeding sentence 
and paragraph The Survey Q3R Method, 
which was discussed in Project II, is the 
mam approach to this aspect of the reader’s 
task. This material should be reread if this 
area is a problem for a student 
2. Increasing Speed and Depth of Com- 
prehension Students read more rapidly in 
those fields with which they are familiar. 
Although the text of the Geology Reading 
Test is more difficult than the text of the 
Art Reading Test, students of geology can 

usually read the former selection at the 
faster rate They would, m fact, say, because 
of dieir background of vocabulary and geo- 
logical concepts, that the geology selection 
was the easier of the two A basic approach 
to improving comprehension, either in speed 
or depth, is to increase vocabulary and under- 
standing of tlie basic ideas in a student’s 
subject fields (See Section C for a discus- 
sion of procedures here ) Techniques which 
help die readei focus his attention on the 
main ideas in the selection tend to keep 
him from becoming engrossed in detail and 
so speed up Ins reading And techniques of 
using a preliminary survey and the thread 
of the argument thus far read to precompre- 
hend what IS coming can also help in speed- 
ing up comprehension 
3. Developing an ESective Level of Com- 
prehension Accuracy Wliile in general the 
higher the level of comprehension accuracy 
the better, this is not always true Obviously 
a person who scores very low on the com- 
prehension accuracy tests should work to 
increase his accuracy in order not to miss so 
many essential ideas as he reads Since the 
questions in tlie Art and Geology tests are 
typically based on important ideas in the 
selections, the student who comprehends 
more of them than another student is usually 
the better reader Sometimes, however, stu- 
dents show up with a combination of 
extremely high comprehension accuracy with 
exceedingly slow rate These students mis- 
understand what college studying means 
Tlieir attempts to dwell meticulously over 
each idea so slows them down that they 
waste time Wliile their immediate memory 
may be good, the large number of ideas 
often seem like a mass of unorganized detail 
and are rapidly forgotten Thus the slow 
learner often tends to be the rapid forgetter 
Both the inaccurate reader and the slow, 
meticulous reader will be discussed here 
The inaccurate reader often does not un- 


derstand that a deeper comprehension is 
reqmred in college work Awareness of how 
his accuracy scores compare to those of other 
students will do much to make him read 
more carefully Even more effective is adop- 
tion of a method of checking his compre- 
hension of essential ideas after he reads each 
section This can be done by changing a 
heading into a question, reading to answer 
it, then checking to see if he can answer 
the question from memory If so, he can be 
sure he is comprehending the essential ideas 
A third technique for raising comprehension 
accuracy is to increase a student’s vocabulary 
and background of information so that the 
ideas can be comprehended more deeply 
and accurately One common cause of in- 
accuracy and diEculty in reading is failure 
to understand basic material which came 
earlier in the book, Later parts of a textbook 
typically make use of basic concepts ex- 
plained earlier, thus a student who doesn’t 
get these early basic ideas is lost on tire later 

Tlie problem of the slow, meticulous 
reader cannot be solved simply by way of 
having him speed up his reading until rate 
and accuracy are m better balance Basically 
such a reader is going about his lessons in- 
correctly and a distinct shift m method may 
be necessary Such students are occasionally 
like the apocryphal housewife who was 
found dusting the inside of the radio when 
the guests arrived, both should be admon- 
ished to keep important goals in mind A 
slow reading student should turn to tlie 
material on the Survey Q3R Method and 
to the section above on reading to select and 
comprehend the mam points Much practice 
will be needed to develop this new skill so 
it can be substituted for his present method 
In working on this, a student should use 
easy reading material such as the Reader’s 
Digest He should look at the title to orient 
himself, read the article rapidly, and then 

recite briefly on it Such practice will gradu- 
ally develop an effective substitute skill. 

C Vocabulary 

As indicated above, vocabulary is one of 
the most important aspects of college read- 
ing An analysis of college quizzes, especially 
in freshman and sophomore courses, indi- 
cates that they frequently call for definitions 
of words The vocabulary necessary foi com- 
piehendmg even newspapers is quite large 
For instance, it is estimated that a vocabu- 
lary of 50,000 words is necessary to under- 
stand fully an edition of the New Yoik 
Times A large vocabulary of usable words 
IS also an aid in making precise statements 
Most students have experienced occasions 
when they searched rather unsuccessfully for 
words to express exactly what they meant 

But, as cited in Project I, few students 
know how good their vocabulary is m com- 
parison to other students Without such 
information a student scarcely knows how 
hard he should work in this area. 


A power test is provided for measuring 
your general vocabulary. It is based on a 
thorough sampling of words accoiding to 
their frequency of use You are not expected 
to know all the words included, but with 
this sampling method it can be assumed 
that if you know a certain percentage of 
these words you will also know a like per- 
centage of all words of equivalent frequency 
of use. This test will be taken by everyone 
in the class at the same time. After you have 
worked 20 minutes, tire counselor will read 
the correct answers or you may turn to pages 
244-245 to score your test Tlien use Table 6 
to translate your score into a percentile rank. 
If your rank is lower than you would like, 
read the suggestions below for improvement 
In this case, however, do not study the spe 
cific errors you made on the test. 


In addition to a general vocabulary, each 
person has to master the basic technical 
vocabulary in his fields of interest Thus, the 
doctor and the lawyer use many words m 

Table 6 Percentile Banks for Scores on 
Vocabulaiy Test 

Percentiles Scores 

100 80 

95 66 

90 56 

80 49 

70 44 

60 39 

50 36 

40 33 

30 30 

20 26 

10 21 

6 18 

1 10 

common, but each has a list of technical 
words in his own field. One of the great 
difficulties faced by the college student is the 
necessity of mastering the basic technical 
vocabulary m each of his courses, eg, the 
terms from history, from geology, from math- 
ematics, from social science, etc. Unless he 

knows these concepts, all the explanations 
m text and class are “over his head ” 

Your competence with such technical vo- 
cabulary in your courses can most easily be 
measured by marking the technical words 
tliat are used in headings or that are itali- 
cized or in boldface type in the body of 
your textbooks Then see if you can briefly 
define or explain each one Any missed 
should be listed on page 125 and studied 
Previous quizzes are another source of im- 
portant technical terras Whenever you find 
a question missed because of your not know- 
ing the terms used, list them along with the 
technical terms found m your textbooks 
Tlie dictionary is an extremely important 
tool in learning about concepts used by 
authors. Yet many students do not know 
how to use a dictionary effectively, nor are 
they in the habit of using it often Use the 
Dictionary Test below to measure your skill 
in dictionary usage. Wlien all of the ques- 
tions have been answered, use the key on 
page 246 to correct your test Place your 
score (the number right) in the correct box 
below and on tlie Summary Sheet at the 
back of the book. 

Norms for Dictionary Test 

Lowest Q 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter Top Quarter 

Qi Md Q, 




Score Peicentile Date 

In this test you are to show that you know the meaning of the foEowing words. In the parentheses 
at the left, write the number of the word which means the same as the word to be defined Note the 
example, then proceed at once to the test Work rapidly 


( 5 ) leply (1) show (2) reason (3) call (4) 
rejoice (5) answer 

1 ( ) illustrious (1) clever (2) famous (3) odd 

(4) sensitive (5) wicked 

2 ( ) confident (1) sensible (2) confiding (3) 

sure (4) expectant (5) enthusiastic 

3 ( ) allegiance (1) safety (2) respect (3) loy- 

alty (4) honesty (5) honor 

4 ( ) covet (1) hold (2) usurp (3) seize (4) 

refuse (5) desire 

6 { ) pensive (1) meditative (2) quiet (3) 

mistaken (4) earnest (S) relieved 

0 . ( ) discreet. (1) secret (2) prudent (3) op- 
posite (4) brief ( 6 ) separate 

7 ( ) amiable' (1) loving (2) sad (3) satisfied 

(4) agreeable (5) clever 

8 ( ) fatigue (1) weariness (2) pain (3) sor- 

row (4) remorse (5) bitterness 

9 ( ) loathe (1) dislike (2) recall (3) hinder 

(4) refram (5) detest 

10 ( ) absurd (1) peculiar (2) sick (3) ridicu- 

lous (4) laughable ( 6 ) queer 

11 ( ) decade ( 1 ) fortnight ( 2 ) a score of years 

(3) ten years (4) one hundred years (5) 
one thousand years 

12 ( ) bewilder (1) perplex C2) lose (3) soothe 

(4) deceive (5) chasten 

13. ( ) alien (1) opposed (2) special (3) menac- 
mg (4) foreign (5) mysterious 

14 ( ) fidelity (1) faithfulness (2) enthusiasm 
(3) strength (4) forbearance ( 6 ) venera- 

15 ( ) dissension (1) hypocrisy (2) elongation 

(3) discord (4) nusery (5) discussion 

16 ( ) eccentric (1) crazy (2) odd (3) intel- 

lectual (4) sensible (5) conventional 

17 ( ) latent (1) punctual (2) late (3) dormant 

(4) easy (5) impossible 

18. ( ) heretic (1) communist (2) pagan (3) in- 

sane pel son (4) atheist (5) dissenter 

19. ( ) eminence' ( 1 ) nearness (2) distance (3) 

greediness (4) distinction ( 6 ) generosity 

20. ( ) judicious (1) unusual (2) earnest (3) 

wise (4) lawful (5) bold 

21 ( ) arduous- (1) endless (2) passionate (3) 

hght (4) easy (5) difficult 

22 ( ) mcredulous (I) faultless (2) surprised 

(3) dutiful (4) insincere ( 6 ) skeptical 

23 ( ) propitious (1) sympathetic (2) favor- 

able (3) clever (4) odd (5) ugly 

24 ( ) penury' (1) power (2) debt (3) poverty 

14) graft (5) credit 

26. ( ) acquit' (1) liberate (2) adjourn (3) stop 

(4) condemn (5) refuse 

26 ( ) contentious' (1) mean (2) bitter (3) 
harmomous (4) mild ( 6 ) quarrelsome 

27. ( ) impertinent (1) diffident (2) modest f3) 

poUte (4) disrespectful (5) unreasonable 

28 ( ) bemgn (1) aged (2) indignant (3) kindly 

(4) sad (5) celebrated 

29 ( ) complacent' (1) snobbish (2) delighted 

(3) satisfied (4) dull (5) stubborn 

30. ( ) ludicrous: (1) weird (2) appalling (3) 
weak (4) laughable (5) insane 

Turn over page 

•Devised by S. L Ihessey and used by special permission of the Ohio State Department of Education. 


31 ( ) appreciable (1) perceptible (2) welcome 

(3) honest (4) small (5) valuable 

32 ( ) mstigate (1) sense (2) make pubhc (3) 

prowl (4) start (5) find out 

33. ( ) palpable (1) readily perceived (2) safe 

(3) erroneous (4) fatuous (6) weak 

34 ( ) adimt (1) lucky (2) reserved (3) playful 

(4) deceitful (5) dexterous 

35, ( ) diffident (1) unruly (2) small (3) eagei 
(4) silly (5) reserved 

36 ( ) memal (1) pious (2) servile (3) exalted 

(4) devoted (5) angiy 

37 ( ) candid (1) frank (2) weak (3) clever (4) 

absurd (5) deceitful 

38 ( ) emgma (1) laxity (2) sentence (3) deco- 

ration (4) puzzle (5) religion 

39. ( ) inteiim (1) Idcewise (2) meantime (3) 
during office (4) space (5) age 

40 ( ) refund (1) guarantee (2) exchange (3) 

discount (4) leceive (5) pay back 

41 ( ) blatant (1) evident (2) stiange (3) noisy 

(4) wild (5) foolish 

42. ( ) juvemle (1) soft (2) weak (3) legal (4) 
young (6) amusmg 

43 ( ) anathema (1) result (2) warmng (3) 

blessmg (4) irony (5) curse 

44 ( ) contiguous (1) smooth (2) comparable 

(3) distant (4) even (6) adjoming 

45 ( ) adherent (1) follower (2) cyme (3) old 

man (4) hermit (5) prejudiced 

46 ( ) emolument (1) flattery (2) decoration 

(3) theft (4) pay (5) honor 

47 ( ) munificent (1) rich (2) large (3) ideal 

(4) joyful (5) generous 

48 ( ) litigation (1) busmess orgamzation (2) 

partnership (3) law suit (4) fight (5) 
clandestme affair 

49 ( ) preamble' (1) procedure (2) mtroduc- 

tion (3) command (4) hypothesis (5) law 

50 ( ) cogent (1) nght (2) stated (3) convmo- 

mg (4) absurd (5) real 

61 ( ) mundate (1) flood (2) extinguish (3) re- 

lease (4) charge (5) moisten 

52 ( ) veracity (1) fear (2) wisdom (3) truth 
(4) courage (5) earnestness 

63 ( ) abrogate (1) annul (2) initiate (3) re- 
duce (4) prepare (5) demur 

54 ( ) dogmatic (1) faithful (2) positive (3) 

religious (4) clear (5) radical 

55 ( ) loquacious (1) heavy (2) sorrowful 13; 

foohsh (4) talkative (5) witty 

66 ( ) anomalous (1) poor (2) mcogmto (3) 

nameless (4) ummportant (5) abnoimal 

67 ( ) necromancei (1) poet (2) sorcerer (3) 

oratoi (4) authoi (6) mimster 

58 ( ) soliloquy (1) tiiade (2) adage (3) con- 

versation (4) monologue (5) cadenza 

59 ( ) decorous (1) sad (2) elegant (3) proper 

(4) obsequious (6) fashionable 

60 ( ) mediocre (1) good (2) odd (3) mistaken 

(4) ordmary (5) lax 

61. ( ) comity (1) beauty (2) humor (3) cour- 
tesy (4) godliness (5) faith 

62 ( ) ascetic (1) invalid (2) medicine (3) 

savior (4) athlete (6) lecluse 

63 ( ) nonpareil (1) matchless (2) pacific (3) 

unwritten (4) foreign (6) extravagant 

64 ( ) duplicity (1) stealth (2) candor (3) de- 

ception (4) consistency (6) weakness 

65 ( ) habiliment (1) property (2) garment (3) 

home (4) habit (6) accessory 

66 ( ) exigent (1) departing (2) urgent (3) safe 

(4) tunely (5) late 

67. ( ) vertigo (1) alertness (2) metamorphosis 
(3) action (4) speed (5) dizziness 

68 ( ) charlatan (1) prostitute (2) savior (3) 

servant (4) quack (5) mystic 

69 ( ) amelioiation (1) calm (2) prayer (3) 

peace (4) penance (5) improvement 

70 ( ) desiccate (1) burn (2) cut down (3) 

destroy (4) remove (5) dry up 


( ) recondite (1) delinquent (2) ciumnal 
(3) pensive (4) ideal (5) profound 

71 ( ) taciturn (1) wise (2) loquacious (3) 

bashful (4) reserved (5) quarielsome 

72 ( ) chanson (1) song (2) feat (3) noble deed 

(4) penalty (5) sacrifice 

73 ( ) nonchalant (1) bored (2) happy (3) in- 

different (4) conceited (6) suave 

74 ( ) replica (1) antique (2) necklace (3) re- 

semblance (4) pamtmg (5) duplicate 

75 ( ) flagitious Cl) facetious (2) villamous (3) 

simpering (4) lepulsive (5) militant 

77 ( ) abnegation (1) authority (2) veto (3) 

renunciation (4) refusal (5) surrender 

78 ( ) fatuous (1) obvious (2) celebrated (3) 

heavy (4) silly (5) impossible 

79 ( ) amemty (1) pleasantness (2) praise (3) 

collection (4) improvement (5) misun- 

80 ( ) ubiquitous (1) learned (2) selfish (31 

ommpresent (4) depaited (5) wicked 

(By permission Prom An Outline for Dictionary Study Designed for Use with Webster’s Collegiate Dic- 
tionary, Fifth Edition, Copynght, 1937, 1940, by G & C Mernam Co ) 




Answer the following questions by refeinng to the sample dictionary page printed opposite 

1 “John Dory” lefers to a (1) historical character, (2) fish, (3) kmd of boat 

2 “Dory" m “John Doiy" is best pronounced to rhyme with (1) see, (2) may, 

(3) my, (4) the “i” sound in “wnt ” 

3 The plural of John Doiy is John Dories T F 

4 The fifth word on the page referring to a kind of bread would be spelled in what 
way within a sentence’ (Watch capitals ajid the separation of words ) 

5 The term referied to in question 4 origmally came from the term (1) journey 
cake, (2) Johnny’s cake, (3) Indian biead 

6 The term “Johnny jump up” is wntten here mcoirectly T F 

7 If it were necessaiy to break the word " Johnsoman” in typmg near the end of 
a line, at what two places should this be done? Indicate answer by giving the 
letter just preceding each break 

8 “Joie de vivre” IS an Itahan word T F 

9. How many different meanings are given for the word “join”? 

10 How many antonyms are given for the word “join”’ 

11. The preferred pronunciation of the word “jointed” ihymes best with the word 
(1) did, (2) bed, (3) bad, (4) seed 

12 The single apostrophe-like symbol which appears in most of the longer words, 
as after the “n” in “joinery,” indicates (1) the place to divide the woid at the 
end of a line, (2) the part preceding is spoken louder, (3) the division of syllables 

13. In terms of how many parts of speech is the word “jomt” defined? 

14 How many moamngs are given for the word “joist”? 

16 How many synonyms are given for the word “joke”? 

16 How many meanings are given for the word “joker”? 

17 “ Jole” means (1) joke, (2) cheek, (3) pole, (4) French for “jolly ” 

18 The symbol colloq , as used in the definition of “jollify,” indicates that this 
vord (1) should not be used m formal waiting, (2) has this meaning only m 
certain localities, (3) was used long ago but is no longer in common use 

19 What IS the past tense form of “jollify”’ 

20 The word “joUity,” used in the sense of a festive gathermg, is primarily 
restricted to which country’ (1) Canada, (2) U S A , (3) Britain, (4) Scotland 

21 The plural of “jolly” is “joUies ” 

22 "Jonathan" apple is pronounced the same way as “Jonathan," the Biblical 

23 A “jongleur” is a (1) juggler, (2) nunstrel, (3) vein in blood system, (4) lawyer. 

24 “Jonquil” has how many acceptable pronunciations? 

T F 
T F 


Program for Improvement per cent of the technical terms were used 

A student should be selective m setting 
out to increase his vocabulary He should 
learn new woids which will help him the 
most in his schoolwork and in his daily 
living The following two bases are best m 
making such selections (a) He should note 
words and phrases used in lectuies, conversa- 
tions, and reading which say exceedingly well 
what he may have tried before somewhat 
ineffectually to say List these on the page 
designated below (b) Even more important 
for schoolwork, he should learn as early as 
possible the unknown words (especially the 
technical terminology) which occur fre- 
quently in his textbooks A higher per cent 
of the running words in some science text- 
books are unfamiliar to the beginning stu- 
dent than in some foreign language text- 
books (where the vocabulary burden is more 
carefully controlled) However, a tabulation 
of die actual words used shows that tlie 
number of different unfamiliar technical 
terms is not particularly large They aie used 
frequently Learning these words as they 
occur the first time saves a lot of vague 
comprehension later as they reappear again 
and again. 

1 As a part of your self-evaluation, you 
were asked to make a list of technical terms 
you did not know Make it a regular practice 
to mark new technical terms as you come 
to them in your textbooks or list them with 
the others on the page below It will also 
be useful to take one of your courses— the 
one with which you are having the most 
difficulty if you wish, and list all the basic 
technical terms that have occurred (omit 
terms which are obviously included m die 
explanatory matenal and do not recur again) . 
Some students may feel that such a list of 
technical terms in a textbook might be 
almost endless, but only the basic technical 
terms are meant here, i e , the ones that are 
used again and again. Thus in one text 63 

only once and would not be considered m 
such a basic list, on the other hand, 82 
words (7 per cent of the technical words) 
were used more than ten times m over 400 
pages Tliese words can usually be spotted 
radier easily from their location in headings 
or their being italicized m the text Thus 
your list over a part of a course should turn 
out to be surprisingly small Watch in your 
later lessons how frequently these terms 
recur And if you study these terms, your 
new assignments should seem much easier 

2 The next step is to learn these selected 
words on bodi lists One technique is to 
read down the lists or through youi check- 
ings of such terms m your texts and see if 
you can define each one Look up those 
which cause difficulty These words must 
also be made functional for you so they can 
be used on tests and in discussion Tiy using 
them in discussions and explanations There 
IS a saying that a word used three times i.s 
yours forever If you make a conscious effort 
to learn and use a few new words each week, 
your vocabulary will seem to develop with 
surpnsmg rapidity 

3 Wide reading tends to broaden one’s 
background so that ideas m lessons seem 
more familiar Also the context of what is 
being read tends .to develop some familiarity 
and understanding of new terms presented 
Frequent encounters with these words will 
gradually build up an understanding of them 
A program of regular recreational reading 
will do much to increase your vocabulary It 
must be said, however, that while reading 
the sport page and comic magazines will in- 
crease your vocabulary, they do not develop 
an understanding of terms frequently used 
in college workl 

4 When a new word is encountered in 

Cole, Improvement of Reading, Farrar & 
Rinehart, 19^8, p 161, F D Curtis, Investigations 
of Vocabulary in Textbooks oi Science, Gmn, 1938 


leading, certain techniques are more helpful 
than others. It is a good practice not to stop 
leading when you come across an unknown 
word, finish the paragraph first The mean- 
ing of the paragraph may be enough to 
indicate the meaning of the woid so you 
won’t have to look it up If not, the word 
can then be looked up in the dictionary 
Reading to the end of the paragraph also 
keeps the unfamiliar word fiom interrupting 
the main idea for which you were reading 
Several ways have been worked out which 
enable a reader to guess what a word means 
by using ceitain clues m tlie text" Tliat is, 
authors often accompany strange words with 
definitions or synonyms, or the whole con- 
text of the paragraph may indicate its mean- 
ing Good students tend to use these clues 
more than poor students and any student 
can be helped who learns consciously to look 
for such clues when he has difficulty with 
a word These clues, with an example of 
each, are as follows Can you guess what 
the word omitted in each blank space means? 

a Definitions, i e , “a is a large, 

cat-like animal ” 

b Experience, i e , “as as a boy 

or girl before a first date ’’ 
c Comparison or contrast, le, “Eskimos 
have ^ing eyes like the Chi- 

nese ” 

d Synonym, i e , “When Jim heard about 

the tup, he was He was 

glad there was to be no school that day ” 
e Familiar expression or language experi- 
ence, e g , “harder than ” 

® C M McCullough, The recognibon of con- 
text clues m reading, Elem Engl Rev, 1945, 22 

f Summary, e g , “His knees shook and his 
eyes seemed to pop as he looked all around, 

for he was very much ” 

g Reflection of mood or situation, e g , “He 
hopped and skipped and danced about 
and whistled ^ly to himself ” 

It IS interesting to analyze portions of 
different textbooks to see how many of these 
devices an author uses Of course, the more 
he uses the easier it is for the trained leader. 

5 If a word cannot be quickly figured out 
by tlie above techniques, look it up m a dic- 
tionary Good readers, even the most highly 
educated, make very frequent use of a dic- 
tionary In fact, the better the reader, the 
more apt he usually is to use the dictionary' 
Many students are inefficient in using a dic- 
tionary, however, and often don’t know 
about its many values If you missed any 
items on tlie Dictionary Test, use the keyed 
answers and the boxed legends at the edge 
of the sample dictionary page to figure out 
how to read a dictionary 
It may sound strange but a dictionary is 
an interesting book— not to read straight 
through but to browse in In addition to 
giving the meaning of a word, a diction- 
ary also indicates spelling, pronunciation, 
source, synonyms, and occasionally antonyms 
(words meaning the opposite) You will also 
be interested in the number of meanings 
which many words have as, for instance, over 
one hundred foi the word “run ” Pages xxn 
to XXV of the Fifth Edition of Webster’s 
Collegiate Dictionaiy or pages xcii to xcvx 
of the Second Edition of Webster’s New 
International Dictionary give further infor- 
raabon about how to use a dictionary. 


1. Everyday vocabulary 





3. Technical words from your courses 




D Special Reading Skills 

Tables, graphs, formulae, and maps are 
devices that aid comprehension Yet most 
poor readers skip them with a sigh of relief 
—“There’s half a page filled by a pieture I 
don’t have to read ” Tables summarize and 
unify a wealth of data so that you can see 
possible relationships and trends, graphs pic- 
ture these trends even more readily for you, 
formulae are a shorthand method of stating 
involved relationships m a simple manner if 
you will but study them, and maps, of course, 
picture geographic relationships 

Difficulty with these comprehension de- 
vices springs from two causes (i) lack of 
knowledge of how they are constructed and 
interpreted, and (2) lack of appreciation of 
the fact that these devices cannot be read at 
normal reading speed but must be studied 


Tests of four types are included in Appen- 
dix I reading tables, reading graphs, reading 
maps and reading formulae Each test con- 
tains simple examples of the kinds of 
material typically found in textbooks, the 
questions measure your ability to get basic 
information from these materials The norms 
above permit a comparison of your skill 
with that of other students But since these 
are simple examples of basic materials, your 

goal should be ability to answer all of these 
questions as well as ability to understand 
non-prose materials which occur in your 
studies The keys for correcting these tests 
are on pages 249-250 in Appendix II 

Program for Improvement 

1 Coirect and understand the test items 
that you miss 

2 Practice reading all graphs, maps, 
tables, and formulae that you find in your 
lessons They emphasize and illustrate im- 
portant points, effort spent on them is very 
worth while Your counselor will assist you 
in interpreting any of these comprehension 
aids that give you difficulty 

Modern textbooks are using graphs and 
charts more and more, rather than being 
simply a supplement to the text they are 
now frequently used as the basic means of 
presenting ideas During the war period, 
types of visual aids new to undergraduate 
courses have become popular, e g., wiring dia- 
grams, blueprints, three-dimensional draw- 
ings, weather maps, topographical maps, 
pictorial maps, etc Ability to read these has 
become basic to schoolwork and to everyday 

3 The following readings give further 
information on how to read these compre- 
hension aids 


H Arken and R Colton, Graphs, How to 
Make and Use Them, Harper, 1936 
Chaps I, II, XIV 

R W Frederick, How to Study Handbook, 
Appleton-Century, 1938 Pages 50-64 
How to read graphs and tables, pages 72— 
86 How to read maps 
S L Greitzer, Elementary Topography and 
Map Reading, McGraw-Hill, 1944 
H P Howland, L L Jarvie, and L F 
Smith, How to Read in Science and Tech- 
nology, Harper, 1943 Pages 241-264 

E Summary 

The several sections and their interrela- 
tions indicate a need for a summary of the 
activities listed in this project Look over 
your reading test results again and decide 
which aieas seem most m need of remedial 
training Then, m tlie followmg outline of 
suggested remedial activities, check tliose 
which you plan to carry out 

A Rate 

1 Daily practice and plotting on graph 

2 Stop lip movement and line-following 
with finger 

3 Improve comprehension 


B Comprehension Accuracy 

1 Learn to select and comprehend mam 

2 Increase background of information 
and knowledge of technical terms 

3 Practice Survey Q3R Method 

4 Learn to use context of story to pre- 
comprehend what IS being read 

5 Build an eflficient attitude of compie- 
hension accuracy 

C Vocabulary 

1 Make and study lists of technical terms 
and vocabulary of courses 

2 Make list of usable everyday words 
and use tliem 

3 Read widely to broaden background 
and vocabulary 

4 Practice techniques of figuring out 
meaning of unknown words 

5 Leam to use dictionary more effectively 
D Special Reading Skills 

1 Study errors made on tests 

2 Analyze tables and charts in textbooks 
to find any difficulties in reading 

3 Make it a practice to study all tables 
and charts in lessons 

4 Obtain training in reading new types 
of charts 

Summarize bnefly below further details of 
your proposed training program in reading 





A large part of our endeavor to affect the 
behavior of other people is done through 
writing If an account is poorly written, the 
reader has difficulty in comprehending it and 
also tends unconsciously to lower his estima- 
tion of the writer’s authority Good writing 
IS therefore effective writing 

The essenhal abilities for a clear and con- 
cise written message are classified here into 
(i) English, (2) spelling, and (3) hand- 
writing A section in this project is de- 
voted to a discussion of diagnostic and 
remedial procedures for each of these di- 

A. English 

Knowledge of language form is basic to 
good writing If a writer chooses effecbve 
words and presents them m correct English 
form, one is able to read right along Train- 
ing in this field is usually the province of 
English courses and taking anotlier lesson 
in English may seem rather boring The 
purpose of tins unit, however, is to provide 
a description of each student’s abilities Such 
an analysis usually shows that a student isn’t 
generally poor at grammar or punctuation, 
but rather that most of his difficulty is due 
to a few rather specific errors Two or three 
rules do not seem difficult to master, so a 
student is more motivated to attack such an 
apparently simple problem 


The area of English is divided into the 
following diagnostic divisions grammar, cap- 

italization, punctuation, and sentence struc- 
ture Tests to measure your skills m these 
areas are given on pages 223-232 in Appen- 
dix I These tests do not represent a random 
sampling of all the many rules of English 
but are based on the 40 rules which research 
has shown are most frequently used and 
cause the most trouble in writing Every 
item, therefore, deals with an important 

Follow the directions printed on the tests. 
When these tests are completed, correct 
them and then translate their scores into 
percenhle ranks by using Table 7 below. 

Table 7 Percentile Ranlcs on English Survey 
















































































































Wiite these percentiles in their respective 
places in the following summary list Since 
choice of words is an important aspect of 
good writing, also write in your percentile 
from the General Vocabulary Test which 
you took in the preceding project 


%ile rank 


. %ile rank 


. %ile rank 



%ile rank 


%ile rank 

Tire percentile ranks indicate your stand- 
ing relative to otlier students, but what is 
the nature of the specific errors tliat you 
make? Since a student’s errors tend to “con- 
stellate” m certain areas, the extent of his 
remedial work may be limited In order to 
find these areas, the following procedure is 
suggested Each tune you mark a wrong 
answer, copy the symbol^ (Si, C6, etc) 
which IS beside the answer on tlie key. This 
symbol refers to the rule which has been 
violated and will expedite your looking it 
up in the rule section which follows Since 
each of die test items, correctly written, has 
been placed under the rule indicated by the 
symbol, you can tabulate your errors quite 
easily Merely check under the rule the cor- 
rect form for each item you missed When 
this checking is completed, a glance at die 
list of rules will show where the errors tend 
to “constellate” If you master these few 
rules, your performance should show marked 

Organizational skill and style of writing 
are also important in effective writing These 
were discussed in part in Project V, Prepar- 
ing Reports, further help can be obtained 

’■The meaning of these symbols is as follows 
G stands for grammar, C for capitalizafaon, P for 
punctuation, and S for sentence structure The 
numbers refer to specific rules under each of these 
headings Thus G5 refers to the fifth rule under the 
Grammar heading which says that the verb “to be” 
should agree with the subject and not with the 
predicate noun 

from your English instructor This project 
deals only with certain mechanics of English 
One furdier point Tliese tests tend to 
measure your peak performance, but many 
students do not use their full skill m every- 
day class work Various essays and examina- 
tions tiiat you have written should also be 
analyzed to determine the errors you make 
in such writing 


A Verb Agrees in Number With Its Subject 
1. A subject composed of two or more 
nouns (either singular or plural) joined by 
and requires a plural veib A subject com- 
posed of two or more singular nouns joined 
by or or nor requires a singular verb 

12 Neither Martha nor John is older 
than I 

16 Algebra and geometry have been easy 
for me 

28 Neither Jane nor I was able to play 

31 Basketball and baseball are what I am 
going to take 

. . 76 Either dramatics or athletics is going 
to he my specialty 

%. The number of the verb is not deter- 
mined by a noun or pronoun which inter- 
venes between the subject and tlic verb 

25 Tlie price of supplies is high 
55 The price of the tickets was two dol- 

3 Tlie number of the verb is not changed 
by adding to the subject words introduced 
by with, together with, as well as, like, etc 

. 63 Tire referee, like the other officials, 

was dressed m white 
69 Mary, as well as the other girls, has 
asked me to tell about the game 

® Adapted from tlie pamphlet, "Student’s Hand- 
book of Essentials,” published by the Ohio State 
Department of Education and used with permission. 


4. There is or there are should be used ac- 
cording to the number of the subject which 

56 There were about 50,000 people there, 
72 There are several reasons 

77 There are several things to choose 

Another example There is a man at 
the door 

5. The verb to be should agree with its sub- 
ject and not with its predicate noun 

17 The greater part of the curriculum is 
English subjects 

23 Tlie weakest part of our school is tlie 
materials in the laboratones 

78 Sports are tlie best part of any school 

6 The verb does or doesn’t is used with a 
third person singular subject 

10 Jack doesn’t remembei the other 

22 Mardaa, doesn’t go to school. 
32 Jane doesn’t go to school 
75 The curriculum doesn’t matter so 
much to us 

7. The pronouns each, every, everyone, 
everybody, anyone, anybody, either, neither, 
no one, nobody demand a singular verb Tlic 
word most when used in such phrases as 
"most of us,” “most of them” demands a 
plural verb 

2 Each of us pupils greets the teacher 
1 5 Each of us was told to register 
35 Most of us have a very good time 
playing basketball 
51 Most of us prefer the schools 
71 No one in our crowd has seen a big 

79 Everybody doesn’t agree with me. 

Agreement and Case of Pronouns 

8. Pronouns which refer to other nouns or 
pronouns should have the same number 
(Note especially that the pronouns listed m 
No 7 above are singular.) 


9 Teacher has told each one to do his 

. 18 The greater part of the curriculum is 

English subjects, which are very un- 

39 No one wants her on his (her) team 
58 Everyone shouted as loud as he could 
61 Each player took his position 

9. Pronouns have a different form when 
used as the subject of a clause than when 
used as the object of a verb or preposition 
The following are some specific situations 
which often cause trouble 
a Wlien words come between the pro- 
noun and the word which governs its 

73 Our teacher told Mary and me 
b, Wlien who and whom are used m the 
fiist position m a sentence or clause 

13 Tlie teacher wanted to know 
who my father was 
. 14 I told her whom I was liv- 
ing with 

c When tlie pronoun follows as or than 
it has the same case as the noun or 
pronoun with which it is compared 

36 Jane is taller than I 
. . 37 She used to play baseball better 
than I 

Another example I see him 
moie often than her 

d Wlien die pronoun follows the prepo- 
sition like it must be in the objective 

. 40 She IS fourteen, like Mary and 


80 Mary prefers athletics, like 
Frances and me. 

e, Wlien a first person pronoun stands 
widi a noun, it has the same case as 
the noun 

. 1 Each of us pupils greets the 


. 45 We girls are going to the same 



Tense of Verb 

lo. The following verbs are frequently mis- 
used, either because the wrong tense form 
IS substituted or because a similar but un- 
acceptable form IS substituted The past 
participle is used with the auxiliary verb 
“to have ” 



Past Part 










































































































5. Sally and Richard have asked to oc- 
cupy the seats 

6 I have climbed into one of the seats 
11 .the other schools that he has 
gone to 

. 21 My sister has given much time. 

. 46 We have written to several colleges 

47 We have begun to read 
57 I had never seen so many people 
59 Our team came on the field 
65 He must have frozen 
. 67 We sang songs 
68 People threw confetti 
70 Mary has asked me to tell 

Differentiate Between Adjectives 
and Adverbs 

11. Be careful to distinguish between adjec- 
tives and adverbs and to use the proper 
form. In general, adjectives may be changed 
to adverbs by the addition of -ly, although 
there are such exceptions as “good,” an 
adjective, and “well,” an adverb An adverb 
IS used if it modifies a verb, an adjective, or 
another adverb 

4 John intends to do his work well 
7 I can see easily now 
20 I am surely weak m grammar 
27. I shall consider the matter very care- 

34 I’ll be able to play basketball well 
38 She plays so poorly. 

. . 49 There are too many nice ones to 
choose one very easily 
. 60. The band played the college song very 

12 Verbs pertaining to the senses and the 
verbs to grow, to become, are followed by 
an adjective unless they indicate action. 

. 24. Our principal feels bad 
29 We never felt sad. 

. 42. . . perfume that smells very sweet 

Other examples. Mary grew hilari- 

The flowers grow 

Words Confused 

13. Tlie following words are commonly con- 

a. lie lay lam (to be m a stretched-out 

lay laid laid (to be placed in a re- 
cumbent position) 


He laid his hat on the table and lay 
down to rest 

b sit sat sat (to rest in a sitting posi- 

set set set (to place in a position of 

She set the basket in a corner and sat 
down to talk 

c let let let (to permit) 
leave left left (to abandon) 

The police let him go, and he left the 

d can could (to be able or to be pos- 

may might (to be permitted) 

You may go if you can find someone 
to go with you 

e a (used before words beginning with a 

an (used before words beginning with 
a vowel or vowel sound) 
an uncle, a hat, an onion, a cup 
f there (adverb) 
their (pronoun) 
they’re (contraction of they are) 
They’re going to buy their hats there 
g to (preposition, or sign of infinitive) 
two (adjective or noun) 
too (adverb) 

He was too sick to go to school for the 
last two days 

h teach (to instruct or give knowledge) 
learn (to acquire knowledge) 

He teaches quite effectively, as a result 
his pupils learn a great deal 

. . 3 Mary, John, and Annabelle sat 

m the front row 

.... 19 The teacher can’t teach me Eng- 
lish at all 

. 26 The principal won’t let me drop 


. . 33 She likes to he around 

... 41 She wears such pretty clothes, 

. . .43 Mother won’t let me have any 

44 She said, though, that I might 
buy some next year 

. . .48 There are almost too many nice 

, . 52 Students have a better fame 

53 They have football games, too 
. 62 The substitutes sat down on the 


... 74 They have interesting courses 


1. First Words Capitalize the first word of 
the following (a) every sentence, (b) every 
line of poetry, (c) every complete gram- 
matical statement (independent clause) 
following a colon, (d) every direct quota- 
tion Do not capitalize the first word of a 
quotation which is only a fragment of a 
sentence, or die first word of an indirect 

a This sentence illustrates the first rule 
b My heart leaps up when I behold 
A rainbow m the sky 
c The questions were as follows What is 
an erg? What is a dyne? 
d Annie said, 'T think you should go to 

“I think,” Annie said, “you should go to 

Annie said that you should go to bed 
Stevenson called man “the disease of die 
agglutinated dust” 

2 She exclaimed, "What a beauti- 
ful lakel” 

a. Names of Persons Capitalize the names 
of persons and the titles standing for the 
names of persons Capitalize derivatives of 
these names Do not capitalize the names 
of professions or professional ranks 

. 6 "Tell me what Doctor Hams did,” 

said Emily 

7 “If that’s all,” John said, “we may as 
well go ” 

. 12 A 1 Smith, the Democratic candidate, 

was defeated 

. . 21. The nng is an heirloom, it belonged 
to Jenny Lind. 

23 Esther, Jane, and Mary organized a 
girls’ club 

28 Sinclair Lewis wrote these books 
. .34 He read Tennyson’s famous poem, 
“In Memoriam.” 


35 A careful description of Captain 
Evans was given 

42 It's too bad Gerry can’t go with 

46 The various codes were submitted to 
General Johnson 

47 He said that he saw the Prince of 

48 “Please come,” she wrote, “Colonel 
Brown will be here ” 

49 Joe IS not going, nor is Sally 

56 "You should talk to Professor Brown,” 
she advised 

62 “Tliat youngster,” said Coach Jones, 
“will be a star ” 

63 It’s raining hard, but Jim won’t stay 

71 You may take tins note to Mr Adams 

72 Joseph Conrad is the autlior of Lord 

73 To be frank, she doesn’t like Janice 
very well 

78 Mary, you may describe General 
Pershing’s plan 

79 to see what Mrs Jones is wear- 

80 The play was almost over when John 

3. Names of Places Capitalize die names 
of countries, states, cities, streets, buildings, 
mountains, rivers, oceans, or any word des- 
ignating a particular location or part of the 
world. Capitalize derivatives of these names 
Do not capitalize the points of the compass 
or such terms as street, river, ocean when 
not part of a name 

1 Are you going to Stiassburg, Ger- 

3 The tiudson, a river in New York, is 
very beaubful 

4 Do you expect to visit China or 

5 Three weeks from now we’ll be in 
Kansas City 

9 Why do so many people blame the 

11 She lives at 25 V/hitber Street, 
Dolby, Kentucky 

13 He attended Tate College, then he 
went to a law school 


14 My subjects include the following 
history, English, and Latin 

17 He had started to Newberg, there was 
no retreat 

18 She intended to visit Mount Baker 

19 I think French a boring subject but 
like physics 

24 Tlie letter was sent from Detroit 

30 If you see any American tourists, let 
me know 

32 John finished his Spanish, then he 
worked on biology 

37 We didn't have time to visit the Alps, 
still we saw almost every other part of 

39 He claims that the government is as 
corrupt as in the days of Rome 

45 On Sunday we went fishing m Beaver 

55 We saw the Capitol at Washington 

58 One of us must go to Lisbon 

60 You’ll find it easier to go by way of 

74 They went to Washington, to Oregon, 
and on to California 

.76 We drove to St Louis and then took 
a quaint old steamer down the Mis- 
sissippi River 

4. Names of Organizations Capitalize the 
names of business firms, schools, societies, 
clubs, and other organizations Capitalize 
derivatives of these names Do not capitalize 
such words as coinjiany, school, society, 
when not part of a name 

12 A 1 Smith, the Democrabc candidate, 
was defeated 

16 In die first place, the Ku Klux Klan 
was not legal 

. 26 Will the Socialist Party ulbmately 


. 38 His wife is a Presbyterian, he is a Bap- 


40 The National Railway Association 
should recognize that this type of 
engine will not pay 

41 The Lincoln School has been over- 
crowded for some time 

. 30 In other words, tlie General Electne 

Company refused my offer 

54 The Unemployed League will meet 


59 he wants to enter Harvard Col- 
lege next year 

67 He told me to meet him at the 
Seneca Hotel 

68 she was elected to the Martha 
Washington Club 

69 we’ll put the money m the 
Chase Bank 

75 She resigned from the Missionary So- 

5 Days, Weeks, Months, etc Capitalize 
the days of the week, the months of the 
year, holidays, and church festivals Do not 
capitalize the names of the seasons unless 
they are personified 

. , 8 Friday, the tenth of June, was my 


10 It was the Fourth of July, a national 

24 The letter was sent from Detroit on 
August 8, 1933 

25 Christmas, Memorial Day, and 
Thanksgiving are holidays 

45 On Sunday we went fishing in Beaver 

57 She said she played no card games 
during Lent 

64 June, July, and August are vacation 

79 One goes to church on Easter 

6. Titles. Capitalize the first word and all 
other important words in titles (and sub- 
titles and headings) of themes, magazine 
articles, poems, books, of laws and govern- 
mental documents, of pictures, statues, 
musical compositions, and m trade names 
Always capitalize the first and last words 

20 This poem is called “In the Cool of 
the Night ” 

27 I use Detoxal, it is a good toothpaste 

28 Sinclair Lewis wrote these books 
Dodswoith, Babbitt, and Arrowsmith 

33 “By a Waterfall” is a simple little 
piece to play 

34 He read Tennyson’s famous poem, 
“In Memoriam ” 

. 36. She recommends Gold Dust for clean- 


, 52 “I’m in a Hurry” is the name ot an 

amusing short story 

53 You will like these movies Cimarron 
and Masquerade 

66 you may have the Chevrolet 

70 I’ll send you a subscription to the Lit- 
erary Digest 

72 Joseph Conrad is the author of Lord 
Jim, he also wrote Victory. 


1. Use a period, question mark, or exclama- 
tion point at the end of a sentence. 

1 Are you going to Strassburg, Ger- 

2 She exclaimed, “What a beautiful 

4 Do you expect to visit China and 

... 9 Why do so many people blame the 

. 26 Will the Socialist Party ultimately 

58 One of us must go to Lisbon, which 
will it be? 

2. Use a period after an abbreviation and 
after each initial 

71 You may take this note to Mr Adams 

76 We drove to St Louis 

... 79 to see what Mrs Jones is wear- 

3. Use commas to set off parenthetic words, 
phrases, and clauses. That is, set off such 
elements as interrupt the sequence of the 
thought or do not form an essential part 
of the sentence Among these are introduc- 
tory words and phrases, interjections, words 
of address, apposibves, loosely modifying 
phrases and clauses, and the like Do not use 
superfluous commas If in doubt, leave the 
comma out 

3 The Hudson, a river in New York, is 
very beautiful 

. 8 Friday, the tentli of June, was my 


, 10 It was the Fourth of July, a national 



. 12 A 1 Smith, the Democratic candidate, 

was defeated 

22 The captain, our old friend, met us at 
the dock 

34 He read Tennyson’s poem, “In Me- 
monam ’’ 

78 Mary, you may descnbe General 
Pershing's plan 

4. Use a comma to set off clearly introduc- 
tory ideas at the beginning of a sentence or 
obviously added elements at the end. 

16 In the first place, the Ku Klux Klan 
was not legal 

. 30 If you see any Amencan tounsts, let 

me know 

36 She recommends Gold Dust for clean- 
ing, since it IS cheaper 
. 50 In other words, the General Electnc 

Company refused my offer 
, 66 If it’s really necessary, you may have 
the Chevrolet 

68 Being capable and socially prominent, 
she was elected 

. . 70 I’ll send you a subscription to the Lit- 
erary Digest, if you want it 
. 73 To be frank, she doesn’t like Janice 
very well 

... 75 She resigned from the Missionary 
Society, ffius losing many friends 

5. Use commas to separate a series of words, 
phrases, or clauses In a senes of more than 
two parts, grammarians usually ask that a 
comma precede the conjunction, although 
some style books suggest that tire comma 
before the conjunction be omitted. 

. 14 My subjects include the following 

history, English and Latin 
, , , 23 Esther, Jane and Mary organized a 
girl’s club 

. .25 Christmas, Memorial Day and 
Thanksgiving are holidays. 

. 28 Sinclair Lewis wrote these books 

Dodsworth, Babbitt and Aiiowsmitb. 

39 He claims that the government is as 
corrupt as in the days of Rome, that 
there is no place for an honest man m 
politics, and that there is little hope 
tor reform 

. .43 Oranges, lemons and grapefruit are 
citrus fruits 


64 June, July and August are vacation 

65 He wants someone who is quick, who 
IS ambitious, and who has had experi- 

74 They went to Washington, to Oregon 
and on to California 
79 One goes to church on Easter to ease 
one’s conscience, to wear one’s new 
clothes, or to see what Mrs Jones is 

6 . Ordinarily use a comma to separate 
clauses joined by the conjunctions and, but, 
for, or, nor if a change m subject takes place 
or if the clauses are long Do not use a 
comma, however, if the subject is not 
changed or if it is not a clause that is joined 

. . 15. They’re ready, but we’ll have to wait 

. 19 I think French a boring subject but 

like physics 

31 He hurried on to die bank and asked 
for the president 

. . 35 A careful description of Captain 
Evans was given, for he was an impor- 
tant witness m the trial 
. 47 He said that he saw the Prince of 

Wales, but no one believed him 
49 Joe is not going, nor is Sally 

. . 55. We saw the Capitol at Washington, 
and then the driver took us home 
63 It’s raining hard, but Jim won’t stay 
at home 

. . 67 He told me to meet him at the Seneca 
Hotel but he didn’t appear 
76. We drove to St Louis and then took 
a quaint old steamer down the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

7. Use commas to separate expressions like 
“he said” from a direct quotation Indirect 
quotations should not be so separated 

.... 2. She exclaimed, “What a beautiful 

. . 6. “Tell me what Doctor Hams did,” 
said Emily. 

, . 7 “If that’s all,” John said, “we may as 

well go.” 

...r8. She said that she intended to visit 
Mount Baker. 


, 29 “We are,” said the speaker, "at the 

dawn of a new era ” 

44 She said that he would be glad to see 

47 He said that he saw tlie Pnnce of 
Wales, but no one believed him 

48 “Please come,” she wrote, “Colonel 
Brown will be here ” 

56 “You should talk to Professor 
Brown,” she advised 

62 “Tliat youngster,” said Coach Jones, 
“will be a star next year ” 

69 "All right,” he said, “we’ll put the 
money in the Chase Bank” 

8. Use commas to separate the parts of a 
date or an address. 

1. Are you going to Strassburg, Ger- 

11 She lives at 2 5 Whittier Street, Dolby, 

24 Tlie letter was sent from Detroit on 
August 8, 1933. 

9. Use a semicolon between the clauses of 
a compound sentence when the clauses are 
closely related in thought and not joined by 
a conjunction A semicolon is usually used 
where a period might be used, that is, be- 
tween independent clauses. 

17 He started to Newburg, there was no 

. 21 The Ting is an heirloom, it belonged 

to Jenny Lind 

27 I use Detoxal, it is a good tooth paste 

38 His wife IS a Presbyterian, he is a 

40 The National Railway Association 
should recognize tliat this type of en- 
gine will not pay, it is out of date 
. 51 Its hair IS fine and soft, it’s still just a 


. 58 One of us must go to Lisbon, which 
will it be? 

. 59 John makes high grades in mathemat- 
ics, he wants to enter Harvard Col- 
lege next year. 

60. You’ll find it easier to go by way of 
Athens, you’ll save twenty miles. 

72 Joseph Conrad is the author of Lord 
Jim, he also wrote Victoiy 

10. Use a semicolon between clauses of a 
compound sentence when the second clause 
is introduced by so, then, however, thus, 
hence, therefore, also, moreover, still, other- 
wise, nevertlieless, accordingly, besides 

. 13 He attended Tate College, then he 

went to a law school 
32 John finished his Spanish, then he 
worked on biology 

37. We didn’t have time to visit the 
Alps, still we saw almost every other 
part of Europe. 

61. I’m too tired to go oul tonight, be- 
sides it’s too cold 

71 You may take this note to Mr Adams, 
then drop these letters in the mailbox 
77 I’ll take you in the car, otherwise 
you’ll be late 

11. Use a colon after a complete independ- 
ent clause which formally introduces one 
of the following, a list or enumeration, a 
statement or question, or a long quotation 

. 14 My subjects include the following 

history, English and Latin 
28. Sinclair Lewis wrote these books 
Dodsworth, Babbitt, and Axrowsmiih 
53 You will like these movies Cimarron 
and Masquerade 

13 . Use quotation marks to enclose all direct 
quotations and all parts of direct quotations 
that are divided 

2 She exclaimed, “What a beautiful 

.... 6 “Tell me what Doctor Plarris did,” 
said Emily. 

, .7 “If that’s all,” John said, “we may as 
well go” 

29 “We are,” said the speaker, “at the 
dawn of a new era” 

48. “Please come,” she wrote, "Colonel 
Brown will be here ” 

. . 56 “You should talk to Professor 
Brown,” she advised. 

.62 “Tliat youngster,” said Coach Jones, 
“will be a star next year ” 

. .69 “All right,” he said, “we’ll put the 
money in the Chase Bank ” 


13. Use quotation marks to enclose tlie 
titles of poems, short stones, essays, chapters 
in books, or other parts of books, musical 
compositions, pictures, statues Titles of 
books, movies, newspapers, pamphlets, peri- 
odicals, and poems of book length should 
only be underlined or italicized. 

20 This poem is called “In the Cool of 
the Night ” 

28 Sinclair Lewis wrote these books 
Dodswoith, Babbitt, and Anowsmith 

33 “By a Waterfall” is a simple little 
piece to play 

34 He read Tennyson’s poem, “In Me- 
moriam ” 

52 “I’m m a Hurry” is the name of an 
amusing short story 

53 You will like these movies Cimarron 
and Masquerade 

70 I’ll send you a subscription to the Lit- 
erary Digest 

72 Joseph Conrad is the author of Lord 
Jm, he also wrote Victoiy 

14. Use an apostrophe m contractions to 
indicate omitted letters. 

; we’ll . . 

. 7 that’s . . 

ij They’re . . we’ll . . . 

37 . . . didn’t . . 

. 42 It’s . can’t . . . 

51 it’s 

52. I’m . , 

54 o’clock 

60 You’ll you’ll . . 

. 61 I’m . it’s 

,63 It’s won’t . . . 

66 . . it’s 

67 didn’t . . 

69 . . . we’ll . . . 

. 70 I’ll 

. 73 doesn’t 

77 I’ll you'll . 

15. Use an apostrophe to indicate the pos- 
sessive When the singular or plural form 
does not end m s, add ’s When these end 
m s, place an apostrophe after the s if there 
IS no new syllable in pronunciation If a new 

syllable occurs, add s Possessive pronouns, 
its, hers, Ins, yours, ours, theiis, do not re- 
qmre the apostrophe 

23 Esdier, Jane, and Mary organized a 
girl’s club 

34 He read Tennyson’s famous poem, 
“In Memonam ” 

38 His wife is a Piesbytenan, he is a 

51 Its hair is fine and soft, it’s still just a 

78 Mary, you may describe General 
Pershing’s plan 

. 79 One goes to church on Easter to ease 

one’s conscience, to wear one’s new' 
spring clotlies, or to see what Mrs 
Jones IS wearing 

Other examples Dickens’ works 
Jones’s house 

Sentence Structure 

1. A sentence should express a complete and 
independent thought Do not write as a sen- 
tence a group of words which are only part 
of a sentence. 

Which of the following examples in the test 
did you miss? 6, 12, 21, 23, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39 

3. A sentence should not contain superflu- 
ous words which make the sentence cum- 

Which of the following examples m the test 
did you miss? 1, 13, 38 

3. A series of thoughts loosely strung to- 
gether by conjunctions is weak and ineffec- 
tive Also avoid a series of short choppy 
sentences when expressing a closely unified 

Whidi of the following examples in tire test 
did you miss? 3, 9, 16, 19 

4. The reference of phrases and modifiers 
should be unmistakably and immediately 
clear. Normally they should be next to the 
part modified. 


Which of the following examples in the test 
did you miss? 4, 7, 8, 17, 22, 27, 30, 35 

5 The reference of a pronoun to its ante- 
cedent should be unmistakably and im- 
mediately clear Pronouns should be close 
enough to their antecedents so that there is 
no possibility of misunderstanding 

Which of the following examples in the test 
did you miss? 2, 3, 10, 18, 20, 29, 37, 40 

Program for Improvement 
The above analysis probably shows that 
work on only a few rules will raise your 
percentile rank quite a few points. On the 
other hand, you have been many years build- 
ing your present language habits, so it will 
take definite and specific practice on your 
part to substitute correct language habits for 
these few types of errors. Not only must you 
know a rule, but you must also practice 
using it 

6. Give parallel structure to those parts of 
a sentence which are parallel in thought. 

Which of the following examples in the test 
did you miss? 11, 14, 15, 23, 24, 31, 32, 34 

Summary of Principles Violated Most Often 
List below, as a senes of phrases, the rules 
which you missed most often on these tests 
These should form the primary basis for 
your remedial efforts. 

The following remedial suggestions are 

1 Study the rules causing you the most 

2 Substitute die correct form for each 
of the errors that you have made 

3 Make a special effort to practice using 
the correct form in your everyday writing 

4 Regularly reread what you have written 
and look for instances where these few rules 
occur, correct any errors. 


5 Have your counselor and teachers indi- 
cate incorrect forms which you use in your 
writing, then proceed to correct them. 

6 Wlien in doubt, use a source book on 

Work haid in your English courses to 
remedy your difficulty. If your problem is 
extreme, you may wish to enioll in the spe- 
cial remedial English section which many 
colleges provide 

The primary consideration in improve- 
ment, however, is your own desire to im- 
prove, only this will lead you to be careful 
m your writing and to seek further practice 

Useful source books on grammar include. 

J C Hodges, Harbrace Handbook of Eng- 
lish, Harcourt, Brace, 1941 A complete 
handbook discussing all aspects of writing 

E S Jones, Practice Handbook in English, 
Appleton-Century, 1935 An excellent 
dnllbook for further practice 

P G Perrin, An Index to English, Scott, 
Foresman, 1939 Very good Problems in 
English presented in alphabetical order for 
easy reference. 

C Stratton, Handbook of English, McGraw- 
Hill, 1940 Specific words, constmctions, 
grammatical terms, idioms, etc, arranged 
alphabetically Can be used as a dictionary 
to check on specific questions 

B Spelling 

A student’s occasional misspellings are 
important because their odd appearance 
distracts the reader’s attention from the 
message and because people tend to judge 
the writer’s cultural training on the basis of 

these errors For example, many otherwise 
well-trained men have failed to obtain jobs 
because of misspellings in letters of applica- 
tion. Correct spelling is a skill which should 
have been learned before reaching college, 
but many students have not— as evidenced 
by die norms below Furthermore, spelling 
ability doesn’t tend to increase during the 
college years unless specific remedial steps 
are taken® 


A spelling test, based on the 228 most 
frequently misspelled words as determined 
by combining several lists of common spell- 
ing errors, will be found in Appendix I on 
pages 233-241 This test is difficult in the 
sense that it consists only of “spelling 
demons” On the other hand, since each 
word also fits the criterion of being fre- 
quently used, a student should be able to 
spell practically all of them correctly (A 
student may well omit learning any of the 
228 words which he seldom, if ever, uses— 
looking them up in a dictionary takes less 
time ) When the test is completed, the key 
will be found on pages 258-260. Your success 
on the test (number nght) may be judged 
against the following norms for college 
freshmen; but more important, you should 
be able to spell all these words which you 
use frequently. 

®G W Hartmann, Tlie constancy of spelling 
ability among undergraduates, J Educ Res, 1931, 
24 303-305 

Lowest Q 

3rd Quarter 

Top Quarter 


To facilitate this study, use tlie space 
below to write the correct spelling of each 
of the words missed on this test 


You may also misspell other words which 
you use frequently This is especially true 
of technical terms which are frequently used 
in your courses Make a list below of these 
other words which are misspelled on your 
papers during the school term. 



Program for Improvement 
You should study the correct spelling of 
each of the words written m the spaces 
above Tire most effective study method is 
actually to try spelling these words, don’t 
]ust look at the list Try visualizing the 
words (m eveiy detail) on a flat surface m 
front of you, then look at the word to clear 
up any part that wasn’t clearly visualized 
Try spelling these words aloud or try writing 
them out Above all, do not avoid these 
words m your everyday writing, make a 
special effort to use them correctly spelled 
Two additional ways to improve spelling 
have been suggested locating the “hard 
spots” m words, and learning spelling rules 
In many instances tliese methods have 
tended to involve more work than tlicy were 
worth, but if they seem particularly appli- 
cable to many of your errors, it will be wortli 
while for you to study this material further 
An analysis of spelling errors of college 
students showed that 90 per cent of the mis- 
spelled words had only one hard spot/ Thus 
a misspelled woid should not be considered 
entirely wrong Each of your misspellings 
should be analyzed to find the letter com- 
bination which needs particular attention 
Furthermore, two-thirds of college students’ 
misspellings were found to represent pho- 
netic substitutions (other letters with tire 
same sounds) or phonetic renditions of mis- 
pronunciations Be suie you know the cor- 
lect pronunciation of the words you misspell 
and pay particular attention to the places 
m the word which cause difficulty Some- 
times a little story or word game can be 
made up to help with these hard spots, e g , 
remember the “sm” in “business " 

The second approach is to learn spelling 
rules so as to have guides when spelling 
Tire difficulty here is tliat most spelling rules 

^ T G Alper, A diagnostic spelling scale for the 
college level, its construction and use, J Educ 
Psych , 1942, 33 273-290 

have so many e'?ceptions that many people 
feel it IS easier not to botlier, 1 e , they just 
study the word in its correct form The fol- 
lowing seven rules, however, cover many 
spelling demons and have few exceptions ® 
Many “spelling errors” aie actually failures 
to follow rules of capitalization (see Sec- 
tion A of this project) If many of your 
spelling errors are examples for some of 
these rules, these particular rules aie well 
worth further study 

1. Most nouns form then plurals by adding 
s or es to the singular Es is added to 
make tire word easier to pronounce 

Examples car, cars 

pass, passes 
push, pushes 
porch, porches 

2 Drop the final e before adding a suffix 
beginning with a vowel 

Examples ndc. Tiding 

believe, believing 

3 When final y is preceded by a consonant, 
change y to 1 before adding any suffix 
drat does not begin witli 1 

Examples satisfy, satisfied, satisfying 
enjoy, enjoyable 

4 Q is always followed by u 

Examples quiet, quick, quiver, quail 

5 I before e 
Except after c 

Or when sounded as a 
As m neighbor and weigh 

Examples, diet, receive, neigh 
6. The sound of i at the end of a word is 
usually spelled by the letter y 

Examples many, very, heavy, steady 
7 With words of one syllable and with 
words accenting the last syllable and end- 
ing in one consonant preceded by one 
vowel, you double the final consonant 

G Foran, The Psychology and Teaching of 
Spelling, Catholic Education Press, 1934, I C Sar 
tonus, Generalization in spelling, Teach Coll 
Contn Educ , 1931, No 472 


when adding a suffix beginning with a 


Examples, fun, funny 

omit, omitted 

Many words are so infrequently used that 
it is not worth while to learn to spell them. 
And a student may occasionally expenence 
a block in spelling words which he usually 
knows. In such instances, reach for a dic- 
tionary or ask a friend For further informa- 
tion on use of the dictionary, see Section C 
of Project VII. 

Additional information on learning to 
spell, eg., the value of other rules and of 
knowledge of word roots, can be found in 
the following references 

J C Hodges, Harbrace Handbook of Eng- 
lish, Harcourt, Brace, 1941 Pages 176- 

E S Jones, Practice Handbook in English, 
Appleton-Century, 1940 Pages 163-174 

F Tnggs and E W Robbins, Improve Your 
Spelling, Farrar & Rinehart, 1944 

C Handwriting® 

Experimental studies have shown that 
even though a teacher may endeavor not to 
count legibility of handwriting in his 
grading he actually will give higher marks 
for the more legible writing ’’ Legible hand- 
writing makes for easier and more pleasant 
reading and is more convincing to the reader 

Many college students write so poorly 
(especially under pressure of speed m 
writing notes or quizzes) that instructors 
have difficulty in grading the papers. Two 
studies show that the average quality or 
legibility of college seniors’ handwriting is 
below that of the average eighth-grader® 

® Widi slight modificabon, from S L Pressey and 
M E Troyer, Laboratory Workbook m Applied 
Educational Psychology, Harper, 1945 Used with 

H. W. James, The effect of handwnting upon 
grading, Engl J, 1927, 16 180-185 

® G E Hill, The handwnting of college seniors, 
J Educ Res,, 1943, 37 118-126, W G. Wixted 

Indeed, a student may occasionally even be 
unable to read his own writing The purpose 
of the following exercise is to show how you 
may locate your most serious writing faults 
and deal with them. It will demonstrate 
how the difficulties of a particular individual 
usually center around a few recurring errors. 

Wilting IS intended to be read In consid- 
enng the quality of a piece of handwriting, 
and still more in consideiing what faults in 
it may be serious and need attention, the 
practical approach is to determine what fea- 
tures of that writing interfere with ease and 
accuracy in reading it. 

The chart below shows the result of re- 
search along this line A large number of 
samples of handwriting of children, college 
students, and adults were gone over, the 
readers checking every place where they had 
any difficulty (even though only momen- 
tary) in reading what had been written. The 
places checked were then returned to, and 
the illegibilities analyzed and classified 
These results were then brought together, 
and the most common illegibilities tlius de- 
termined You will notice that certain gen- 
eral characteristics cause trouble (such as 
crowding words together), but most diffi- 
culties are due to writing one letter so that 
it looks somewhat like another— writing d 
like cl, a like u, or r like an undotted i With 
this chart before you, you can, much more 
easily than otherwise, locate and classify 
troublesome points m any piece of writing. 
Further experiment has shown that when 
such highly specific difficulties are located 
and effort is directed specifically toward the 
elimination of the few most common illegi- 
bilities, improvement in handwriting is rela- 
tively easily achieved.® 

and P R V Curoe, How well do college seniors 
wnte? School and Soc , 1941, 54 505-508 

® H Lehman and L C Pressey, The effecbveness 
of dnll m hindwnbng to remove specific illegibih- 
bes. School and Soc , 1928, 27 546-548; W S 
Guiler, Improving handwnbng ability, Elem Sob /., 
1930, 30'56-62. 




Illegibility Frequency 

Words crowded 

Too angular 


Words broken 

Loops long 

a like u 

a ” 0 

a ” 01 

b ” Ii 

c ” e 

d » cl 

e closed 

e too high 

g like y 

h ” h 

h ” P 

h " b 

h ”1 

1 ” e 

Dot misplaced 

k like h 

1 closed 

1 too short 

m like w 

n ” u 

n ” V 

0 " a 

0 ” r 

0 closed 

r like 1 

r half n 

r half u 

s indistinct 

s bke r 

t » 1 

Cross omitted 
Cross misplaced 
M like N 

W like IJ 

1 like cl 

Other illegibilities 


Words crowded — ^too little space between words, 
so that word divisions are not readily seen 
Words broken — Breaks between parts of words 
so that word and syllable divisions are confused 
Loops long — such letters as y and g reach down 
into the line below or h and I into the line above 
e closed — e hke undotted i 
I closed — I like uncrossed t 
h like p — ^the mam difficulty here is a pro- 
longation of the mam down-stroke of the h 
r like half n — most hkely m such combina- 
tions as rr like n 

r hke undotted i — especially in such combina- 
tions as n like u 

s indistinct — ^mcomplete forms coming at the 
end of a word 

t hke I — ^involves also omission or misplace- 
ment of cross bar 


Two most common 


Self-Evaluation illegibilities, and write this figure in the 

Self-evaluation procedure is simple 

1 Bring to class some sample of your 
handwriting at least 500 words long, written 
under ordinary conditions or under pres- 
sure of speed, as m writing a quiz or taking 
notes Count the number of words from 
the beginning until you have 500, make a 
heavy cross after the five-hundredtli word 
Then have some other student who is not 
familiar with your writing read quickly over 
the material up to the cross, tell him to un- 
derline (not mark over) any letter, com- 
bination of letters, or place which caused 
even momentary difficulty m reading (Tins 
project will be done m class ) The grader 
should keep in mind, however, that he is not 
to mark angularities, irregularities, or pecu- 
liarities, or writing which makes the appear- 
ance unattractive or unusual as long as they 
do not interfere with reading Tire analysis 
IS for illegibility, not beauty. In case of 
doubt a place should not be marked Tlie 
marked places should represent real hin- 
drances to easy reading 

2 In consultation with the reader, so 
that you may know what his difficulties in 
reading were, go over these maiked places, 
and determine m each instance what spe- 
cific feature of your writing caused trouble 
As you proceed, make a tabulation mark on 
the error analysis chart Thus if the first 
difficulty was a like u, put a mark beside this 
item, if the next illegibility was due to 
crowding words together at the end of a 
line, put a tally mark after "words crowded”, 
if the next was another a like u, put another 
mark after this item If you find an illegi- 
bility not listed in the chart, wnte it on one 
of the lines at the bottom of the chart, and 
put a tally mark after it. 

3. Count the number of marks after each 
item and wnte these numbers to the nght. 
Then add, giving the total number of your 

"total” row 

4 Didw a circle around die figures for 
youi two most common illegibilities How 
many of your total illegibilities are due to 
these two? Write the number in the row 
maiked "two most common.” If you were to 
cure yourself of these two most common 
faults, what proportion of the total number 
of your illegibilities would you dispose of? 

5 In actual practice the handwriting of 
the average student will receive about 27 
checks per 500 words Student scribbling, 
however, is not a high standard toward 
which to aim A much better goal is to try 
to write so that your handwriting causes 
little or no difficulty in reading Illegibilities 
should be reduced to a minimum. 

Program for Improvement 

Have you found that only a few letter 
forms are causing most of the difficulty? If 
so, a little care in forming these few letters 
will do a gieat deal toward improving your 
handwriting You will have to try this in all 
writing situations, however, if you are to 
expect improvement in your everyday writ- 
ing Make it a regular practice to proofread 
your writing in order to correct illegibilities 
And finally, have anothei person check later 
samples of your handwriting for illegibilities 
so that you may have a measure of improve- 
ment and a further indication of remaining 

To facilitate your remembering to be care- 
ful in your writing, indicate below which 
letters you will try to improve. 



Mathematical opeiations are basic in 
solving problems and doing laboratory work 
in most subjects Many students, however, 
are not proficient even in some of the 
most elementary skills Thus Arnold found 
that lo per cent of entering freshmen were 
unable to do a single one of twenty prob- 
lems m long division, i8 per cent could not 
multiply common fractions, and 20 per cent 
could not divide decimal fractions ^ 


If there is a need for mathematics m any 
of your courses, the following test should be 
taken to point out places needing remedia- 
tion This test IS based on analyses of the 
mathematical skills winch are most fre- 
quently used in college subjects and which 
teachers consider essential for work in these 
fields Because of the bases used for selecting 
the test items, a student should get every 
one correct If a student misses both ex- 
amples of a given process, he should give 

J Arnold, The standing of college studenb 
in two elementary school subjects, Research Adven- 
tures in University Teaching, Public School Publ 
Co, 1929 , pp 107 - 112 , see also G M Wilson 
and M B Kite, Arithmetic deficiencies, / Higher 
Educ, 1943 , 14 321-322 

definite remedial attention to it Tlie key 
for this test is on page 246 in Appendix II 

Number right 

Program for Improvement 

Any error made represents an item that 
you should know Rather tlian being “alto- 
gether poor” in mathematics you have prob- 
ably found that just a few processes are 
giving you difficulty With such specific 
diagnostic information, your remedial efforts 
can be effectively focused on particular dif- 
ficulties If you have great difficulty with 
this test or with other aspects of mathe- 
matics and these areas are necessary in your 
work, you probably ought to enroll m a 
basic mathematics course m order to obtain 
this background 

Since elementary chemistry is one of the 
common places where students have dif- 
ficulty because of mathematics, the follow- 
ing reference may be of help m explaining 
the necessary mathematics for chemistry 

P R Frey, An Outline of Mathematics for 
General Chemistry, Barnes and Noble, 
1944, 3rded, 143 pp 


(1) 448 (2) 484 (3) 27831 (4) 73821 (5) 2784 ( 6 ) 4287 

372 273 - 9246 - 6249 X 385 X 37 9 

981 189 

365 563 

( 9 ) i + i 

(10) f + i 

(7) 17157-;- 86 

( 8 ) 22989 - 79 


(11) f - 1 

(12) f - f 

r X| 

9 20 4- 16 • 
0026 + 1 8 





(20) 2 - 1 7058 
(23) 0036 - 1 2 


<14) f X i 

(15) i-i 

(16) f - i 


■ 0071 + 1 275 + 7265 
+ 2478 + 86 + 1 002 


(21) 3 702 X 207 

(22) 1 008 X 074 

(25) What % IS 5 of 8? 

(26) What % is 12 of 17? 

(24) 3 05 - 61 

(27) How IS 20% wiitten as a common fraction? 

(28) How IS 50% written as a common ft action? 

(29) How IS 20% written as a decimal fraction? 

(30) How IS 50% written as a decimal fraction? 

(31-35) Write the squares of the following numbers from memory 

(36) 1| X 8 = 


(37) X 16 = 
(39) 110% of 10 = 

Reduce these expressions to their simplest forma by cancellation and then express their answeis as 
decimals to two places. 


5 X 7 X 44 _ 

50 X 77 ~ • 

S X 5 6 X 0 77 

1 1 X 1 12 X 140 
In the followmg proportions, fill in the 
(44) I = xV 
(46) f ^ 

560 ^ 


(45) f = A 
(47) A = 

The next three problems deal with simple relations in chemistry for which the following sample can 
act as a model. These are problems m proportion just hke the ones above 
C + O2 CO2 

12 2 X 16 = 32 12 + 32 = 44 (These numbers underneath show the atomic weights and re- 

sulting molecular weight of CO2 The ratio of carbon entering 
CO2 to the total weight produced is -jf , that of 0 is ) 

(48) If the reaction is begun with 36 grams of C, how much CO2 will be produced? 

That IS, 

12g_ 3 

’ 44 g ~ ? g 
(49) How many g of 0 will be used to produce this? 

(60) If it IS desired to produce 88 g of CO2, how much C will be needed? 



Tlie pioblems discussed in the following proj- 
ects, while not directly related to study sblls, 
tend to decrease college efEciency by lowenng 
general efficiency or by distracting the student 
from his work Students whose health is poor 
work less efficiently and are distraught by wor- 
ries concerning tlicir physical condition Stu- 
dents who have not made a definite vocational 
decision may not be highly motivated, tliey 
often worry lest, when they do make this 

decision, their present effort will have been 
wasted Students who feai they lack social 
status among their fellows, or who are worried 
about more personal problems, are usually so 
upset that their work suffers Tlie solution of 
these problems is worth while in itself, and it 
will also permit more effective study Tliese 
problem areas are therefore the topics of 
projects in this section. 




Tlie value of good health is recognized by 
everyone Poor health can be the basis for 
inefSciency or outright failure in college. 
Without good health one may lose that 
zest for living which mates for success, per- 
sonal happiness, and social adjustment, and 
one may have in its place only discomfort 
and inertia. 

Surveys of the population indicate tliat 
many people have health problems for which 
little has been done because of indifference 
or lack of awareness of tire problems. Be- 
cause of this, your college maintains a well- 
organized health service for your benefit— 
to point out your problems and to give cor- 
rective aid You should make use of it This 
project will not attempt to suggest remedial 
health procedures to you, that advice should 
come from health authorities However, tins 
project does include several means of aiding 
you in thinking about your health problems, 
the counselor will assist you in arranging for 
conferences with any of the health services. 

Health Status 

1 Do you know the results of your physi- 
cal examination on entering college? Were 
any suggestions made at that time? You can 

find out by inquiring at the college’s health 
service Do you know the results of your 
other health examinations such as hearing 
and postuie tests? 

2 Have you had a complete physical ex- 
amination lately? Every person should have 
such a checkup at regular intervals no mat- 
ter how well he feels— potential causes of ill 
health may be detected and cured If you 
have not, it would be well to see your family 
physician for a checkup. Tlae cost is usually 
not very great 

3 Tlie Betts or Snellen Vision Tests are 
general tests for finding those people who 
may need further examination by an eye 
specialist. Recommendations for glasses can- 
not be made on the basis of diese tests, but 
they are a means of determining quickly 
whetlier you ought to have further testing 
If you want to take such a test, ask the 
counselor to give it to you. 

4 The following health questionnaire is 
useful in directing your thinking about 
health problems that you have had Check it 
according to the directions. It is “normal” 
to check several, and interpretation should 
be made only in consultation with yout 




S L Pressey and M E Troyer 
Ohio State University 

Total Crosses 

Name . . Sex M F Date 

Directions Below is a list of common ailments and symptoms, physical handicaps, undesirable 
health habits, or conditions affecting health For your convemence in considermg them, the items 
have been loughly grouped You are to put a cross before each symptom, ailment, habit, or handicap 
you have had within the past twelve months Put two crosses before each one which has been acute 
or caused you much concern Begm at once Be as accurate as you can If you are uncertain about a 
symptom, do not mark it 

Symptoms, Diseases, and Handicaps 

16 sinus trouble 

17 hay fever 

1 pain m the eyes 
. 2 headache after reading 

3 watering of the eyes 

4 difficulty m seemg clearly at a distance 

5 blurring or moving of letters when 


6 spots before eyes 

7 deafness 

8 earache or pain back of ears 
9. discharging ears 


10 frequent or continuing colds 

11 chronic cough 

12 nosebleed 

13 tonsilhtis 

. 14 bronchitis 

16 frequent discharge in throat 
Do not stop Turn over the page and contmue work 

18 asthma 


19 chrome or fiequent indigestion 

20 poor appetite 

21 coated tongue 

22 bad breath 

23 gas in stomach 

24 pam or buimng sensations m stomach 

25 attacks of nausea 

26 attacks of vomiting 

27 mtostmal cramps 

28 diarrhea 

29 constipation 

30 piles or hemorrhoids 

31 appendicitis 

1 From S L Pressey and M E Troyer, Laboratory Worlcbooh tn 
1946, used With permission. 

Applied Educational Psychology, Harper, 





32 chorea or St Vitus’s dance 

33 slowness and sluggishness 

34 clironic fatigue 

35 moodiness or depression 

36 tenseness, inabihty to lelax 

37 difficulty in concentration 

39 nervousness and jumpiness 

40 habitual daydreaming 

41 stuttering or stammering 

42 marked forgetfulness 

43 fainting 

44 fearfulness or phobia 

46 twitching of face or eyehds 

46 dizziness 

47 attacks of laughter or crying 

48 attacks of excitement 

Health Habits 

49 no fruit or vegetable daily 

60 less than eight glasses of water, milk, 

or other liquid daily 

61 fried food daily 

52 frequent eating between meals 

63 irregular or omitted meals 

64 over-exeroise 
66 lack of exercise 

66 insomma — sleeplessness 
57 restless sleep 
68 inadequate or irregular sleep 
59 gomg to sleep at work or school 

60 heavy smoking 

61 heavy coffee drinking 

62 use of alcoholic drinks 

63 poor ventilation in bedroom or study 


64 poor lighting in study room 


65 decayed teeth 

66 iheumatism 

67 pain in joints 

68 mastoid 

69 backache 

70 cramps, numbness, or sweUing in hands 

or feet 

71 pimples or eruptions 

72 goiter or enlaigement of neck 

73 “palpitation of the heart” 

74 hammering in throat or head 

75 pain over the heart 

76 shortness of breath 

77 severe headaches 

78 overweight 

79 underweight 

80 mjunes or lameness due to accident or 


81 night sweats 

82 tendency toward tuberculosis 

83 kidney trouble 

84 bladder trouble 

85 herma (rupture) 

86 painful or irregular menses 


1 List below any symptoms, ailments, undesirable health habits, or handicaps not included in 
the list above, with which you have been troubled dunng the past twelve montlis 

2 Is there anything important not mentioned above, m your “health history”? If so, please mention 
it briefly below Have you had any accidents, any operations? Any severe illnesses piior to the past 
twelve months and so not mentioned above? Have you any physical handicap? If so, what is the nature 
of it? 

3 Symptoms may be due to various causes For example, dizziness or fainting may be due to 
indigestion, or indigestion may be due to emotional excitement (the groupmg of items given above is 
thus very lough) What is your understandmg of the nature and causes of any symptoms you may 

4 If you have any “health problem,” what have you done about it? Thus if you have trouble 
with your eyes, have you had them examined recently? By whom? Have you recently had a thorough 
physical examination by a physician? By whom? What were the findmgs? What was recommended? 
Have you followed these recommendations? 




What to Do About Health Problems 

I. See a health specialist competent to 
advise you on your problem. It may be your 
family physician, a member of the staff of 
the college health service, or some other 

2 A person can rarely obtain enough in- 
foimation from reading for self-treatment 
but the following are interesting readings on 
health habits and on the importance of 

Health Problems m College 
H S Diehl, The Health of College Stu- 
dents, Amer Council on Educ, 1939 
Pages 95-103 Tables of health problems 
in college 


J. Lane, Your Carnage, Madaml Wiley, 
1934 An interesting book on posture 


E Jacobson, You Must Relax, McGraw- 
Hill, 1934 A short readable book on the 
effect of being nervous and tense, with 
practical suggestions on how to overcome 
these tendencies 

J L Rathbone, Relaxation, Teachers Col- 
lege, 1944 Chaps 1-4 

Health Pfabits 

H S Diehl, Healthful Living, McGraw- 
Hill, 1941 

W R P Emerson, Health for the Having, 
Macmillan, 1944 

J F Williams, Personal Hygiene Applied, 
Saunders, 1941, ytli ed 

3. In consultation with your counselor, 
list below the steps that you are taking to 
acquire better healtli. 



Students may work inefficiently in college 
because they worry over what vocabon to 
prepare for or because they are poorly mob- 
vated without a definite vocational goal 
Assistance with your vocational planning 
may remove this as a distraebon and increase 
your motivation for study 

Psychologists cannot determine the spe- 
cific vocation which a person should enter, 
but they can help the student to see his 
abilities, knowledge, and interests and the 
demands of various occupations Further, 
they can assist him to clarify his thinking 
m terms of these two fields of knowledge 
and can show him job-hunting techniques 
The final decision of job selection, however, 
must be left to the student That many stu- 
dents do not know their own abilibes or the 
demands of various occupations is shown by 
the following facts many high-school stu- 
dents with quite low intellectual ability want 
to prepare for professions requiring high in- 
telligence, and about 40 per cent of high- 
school seniors indicate a desire to enter pro- 
fessions which can absorb only about 3 per 
cent of the population. 

Somebmes students who do not have the 
pattern of abilities demanded by a given oc- 
cupation persist in seeking an impossible 
goal and find only unhappiness and failure 
If such a student feels that to alter his voca- 
tional choice at his age is a sign of poor 
planning on his part, it need only be pointed 
out that to change vocational choice is typ- 
ical of the student age Studies of several 
thousand high-school students show that 
over half of them change their vocabonal 


choice somebme during their four years m 
high school^ A study at the University of 
Minnesota showed that about 24 per cent 
of the freshmen felt “uncertain” or "very 
uncertain” of their vocational choice ® And 
a study of persons listed m Who's Who in 
America showed that 16 per cent had 
changed their vocations at least twice “ 

Colleges maintain machinery for assist- 
ing students to change majors with the least 
loss, and, if the students have abilities in 
non-academic lines, to take up training out- 
side of college. It IS a mistaken notion to 
believe that it is a disgrace not to attend 
college or to leave when not doing well Tlie 
intelligent person, m this case, will realize 
that the college may not be able to give him 
what he needs and he will seek a better 
source of preparation for his preferred occu- 


This project is a means of studying your 
abilities and the charactenstics of various 
occupabons Its purpose is to assist you in 
cooidinatmg the two in the best possible 

1 What IS your scholastic ability? 

percenble. Your Scholasbc Apti- 

R Crathome, Changes of mmd between 
high school and college as to life work, Educ Adm 
and Superv , 1920, 6 274-284, A A Douglass, Vo- 
cational interest of high school seniors. School and 
Soc , 1922, 16 79-84 

^E, G Williamson, How to Counsel Students, 
McGrawHill, 1939, p 409 

® H D Kitson and L Culbertson, The vocational 
changes of one thousand eminent Americans, Nat 
Voc Guid Bull, 1923, 1 128-130 


tude Examination ranking can be obtained 
from the counselor 

This test IS especially constructed for pre- 
dicting college success Tables 8 and 9 illus- 
trate to what degree these test results actu- 
ally are related to college success at Ohio 
State University Table 8 shows that brighter 
students are more apt to stay in school and 

to get better grades, but over two-thirds 
of the lowest group stay in school and 
some of them make outstanding grades 
Similarly Table 9 shows that graduating 
students are about five times as apt to come 
from the top fifth as from the bottom 
fiWi, but many in the bottom fifth do 

Table 8 The Per Cent of University Freshmen m Each Third (Approximate) on the Ohio State Psycho- 
logical Examination That Made Various Grade Records at the End of One Year’s Residence ‘ 



Grade Pomt Average 

Drop Out 


1 00-1 99 

2 00-2 99 

3 00-3 99 



















Table 9 Level of Intelligence of Students Getting Degrees from a Large Umversity Over a Ten-Year 
Penod The Per Cents Indicate the Proportion of the Graduatmg Class in That Fifth (Based on Un- 
published Data of H A Toops and R H Bittner ) 

Graduates’ Level 
of Intelligence 
on Entianoe 
to University 

B Arts 

BS m 

Degrees Earned 

B Engin 

B Laws 


Top fifth. 






Foul til fifth 






Middle fifth 






Second fifth 






Bottom fifth 











Another way of indicating the degree of 
relationship between scholastic ability and 
grades is to say that if one knows a student’s 
score on such an ability test, he can predict 
the student’s grades with about 20 per cent 
less error than just guessing There are, 
therefore, many other factors affecbng 
grades Students with high ability scores 
tend to make good grades, but if such stu- 

* H A Edgerton, A study of elimination of 
O S U students m relation to intelligence, Ohio 
College Assoc Bull , “S,” p 107 

dents do not work efficiently they may re- 
ceive qmte low grades Students with low 
ability scores tend to have more difficulty 
with school work but with efficient study 
skills and hard work many of them succeed 
quite well 

Such an ability test will not indicate 
whether or not you will succeed m your 
chosen field Its results only indicate the 
probabihbes of success or failure But such 
information is useful since a student will 
not want to spend years in struggling 


preparation where there may be only a shm 
chance of success 

A person with a low percentile should 
realize two other points (a) College stu- 
dents in the lowest deciles tend to be above 
the average of the general population in the 
ability to do scholastic work but tliey are 
in competition with a highly selected group 
in college And (b) a low percentile on such 
a test IS not necessarily a measure of other 
important abilities, such as running a busi- 
ness, making friends, etc 

If you are interested in other types of 
ability tests, ask your counselor about them, 
1 e , tests of mechanical, musical, and artistic 

2 Interests are a second factor which 
should be considered in choosing a vocation 
Do you know what fields are of greatest in- 
terest to you? Do you know what occupa- 
tional group your pattern of interests most 
resembles? The evidence indicates that a 
person will be most successful in tire oc- 
cupation where his interests and outlook on 
life coincide with those of active members 
of that occupation Tlie Strong Vocational 
Interest Test indicates which occupational 
groups a person’s interests tend to resemble 
the most The Kudor Preference Record 
also indicates a person’s profile of interests. 
If you would like to take either of these tests, 
ask your counselor for a copy Other rough 
measures of your interests include the 
courses m high school and college which 
you have liked best and least. 

On the basis of these different measures, 
list here the occupational areas which are 
of primary interest to you. 

3. Previous work and hobby experiences 
not only provide a basis for deciding whether 
or not you like a field of work, but the actual 
experience provides a head start if a related 
occupation is taken up For instance, a per- 
son who has lived on a farm has such a fund 
of biowledge that many Colleges of Veteri- 
nary Medicine give prime emphasis to such 
previous experience m their entrance re- 

Make a list here of all the previous work 
(paid and unpaid) and hobby expeiienccs 
you have had which might contribute to an 
appreciation of, and a preparation for, a 
field of work. 

Which Job Is Best? The above informa- 
tion provides some bases for choosing a 
vocation The next step is to integrate these 
data so that the relative suitability of dif- 
ferent types of jobs can be more easily seen. 
Most students usually have several occupa- 
tions in mind which they feel more or less 
fit their abilities, interests, and previous ex 



penences. They often wonder, however, for 
which one they are best suited or if there 
might be another, as yet unconsidercd, job 
which would be best The following work 
sheets can help answer this problem just as 

putting down numbers on paper helps in 
solving a mathematical problem This ex- 
ercise IS not a magic formula, it only helps 
marshal tlie evidence so tliat you can think 
about it more clearly. 


This exercise falls into three steps First, you briefly appraise your background of abilities, skills, 
interests, and opportunities, the questions for this are on the left-hand side of the page Second, you 
compaie these appiaisals with the demands of the jobs of the most inteiest to you And third, you 
analyze these results 

Step 1 Answer each question on the left-hand side of the page with brief cue phrases which will act 
as remmdeis in Step % Some of the questions merely lefer to mateiial you have alieady filled out m 
this project 

St&p % Wiite the names of the two 01 three jobs m which you are most interested at the top of the 
columns on the right below Put one job name m each column Now lead how you have lated youiself 
on each tiait at the left and judge whether it wiU be important in deteimming youi success for each 
of the thiee jobs hsted If the trait is of no importance for a given job, 1 e , “physical strength and size” 
would not be impoitant for becommg an “accountant,” maik a zero (0) m that job column opposite 
the trait If the tiait is of some importance m a given job, then judge whether your relative proficiency 
in it will be an asset or a habihty If you are above aveiage m such an important trait, put a plus (-H) 
m the column foi that job, if you aie outstandmgly good m that trait, put a double plus (-|--|-) in 
that column If you are deficient in such an important trait, put a minus (— ) in that job column, or 

if you aie particularly deficient m that tiait, put a double minu s ( ) m that column If the tiait is 

important, but you are only about average m comparison to your probable competition, put a zero 
(0) m the job column Each trait is rated in tins way for each of the jobs 

Step 3 When this rating is completed, add up the number of pluses and the number of minuses 
wbch each job receives The diffeience between these two sums represents a rough score for a job 
which can be compared to the scores for the other jobs Additional directions are given at the end of 
these work sheets 




Personal charactenstics (answer each queiy relative to others entering 



Job #3 

Age? young , average , older 

Physical size and strength? 

Motor skill and cooidmation? 

Physical appearance and “looks”? 


School marks? 

Skill in making friends? 

Skill in speaking and writing? 

Pattern of interests (lefer above to analysis made of vocational 

Special abihties and skills? Write them down 

Personal attitudes (check the one phrase m each series which best 
describes you) 

Like to work with people , around people . , alone 

Like outdoor work , industrial work , clerical work ; 

professional woik 

Prefer job security , chance to make high income even though 

success IS a gamble 

Interested more m amount earned ; service to society 

Want to be near home town , don’t care where 

Want to live m country , small town , city 

Want to make own work plans , have jobs assigned 


Amount of sohoohng I plan to take? 

Subjects I bked best? 

Subjects I liked least? 

Previous work experiences (refer to list made eailier)? 

i 62 



Present and past hobbies (refer to hst made earlier)? 
Other types of training’ List them here 

Social situatiorfand opportunUies 

Family status (any dependents)? 

Prejudice agamst race oi lebgion? 

Relative frequency with which you aie chosen for positions of 

Are there special job opportumties where you hve or are well 

Do you have good “connections” to help you get started in any 

Do you have enough money for further teaming? 

Are these jobs overcrowded? Aie any related jobs less crowded? 

Do the opportumties for advancement in these jobs smt you? 
Total number of pluses 
Total number of mmuses 

Step 8. Does one of these jobs receive a particularly high “sum score” m comparison to the others? 
This would tend to indicate that that particular job is the best of the three Does the high-scoring job 
have qmte a few minuses marked? If so, another job might be bettei suited to you Go back to the 
place where various types of woik experience and opportunities are listed and see if some other job 
IS suggested 

List here the one or two occupations of most mterest to you. Is your present college program suited 
for preparmg you for these occupations? 

Do You Know Much About Your Chosen 
Occupation? Most students know very- 
little about the jobs they are considering for 
their future vocation! Students typically 
overestimate the average income m their 
chosen field by loo per cent to 200 per cent; 
they know little about the actual activities 
demanded on tlie job, and they have scant 
knowledge of the factors leading to promo- 
tion and the speed with which it takes place. 
(Table 14 and Chart 18m the Special Read- 
ing Skills Test in Appendix I provide some 
related information of interest here ) Can 
you answer the following questions concern- 
ing your top-scoring job? 

1 What IS the average income five years 
after entering? 

2 What steps have to be taken or what 
jobs held before you get to the job you 

3 How crowded is the field in your 
chosen occupation? 

4. How much training does it take? 

5. How much money does it take to get 


6 What are tlie opportunities for further 

7 Is tlie occupation stable, growing, 
seasonal, or on the decline? 

8 Wliat are the duties of this job? 
Winch aie the hardest to perform? 

9 What are tlie hazards of the job? 

10 What is a person’s status on the job 
when he reaches forty or fifty years of age? 
Increased opportunities? Little change? 
Decreased opportunities? 

Specific information concerning occupa- 
faons of interest can be obtained from the 
occupational bibliography at the end of this 
project The following general references on 
the whole field of work may also be of in- 

H D Anderson and P E Davidson, Ameri- 
can Job Trends, Occupational Monograph 
No 22, Science Research Associates, 1941 
H M Bell, Matching Youth and Jobs, 
Amer Council on Educ , 1940 
H F Clark, Life Earnings, Harper, 1937. 


Getting the Job and Getting Ahead Vo- 
cational guidance includes more than help- 
ing a student decide what occupation he 
wants to enter He also needs to know about 
]ob hunting techniques and some of the 
factors which make for success. 

Even when jobs are plentiful and workers 
scarce, there is competition for the best jobs. 
Knowledge of how to go about finding good 
jobs and applying for them gives a person a 
decided edge over others not prepared. An 
excellent and practical discussion of tins 
problem will be found m I M Dreese, How 
to Get THE Job, Occupational Monograph 
#19, Science Research Associates, 1941 

Once on tlie job, a person wants to make 
good Almost everyone realizes that he must 
understand the business so as to be prepared 
for greater responsibilities, but most people 
do not realize that managers consider cer- 
tain personality traits by far the most im- 
portant! This IS illustrated by several studies 
In the first, the American Council on Edu- 
cation asked the personnel and employment 
officers of some of America’s largest business 
and industrial concerns to list tlie ten traits 
most needed for job success.® They listed 
the following- 

Character marked by honesty, dependability, 
and courage A square shooter 

Enjoyment of work gets sahsfaction from 
digging in and doing a task Begins with 
vigor and continues until a task is done 
Enthusiasm for job. 

Initiative awareness and imagination in see- 
ing things to do 

Mental alertness intelligence, inquiring 
mind, ability to think 

Judgment ability to make wise deasions, 
people have eonfidence m judgment 

° From Wanted A Job, Amer Council on Educ , 



Getting along with people enjoys being with 
people, sense of humor, able to obtain 
willing cooperation, liked by people 

Health vitality, energy, enthusiasm for work 
and play Not ill 

Appearance and manner creates a good im- 
pression, neat, expresses self well 

Ambition and objectives knows the type of 
job he wants and will be able to fill 
Desire to advance 

Social and community responsibilities- par- 
ticipates m group and community activi- 
ties, attempts to improve community 

In other studies, analyses have been made 
of the reasons why some people are not 
promoted and others are fired ° They show 
that two-thirds or more of the instances of 
non-promotion or firing a worker were due 
to problems of personality and social adjust- 
ment, only for about one-third were lack of 
technical skill and background the causes 
Tire following are typical of the personality 
difficulties found insubordination, unreli- 
ability, absenteeism, laziness, troublemak- 
mg, and carelessness 

On the positive side of building helpful 
personal characteristics, the following read- 
ings are interesting 

A Buchanan, Lady Means Business, Simon 
& Schuster, 1943 

P W Chapman, Your Personality and Your 
Job, Occupational Monographs No 31, 
Science Research Associates, 1942 

F Maule, Girl with a Pay Check, Harper, 

Your counselor will be glad to assist you 
witli any aspect of the pbblem of vocational 

® J M Brewer, Causes for discharge, Personnel / , 
1927, 6 171-172, J J Gibson, Purchasing power of 
personahty, J Bus Educ, 1938, 14 9-10 




Occupations are arranged below m alpha- 
betical order The letteis and numbers which 
follow each title have the following signifi- 
cance Tire Ictteis "A” through “H” stand for 
different monographs and the letters “J” 
through “Q” stand for different books to which 
frequent reference is made^ A number fol- 
lowing a symbol for a monograph series stands 
for the number or issue which deals with tliat 
occupation The number following a symbol 
for a book indicates the page on which the 
discussion of that occupation begins In in- 
stances where good books on an occupation 
have recently been published, these are also 
listed directly 

The several references for a given occupation 
tend to duplicate each other, the reader should 
select the one or two which seem best and 
which arc available 

’The key to the symbols used is as follows 
A Science Research Associates, American Job 
Senes, Occupational Monographs, 1939- 
Eaoh about 50 pp long 
B Science Research Associates, Occupational 
Outlines on America’s Major Occupa- 
tions, 1940- Each 4 pp long 
C Science Research Associates, Occupational 
Briefs of Postwar Job Fields, 1943- 
Each 4 pp long 

D Institute for Research, Careers, Research 
Monographs, 1930- Each about 25 pp 

E U S Office of Education, Guidance Leaf- 
lets, 1932- Each about 15 pp long 
F Occupational Index, Inc , Occupational 
Abstracts, 1936- Each about 6 pp long 
G Western Personnel Service, Occupational 
Briefs, 1939- Each about la pp long 
H Bellman Publ Co , Vocational and Profes- 
sional Monographs Each 16 or more 
PP long 

J J Brewer and'E Landy, Occupations To- 
day, Ginn, \943 

K W Campbell and J Bedford, You and 
Your Future Job, Soc Occup Research, 


L M Davey, E Smith, and T Myers, Eveiy- 
day Occupations, Heath, 1941. 

M F Made, Careers for the Home Econo- 
mist, Funk, 1943 

N P Pollock, Careers in Science, Dutton, 


P E Steele, Careers for Girls in Science and 
Engineering, Dutton, 1943 
Q D Huff and F Huff, Twenty Careers of 
Tomorrow, McGraw Hill, 1945 

Accounting B 29, 31, C 6, D 4, 98, 103, 
F, G, H 7, J 120, K 93, L 357 
T W Byrnes and K L Baker, Do You 
Want to Be an Accountant? Stokes, 1940 
L W Scudder, Accountancy as a Career, 
Funk, 1941, rev ed 

Advertising A 9, C 129, D 17, 133, 134, 
H 10, 24, J 130, K 118 
A Broughton, Careers in Public Relations, 
Dutton, 1943 

B Clair and D Dignam, Advertising Careers 
for Women, Harpei, 1939 
D De Schweinitz, Occupations m Retail 
Stores, International, 1941 
W A Lowen and L E Watson, Plow to 
Get a Job and Win Success in Advertising, 
Prenbce-Hall, 1941 

Agents and Credit Workers B 30, C 72, D 95 

Agriculture A 15, 18, B 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 
94, C 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 108, D 20, 21, 
22, 53, 63, 79, 80, F, PI 11, J 17, 138, K 
16, 31, 320, L 13, 25, Q 
H P Anderson, Your Career in Agriculture, 
Dutton, 1940 

Air Conditioning C 122, D 67, F 17, H 33 
N V Carlisle, Your Career in Engineering, 
Dutton, 1942 Page 164 
L K Wright, The Next Great Industry, 
Funk, 1939 

Architecture, General C 58, D 12, F 34, J 201. 
Landscape C 60, D 1 3, F 

Armed Services B 85, C 1, 2, 3, 5, D 123, 124, 
128, 129, 130, 131, J 251 

Art, General B 2, G 132, D 97, PI 36, J 231 
Industrial and Commercial D 14, 107, 119, 


Interior Decoration C 59, D 5, F 64, H 31 
J. I Biegeleison, Careers in Commercial 
Art, Dutton, 1944 

D De Schweinitz, Occupations in Retail 
Stores, International, 1941 Page 247 
M Downer, Be an Artist, Lothiop, 1941 
M Pnee, So You’re Going to Be an Artist, 
Watson-Guptill, 1939 

Aviation A 33; B 49; C 16, 68, D 39, 77, 122, 
137, J 155, 186, L 13, 30, 165, P 128, Q 
Gen H H Arnold and Lt Gen I C Eaker, 
This Flying Game, Funk, 1942, rev cd 
C Plall and R Merkle, The Sky’s the Limit, 
Funk, 1943. 



B W Leyson, Aeronautical Occupations, 
Dutton, 1941, rev ed 

J. L Peck, So You’re Going to Fly, Dodd- 
Mead, 1941 

Baking B 50, C 146, K 73, L 128 
Banking A 25, B 20, C 140, D 30, 31, F, H 
53, K 95, L 235 

D Campbell, Careers for Women in Bank- 
ing and Finance, Dutton, 1944 
Biology and Bacteriology D 3, K 148, L 57, 
P 100 

Broken B 28, J 132 
Building Maintenance B 88, C 57 
Business Administration C 73, D 35, 108, PI 3 
Ceramics G 149, D 46, 81, Q 
Chemistry A 26, 37, B 3, G 29, 79, D 16, 
F 1, 73, G, H 33, 48, J 69, K 257, 300, 
N, P 75, 140, Q 

H Caith, So You Want to Be a Chemist, 
McGraw-Hill, 1943 

N V Carlisle, Your Career in Chemistry, 
Dutton, 1943 

Cleaning, Dyeing, Laundry Work B 74, 89, 
C 93, 94, D 70 

Clerical Work A 11, B 31, 32, C 11, D 115, 
135, J 117, K 83, L 344. 

Construction B 52, 53, 60, 61, 62, C 44, 55, 
56, 105, 109, D 57, 114, F, J 165, K 45, 

56. Q 

Cosmetology B 87, C 96, D 54, H 13; K 166 
Counseling A 20, C 53, 54, D 73, F, J 30, 52, 

Dentistry and Dental Hygiene B 6, C 112, D 
10, 86, F, H 9, J 208, K 141, L 317 
C G Woodhouse, Dental Careers, Funk, 

Dietetics and Nutrition D 41, K 151, L 307, 
317, M 12 

D Smcdlcy and A Gmn, Your Career as a 
Food Specialist, Dutton, 1943 
Draftsmanship B 7, C 49, J 182, K 65 
Dramatic Arts B 1, C 130, D 49, 89, F 
H Irvine, The Actors Art and Job, Dutton, 

D Willson, Hollywood Starlet, Dodd, Mead, 

Dressmaking, Tailoring, and Millinery B 67, 
73, C 97, F; K 77, 165 

Electrical Work B 55, C 25, 51, 102, D 113, 
120, PI 32, J 170, K 253, N, Q 
Engineering A 30; B 9, 10, 11, 66, C 26, 27, 
28, 103, D 2, 16, 36, 37, 38, 76, 83, 92, 

120, H 14, 28, 48, J 183, K 44, 62, 252, 
L71, 182, Pill 

N V Carlisle, Your Career m Engineering, 
Dutton, 1942 

F D McHugh, How to Be an Engineer, 
McBnde, 1941 

Fashion Designing D 99, H 16, M 159 
M Byers, Help Wanted — Female Careers in 
the Field of Fashion, Messner, 1941 
G Shultz, Plow to Be a Fashion Designer, 
McBride, 1942 

J B Swmney, Merchandising of Fashions, 
Ronald, 1942 
Fishing B 95, C 150 

Food Processing C 118, 119, 124, H 46, Q 
Forestry A 21, B 97, C 47, 61, D 23, PI 8, 

J 152,1-38 

Foreign Service (Consular and Trade) C 92 
D 18, 51, J 248, K 285 
H Nicholson, Diplomacy, Harcourt, Brace, 

PI R Wilson, Diplomacy as a Career, Mil- 
ton Academy, 1941 
Funeral Directing C 99, D 72, F 
Geology D 15, K 256, P 89 
Government Jobs B 12, 42, C 10, 52, 100, 
106, D 38, 125, 126, PI 45, J 238 
N V Carlisle and C Erickson, Civil Service 
Careers for Boys, Dutton, 1941 
N V Carlisle and D McFerran, Civil Serv- 
ice Careers for Girls, Dutton, 1941 
A C Klein, Civil Service in Public Welfare, 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1940 
J C O’Brien and P P Marenberg, Your 
Federal Civil Service, Funk, 1940 
L. J O’Rourke, Opportunities in Govern- 
ment Employment, Garden City, 1940 
Home Economics C 64, D 24, 96, M 

C G Woodhouse, Business Opportunities 
for the Home Economist, McGraw-Hill, 

Home Making D 24, J 113 
Hotel Management C 111, D 34, PI 5, J 109, 
K 167 

Insurance B 39, C 141, D 40, 111, F, J 131 
Journalism and Writing A 4, B 8, C 89, 121, 
D 19, F, PI 2, J 211, K 231 
I R Logie, Careers for Women in Journal- 
ism, International Textbook, 1938 
L Pruette, Working with Words, Funk, 

M Shuler, R Knight, and M Fuller, Lady 


Editor Careers for Women, Dutton, 

N MacNeil, How to Be a Newspaperman, 
Haiper, 1942 

Laboratory Technician C 63, D 68, F, L 317, 
N, P. 

Land Transportation A 2, 8, B 64, 71, 79, 98, 
C 22, 46, 116, D 56, F, H 43, j 187, L 

140- Q 

N V Carlisle, Your Career m Transporta- 
tion, Dutton, 1942 

B W Leyson, Automotive Occupations, 
Dutton, 1941 

Language Workers C 144. 

Law B 13, C 135, D 7, H 21, 56, J 214; K 298 
E L Brown, Lawyers and the Promotion of 
Justice, Russell Sage Foundation, 1938 

Librarian C 115, D 8, F, G, H 1, J 216, K 249 
M Lingenfelter, Books on Wheels Oppor- 
tunities in Library Work, Funk, 1938 
Classification and Pay Plans for Libraries m 
Institutions of Higher Education, Amer 
Library Assoc ,1943 

B S Rossell, Public Libraries in the Life of 
the Nation, Amer Library Assoc, 1943 

Manufacturing, Management B 56, C 21, 73, 
D 32, 35, H 40 

Workers A 32, B 76, C 17, 78, 80, 82, 84, 
85, D 127 

Mechanics B 48, 57, C 48, D 122. 

B W Leyson, Automotive Occupations, 
Dutton, 1941 

Medicine B 16, C 36, D 26, 29, 104, 105, 110, 
116, E 6, F, H 4, J 204, L 280, 316, Q 
E L Brown, Physicians and Medical Care, 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1937 
L M Klinefelter, Medical Occupations for 
Boys, Dutton, 1938 

L M. Klinefelter, Medical Occupations for 
Girls, Dutton, 1939 

Metal Trades A 13, 27, 34, B 58, 59, 68, 69, 
81, C 14, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 87, F, H 26, 
33, J155, K46, L80, Q 
B W Leyson, Careers in the Steel Industry, 
Dutton, 1945 

Meteorology D K 176 

Mining and Oil B 72, 75, C 15, 125, 126, 
D 62, 76, 92, G, H 23, 35, J 177, K 44, 254, 
L 62, 71 

Modeling H 39 

O Malcova, Wanted Girl with Glamour, 
Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1941 


G M Dessner, So You Want to Be a Model' 
Morgan-Dillon, 1943 

Motion Picture Workers (see Dramatics for 
actors) C 120, G, H 52 
Museum D 91 

Music A 12, B 14, C 131, D 11, 88, 93, 121, 
F, H 6, J 71 

H Johnson, Your Career in Music, Dutton, 

G Moore, The Unashamed Accompanist, 
Macmillan, 1944 

Nursing A 35, B 19, 92, C 37, 98, D 25, 105, 
F, H 41, J 208, L 298 

E L Brown, Nursing as a Profession, Russell 
Sage Foundation, 1940, 2nd ed 
L M Klinefelter, Medical Occupations for 
Girls, Dutton, 1959 

C Schulz, Your Career in Nursing, McGraw- 
Hill, 1941 

D Sutherland, Do You Want to Be a Nurse''' 
Doubleday, Doran, 1942 
Office Machine Operation A 11, B 41, C 7, F, 
H 25, K 293 

Optometry C 114, D 27, J 233 
Osteopathy C 147, D 28, E 23, H 20 
Pharmacy C 101, D 44, E 14, PI 31, L 317 
Photography A 24, B 15, C 50, D 47, G, H 52, 
55, J 230, K 293 

B W Leyson, Photographic Occupations, 
Dutton, 1940 
Physicist J 68, N, P 50 
Psychology C 104, K 271 
Public Relations C 88, D 1 36 
A Broughton, Careers in Public Relations, 
Dutton, 1943 

Publishing and Printing A 6, B 8, 34, C 110, 
134, 137, D 9, 118, J 138, Q 
Purchasing Agent C 76, D 78, 94 
Radio A 12, B 63, C 24, 117, D 39, 121, F 74, 
H 44, K 182, 228, L 168, 174, Q 
N V Carhsle and C C Rice, Your Career 
in Radio, Dutton, 1941. 

R DeHaven and H Kahm, How to Break 
into Radio, Harper, 1941 
J L Homung, Radio as a Career, Funk, 

J J Floherty, Behmd the Microphone, Lip- 
pincott, 1944 

F M Reck, Radio from Start to Finish, 
Crowell, 1942 

Real Estate B 27, G 142; D 74, F 78, J 130. 


Religious Work B 4, C 91, H 18, K 262 
W A Brown, The Minister His World and 
Ths Work, Cokesbury, 1937 
Vocations m the Church, The National 
Council, 1944 

Restaurant Operator G 137, 138, D 69, H 15, 

Retail Store Work and Management B 26, 33, 
35> 36, 37. 38’ 43. 47 > C 70. 7 h 77» H 3 ’ 
D 48, 55, 56, 65, 75, 78, 87, 90, 101, 
117, 121, H 22, L 213, 232 
N A Brisco and L Amowitt, Introduction 
to Modern Retailing, Prenlice-Hall, 1942, 
D De Schweinitz, Occupations m Retail 
Stores, International, 1941 
D McFerran, Careers m Retailing for Young 
Women, Dutton, 1943 
C G Woodhouse, The Big Store Oppor- 
tunities in Department Store Work, Funk, 


Salesmanship B 34, 43, C 74, 75, D 33, J 118, 

F Maule, Selling — ^A Job That’s Always 
Open, Funk, 1940 

Schools and Colleges. A 5, B 5, 18, C 65, 66, 
D 6, 52, 88, 100, 106, F, H 12, 29, K 244; 
M 92, Q 

Teachers for Our Times, Amer Council on 
Educ., 1944 

L Cole, The Background for College Teach- 
ing, Farrar & Rinehart, 1940 
L J Nuttall, Teacher, Macmillan, 1941. 

R C Woellner and M A Wood, Require- 
ments for Certification of Teachers and 

Administrators, Univ Chicago Press, 1944, 
8th ed 

Secretarial and Stenographic Work A 11, B 
44, C 8, D 64, 66, 135, F, H 50, J 119, 
K 87, L 348 

F Maule, The Road to Anywhere Oppor- 
tunities in Secretarial Work, Funk, 1941 

L Scott and E C Belcher, How to Get a 
Secretarial Job, Flarper, 1942 
Social, Police, and Public Service Work A 3, 
23, 32, 35, B 17, 83, 84, C 38, 90, 127, 
136, D 42, 43, 50, 125, H 19, 57, J 220, 
238, K 271, L 253 

E li Brown, Social Work as a Profession, 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1942, 4th rev 

A C Klein, Civil Service in Public Welfare, 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1940 

A E Fink, The Field of Social Work, Holt, 

L. M French, Psychiatric Social Work, 
Commonwealth Fund, 1940. 

Statistical Work A x, D 45 

Telegraph and Telephone Service B 45, 46, 

80, C 9, 45, H 30, J 121, K 180 
Textiles C 81, 83, D 112, L 114, M 182, Q 
Therapists C 62, D 102, 109; F 71, 72, H 17 
Traffic Management A 2, 8, D 60, G 
Veterinary Medicine- C 148, D 71, E 18, F, 


Water Transportation B 77, 96, C 4, 13, 23; 
D 132, Q 

N V Carlisle, Your Career in Transporta- 
tion, Dutton, 1942 


Ability to get along with others is im- 
portant in our crowded world And every 
person wants to be liked, to become a mem- 
ber of some group, and to be selected for 
positions of leadership With the adult 
world eager to have students socially ad- 
justed and with the students themselves 
striving to be accepted, it would seem that 
little difiEculty should occur, but the evi- 
dence IS otherwise Worries about not being 
liked or not being popular are among those 
frequently mentioned by college students 

As a high-school senior, the average stu- 
dent usually feels socially secure with his 
friends and his gang, but when he goes away 
to college, he has to work hard to make new 
social contacts on the campus If he be- 
comes unhappy over a lack of dates and 
congenial friends (and is a little homesick), 
he may make frequent trips home wheie 
he knows he is accepted. Some students, on 
finding it difficult to make friends, even quit 
school, unhappy and disappointed m tlieir 
college experiences 

Willie a person must adjust to many types 
of groups, the adjustment that presents die 
most problems at the time of entering col- 
lege IS acceptance by fellow students That 
IS, being included as a member of some con- 
genial group of his own age, having a few 
close friends, and being liked by the op- 
posite sex At this time some students are 
also going through the last stages of emanci- 
pation or becoming independent of the 
home If a student feels secure in all of these 
social lelationships, he feels free to devote 
a large part of his efforts to study If not, he 

is apt to be distracted from his studies 

The social structure on a campus (the 
pattern of who is liked or not and the degree 
of such feeling) is much different than most 
persons suppose The actual pattern is well 
illustrated by the results of administering a 
sociometry test in a girls’ dormitory.^ In this 
Simple test the students were asked to list 
the two or three persons they would like as 
partners in several everyday campus ac- 
tivities such as double dating, eating, and 
studying When the number of choices that 
each person received was tabulated, the dis- 
tribution in Chart i6 was obtained That 
is, most students receive less than the 
average number of votes and many receive 
almost no votes! While each one would like 
to be the person at the right-hand end of 
the distribution— the popular individual- 
most students are actually at the stage of 
feeling “when a feller needs a friend” 
Furthermore, an analysis of those whom the 
low-score persons picked in their nomina- 
tions indicated to some extent how strongly 
such isolates feel about their position of 
isolation While most of the students 
tended to pick individuals for desired as- 
sociates who were somewhere near their own 
level of popularity, the isolates and near 
isolates picked not those who picked them 
but the most popular individuals (as sym- 
bols of their frustrated desires)! 

In this same experiment an analysis of 

^Jean Waid Reilly, Correlation Between Factors 
in Girls’ Baclcground and Their Popularity in a 
College Dormitory, unpublished Master’s thesis, 
Ohio State Univ, 1942 


the factors related to popularity indicated 
that differences were not due to accidents 
of location in the dormitory nor particularly 
to family status, differences seemed in great 
part to spring from the personality char- 
acteristics of the individuals themselves 
Wliat then were these characteristics? Sur- 
prisingly enough, intelligence was not re- 
lated to popularity in college, that is, every- 
one was bright enough not to be offensive 
to at least some other people Tire factors 
which were related seemed to be of two 
types- the external niceties of behavior 
which make a person easy to get along with, 
and the worth of the person as an individual 
This project deals pnmanly witli the first of 
these under the following three headings 
(i) Etiquette, (2) Participation Skills, and 
(3) Appearance and Manner Although the 
other area, the worth of the individual, is on 
the whole very difficult to tackle through 
reading, the following books on the subject 
may be of interest and some assistance, and 
the next project on "personal problems” also 
touches on it 

L Cole, Attaining Maturity, Farrar & Rine- 
hart, 1944 

H E Fosdick, On Being a Real Person, 
Harper, 1943 

E Lloyd-Jones and R Fedder, Coming of 
Age, ^^ffiittlesey Plouse, 1941 
F McKinney, Psychology of Personal Adjust- 
ment, Wiley, 1941 Chaps 9-11 
P E Osgood, Say I to Myself, Harvard Univ 
Press, 1944 

Before discussing the different divisions 
m this project, a review of one further study 
provides an orientation to the total area of 
social effectiveness ® This author, on the 
basis of a thorough review of many studies 
of social intelligence, found that eleven 
charactenstics could be isolated That is, the 
socially effective person is one who. 
a Takes people as they are 
b Inflates tlie ego of others 
c. Is considerate of others 
d Is adaptable to changing circumstances 
e Is careful of personal appearance 
f Displays good manners 
g Has a normal degree of functional in- 

h Has a normal amount of emotional 

® V D Jackson, Measurement of social pro- 
ficiency, J Exper Educ, 1940, S 422-474 



i Is able and willing to assume leader- 
ship when group consensus calls for 
such leadership 

] Possesses a high character witliout at- 
titudes of reform and holiness 
k Has certain similarities to the group m 
which he is participating 

These characteristics are covered in the sec- 
tions which follow 

1 Etiquette A knowledge of the ac- 
cepted campus ways of behaving when with 
others makes one feel at ease among people 
and also makes one’s behavior more pre- 
dictable and therefore easier for others to 
adjust to A list of situations which occur 
fiequently and which give students the most 
trouble has been obtained tlirough the co- 
operation of Mortar Board chapters from 
over the country. Campus leaders were also 
asked to state what they felt was acceptable 
behavior in these situations This matenal 
is summarized in the book, Your Best Foot 

Forward, by D C Stratton and H. B 
Schleman, McGraw-Hill, 1940. 

Do you know the forms of behavior most 
acceptable to college students? The follow- 
ing etiquette test which is based on the 
findings of the above study will test your 
general proficiency m this area Wlien the 
test is completed, its key will be found on 
page 247 m Appendix II Wlnle it might be 
said that a student ought to know all of the 
items on this test since the topics weie 
selected by college students, most students 
are not sticklers for such form. You may, 
therefore, like to see how you compare to 
students in a large university through use 
of the norms below These and your interest 
m etiquette can provide a basis for setting 
your goal of proficiency in this area (A local 
campus custom may occasionally disagree 
with an answer on the key but be sure that 
this IS true and doesn’t merely represent an 
indifference among your friends to certain 
aspects of correct etiquette ) 

Lowest Quarter 

Norma on Etiquette Test (No light) 

Second Quarter Third Quarter Top Quaiter 



1 1 

0 33 


Qi Md Qb 


1. In making introductions, the man should be presented to the woman T F 

2 (for men) On being mtroduced to another man, a man may stand or not as he chooses, or 

(for women) Women never rise for mtroductions T P 

3. If no one has mtroduced you to a member of a social gathering, you may introduce your- 
self T P 

4. In mtroducmg a guest to a roomful of people, the guest’s name should be mentioned first. T P 

5. Being in the same class with someone serves as sufficient mtroduction for conversation T P 

6. A guest should always be introduced to the housemother T P 

7. At a house dance, it is not necessary that all guests meet the chaperons T P 

8 A girl student is introduced to a professor, and not vice versa, for instance, one might say 

“Professor Jones, may I present Miss Snuth ” TP 

9. It IS customary to arrive a few mmutes before the hour set for a dinner party T P 

10 At a large banquet, one may begin to eat after those near-by have been served. T P 


11. A salad may be cut with a knife T F 

12, A good rule to follow at a dmner is to use your silver m its order of arrangement, beginning 

with the piece neaiest your plate T F 

13 When passing your plate for a second helpmg, you should lemove your knife and fork out 

of consideration for the servei- T F 

14 You may eat the followmg foods with your fingers radishes, olives, dry crisp bacon, shoe- 
string potatoes, and corn on the cob T F 

15 It IS all right to drink your soup if it is served in a cup T F 

16. You may use your fingers foi lump sugar even though tongs are provided T F 

17, Fish bones and fiesh-fruit pits should be removed from the mouth with the fingers T F 

18 It is no longer consideied necessary to leave any food on your plate T F 

19 In a college rbmng room it is all light to help yourself to a dish which is being passed even 

though you have some of that type of food on your plate T F 

20 On a dinner date the man should take the mitiative in ordermg dinner, suggesting items he 

feels that he can afford T F 

21 If a man is having a dinner date and a gnl stops at his table to speak to his girl, he may 

lomam seated T F 

22 On a double date for dinner the giils sit facing their dates across the table T F 

23 The usual tip is 6 per cent of the bill T F 

24, A man should alight from a bus or streetcar first and then assist the woman with him T F 

26 The woman precedes the man mto a row of seats, T F 

26 It IS better for a man to say, “Will you go to the Thanksgiving dance with me Saturday 

night? ” than “May I have a date Saturday mght? ” T F 

27 In all ordinary situations, the woman has the lesponsibility for suggesting the time for 

startmg home T F 

28 A man may assume the privilege of “ coming m for a few mmutes ” after bringing his date 

home. T F 

29 A man should invite a woman to a dance two or three weeks early. T F 

30, A man never leaves a woman alone on a dance floor T F 

31 When there is no one to serve punch, the woman should serve her partner and herself T F 

32. When a man and woman are taJkmg on the telephone, she should be responsible for closmg 

the conversation T F 

33. Today it is acceptable for women to telephone men when they feel hlce it. T F 

34. The man takes the imtiative m begmmng conespondence with a woman T F 

35. You are expected to wnte a thank you note if you have been an overnight guest. T F 

36 An R S.V P demands that you accept or decline an offered invitation as soon as possible T F 

37. You should speak to your professors or the college president whether they know you per- 
sonally or not T F 

38 A man should remove his hat when nding m any elevator in which women are present T F 

39. In a household where the hostess does not have a maid, the guest should offer to assist m 

some of the household duties, T F 

40. (for men) For a spring formal, either the man’s tiousers or jacket should be of a light color. 
or (for women) It is not acceptable for a college woman to wear a sorority or fraternity pin 

to a formal dance. T F 


If interested in further reading about 
etiquette, you will find the above-mentioned 
book. Your Best Foot Forward, by D C 
Stratton and H B Schleman is an excellent 
source Other useful source books for col- 
lege students are as follows’ 

B Allen and M P Briggs, If You Please', 
Lippmcott, 1942 

M Banning and M L Culkm, Conduct 
Yourself Accordingly, Harper, 1944. 

M E Cmdy and B Wheeler, Manners for 
Moderns, Dutton, 1942 

2 Participation Skills In order to fit 
in with a college group, one needs to know 
its meeting places, traditions, curient lan- 
guage idioms, and how to paiticipate in its 
activities So much of the pattern of living 
on a given campus is specific to that locality 
that self-evaluation tests cannot be in- 
cluded here But if you feel somewhat iso- 
lated on the campus, some thought should 
be given to the question’ Is it because I 
don’t know the local ways, rather than be- 
cause the other students are aloof and cold? 

Activities which youth participate m, 
however, are pretty much the same over the 
country Some evaluation is possible here 
although the interpretation of results is 
difficult For one thing, a student doesn’t 
need to know how to participate in all 
campus activities; people have individual 
preferences as to what they like to do On 
the other hand, inability to paiticipate in 
such a universal activity as dancing may be 

the basis for a student’s exclusion from a 
group of friends whom he would like to 
have Further evidence of the type of prob- 
lem here discussed is the finding at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota that 17 per cent of 
the men and 12 per cent of the women 
participated in no organized activities on or 
off the campus and many of the others only 
listed church attendance® 

The basis adopted here for evaluating ac- 
tivities IS threefold (a) Are enough ac 
tivities participated m to give many social 
contacts? (b) Is this range of activities suf 
ficient to permit a variety of contacts? And 
(c) are there enough personal hobbies and 
interests to act as a counterbalance to these 
social pursuits and to lead to the develop- 
ment of an interesting individuality? Thus 
one becomes acceptable (and also grows m 
personal happiness) as he can do the things 
tliat others do and is individualistic enough 
to be an interesting companion 

One basis for evaluation is to compare 
your pattern of out-of-school activities with 
that of other students As noted above, it is 
not intended that every student should have 
an identical pattern but neither should a 
student limit his activities to lonely pursuits 
and hobbies. Tlie first step then is to fill out 
the following Activity Questionnaire so that 
you will have some concrete data with which 
to work 

® C M Brown, Soaal activities survey, J Higbez 
Educ, 1936, 8 257—264 





Foi each of the following activity areas, list how many different kinds you participated in during the 
past year, i e , how many diffeient sports? 

1. Different kinds of sports 

2 Different kmds of card games 

3 Different kinds of social groups, i e , fratermty, student government, Y M C A 
4. Different kmds of hobbies 

For each of the following activity aieas, list bow many times you have participated in each in the 
past month. 

5 Concerts . . 

6. Movies 

7 Dances 

8 Dates 

9 Parties 

10 Bull sessions 

For the following two activity areas, bst how many houis you spend a month on each 

11. Leisuie Eeadmg . 

12. Radio 

Your results on this questionnaire can be deviates extremely in his amount of par- 
compared to those of other students through ticipation and in the balance of his dis- 
use of Table lo It shows the results on a tnbution. 

similar questionnaire for typical midwestern Another basis for evaluation, as well as an 
college freshmen and college seniors For indication of a problem which faces the col- 
each group is shown the number checked lege graduate, is given in Chart 19 in Ap- 
by the median student and also the scores pendix I (see page 218) This chart shows 
for the first and third quartiles To compare the degree to which 13,000 youth (ages 
your results, find the group row which best 16-24) in Maryland participated m club 
describes you and then for each type of activities when in school and after gradua- 
activity mark above, below, or on the one tion It is startling to find that so many stu- 
of the tliree numbers which is closest to dents do not belong to any clubs Another 
your score important finding in this chart, and cor- 

These data have to be used with some roborated by other studies, is that on leaving 
caution, however The season of the year school with its many social opportunities, 
(spring in this case), the ratio of men to youth show a marked drop in the amount of 
women, and the climate, all affect what is participation m group activities, 1 e , only 
checked. And as indicated before, there is 21 per cent belong to clubs In another 
no best end to these norms, the value of this study 38 per cent of the women who had 
table lies in permitting a student to see if he graduated from small high schools in Ohio 


Table 10 Extent to Winch Different Groups of Students Participate in Different Tsrpes of Activities ^ 

Number m Past Year 

Times m Past Month 

Hours per 


























College freshmen 














25 % 


























College semors 









































College freshmen 








































College seniors 



























belonged to no organizations although all of 
them had been active in high school Similar 
declines occur in other types of activifaes, 
eg, a study of 5,000 teachers showed that 
4a per cent had no hobbies and 36 per cent 
took no systematic exercise Some interesting 
data as to how college graduates spend their 
free time once they are out of college is 
given in Table 13 on page 214 m Ap- 
pendix I In general, however, students who 
have an active program in school are more 
apt to continue it into adult life than aie 
students with a narrow and limited pro- 

Wliat a person does with Ins fiee time 
IS m a major sense his own business, that is, 
he should be allowed to decide if he does 
not want to participate in activities or 
hobbies, or wishes to drop them as he leaves 
school But the following studies indicate 
that such a pattern has its dangeis and a 

^ Based on the norms for the Recreation Inquiry 
by R Wilkinson and S, L. Pressey, 

fair warning should at least be given In 
one study it was found that only ig per cent 
of teachers judged to be “unusually stable” 
had no hobbies but 39 per cent of those 
judged “unduly nervous” had no hobbies 
Another study showed that the top fifth in 
personality adjustment participated four 
times as often in “active, outdoor, social” 
activities as the bottom fifth m adjustment 
These two extreme gioups did not differ in 
their number of activities which were 
solitary and sedentary, but the best adjusted 
participated only one-sixth as often m 
hobbies similar to tlieir work as the least 
well-adjusted Another study showed that the 
major characteristic of teachers admitted to 
state hospitals for the insane was a lack of a 
well-rounded interest pattern Still othei 
experiments have shown that pci sons who 
have fiiends near by are better able to with- 
stand die effects of fiustration than j^ersons 
witliout such friends It seems obvious that 
while almost any recreation is fun, a balanced 


recieational program is fundamental to later 
happy adjustment “ 

The following questions provide a basis 
for integrating and further clarifying your 
tlimking in this area Answer each m light 
of the results above and your other evalua- 

a In what activities currently much em- 
phasized in campus life do you have 
trouble participating? 

b What means are available in college 
or in town for learning about these 
activities, le, classes, handbooks, ac- 
tivities, le., etc.? 

'The discussion m the last two paragraphs has 
been based on the following studies Although 
many of them deal with teachers, the findings are 
representative for other adults H M Bell, Youth 
Tell Then Story, Amer Council on Educ, 1938, 
273 pp , F S Chapin, Extracurncular activibes of 
college students, a study m college leadership, 
School and Soc , 1926, z6 212-216, S L Pressey, 
Outstanding problems of emergency junior college 
students. School and Soc, 1936, 43 743-747, 
Fit to Teach, Ninth Yearbook, National Educabon 
Association, Department of Classroom Teachers, 
1938, 276 pp , W S Phillips and } E. Greene, 
Preliminary study of relabonship of age, hobbies, 
and civil status to neurobcism among women teach- 
ers, / Educ Psych , 1939, 30 440-444, F, V 
Mason, A study of 700 maladjusted teachers. Men- 
tal Hygiene, 1931, 15 576-600, } R P. French, Jr, 
The disrupbon and cohesion of groups, J Abn. & 
Soc Psych , 1941, 36 361-378, W C Reaws and 
G E Van Dyke, Nan-athletic extra cumculum ac- 
tivities, U S Office of Educ , Bull No 17, Monog 
No. 26, 1932, 149 pp 

c List specific activities that you plan to 
participate in during this and the next 

The following references will also he of 
some assistance 

H M Bell, Youth Tell Their Story, Amer 
Council on Educ, 1938 Chap 5 How 
13,000 youth (16-24) spent their time 

M M Crawford, Student Folkways and 
Spending, Columbia Univ Press, 1943 

M L Greenbie, The Aits of Leisure, 
McGraw-Hill, 1936 

M L Greenbie, Art of Living in War-time, 
McGraw-Hill, 1943 

A H Morehead, Modern Hoyle, Winston, 


Pocket Book of Games, Pocket Books, 1944, 
No 260 

G E Snavely, Choose and Use Your Col- 
lege, Harper, 1941 

D E Super, Avocatfonal Interest Patterns, 
Stanford Univ. Press, 1940 

C G Wren and D L Harley, Time on 
Them Hands, Amer Youth Comm , 1941 

3 Appearance and Manner The gist of 
this section may be stated simply as good 
taste in appearance and sincerity m manner, 
the very worst thing to do is to appear to be 
“putting on” m order to influence other 
people. On the otlier hand, students have 
questions as to what constitutes good taste 
in clothes, which mannerisms are offensive, 
and how one’s attempts to affect other per- 
sons may be made more effective 

Something as to the importance of ap- 
pearance and manner, on first meeting a per- 
son, IS indicated by an experiment at one 


TABiiB 11 The Most Frequent of 49 Areas m Which Students Make Comments About Other Students 
Whom They Are Seeing for the First Time (Adapted from Jacobson.) 

Rank Area Per Cent of Comments Nature of Comment 


m This Area 





Grooming — general remarks 

13 5 





Groommg — hau dress 

10 2 






10 2 











Self assurance — seif distrust 






Altruism — self seeking 






Gregar lousness — solitariness 






Taste in dress 






General oharactcristios — physical 






Groommg — make-up 






Clothmg — suitability to occasion 






Clothing — ^harmony of color 






Physical characteristics — ^hair 






Suitability of clothes to person 






Physical complexion 












Clothing — harmony of parts 






Remarks about clothing 





university ® Over 250 entering freshman 
girls, divided into groups of 24 each, wrote 
down their reactions concerning 23 other 
students as each in turn stood m hont of 
the class The several thousand offliand re- 
actions were then analyzed and classified by 
judges under 49 subtopics Table 11 sum- 
marizes the results for the top i8 of tiiese 
(which accounted for 90 per cent of all the 
comments) Grooming and posture are 
mentioned the most often Standing thus m 
front of 23 strangers would be more embar- 
rassing than the usual situation, so several 
aspects of behavior also rank high. Tlie 
right-hand side of the table shows how these 
comments are distributed according to cate- 
gories of favorable, neutral, and unfavorable 
Most comments were favorable, but it is 
interesting to note that several items tended 
toward particularly heavy negative votes, 
le, grooming (make-up), clothing (har- 
mony of parts), self-distrust, suitability of 
clothes to person, grooming (hair dress), 

“W E. Jacobson, Fust impressions of class- 
mates, J Appl Psych, 1945, 29 142-155 

clothing (harmony of color), and posture. 
When the experimenter analyzed the re- 
actions of other students who knew each 
other, she found that reactions to personality 
halts moved up to first place, and grooming, 
for instance, moved down to third. Char- 
acterisfacs of appearance are therefore es- 
pecially important for a first impression. 

A person's manner, as well as his ap- 
pearance, IS important m dealing with other 
individuals. When one thinks of how dif- 
ferent individuals influence the behavior of 
otliers, it IS apparent tliat some seem to do 
It with effective skill and otliers "put tlieir 
foot in it.” A person who is pleasant and 
fnendly is more apt to be liked and effective 
tlian one who is reserved and dour Courtesy, 
honesty, interest in others, and a sense of 
humor are other haits which characteristi- 
cally differenhate liked from disliked people 
m college.^ On the other hand one often 

^ F W Burks, Some factors related to social suc- 
cess m college, J Soc Psych, 1938, 9 125-140, 
W G Mather, Courtship ideals of high school 
youth. Social and Soc Res , 1934, 19 166-172 


finds that certain mannerisms are sources of 
annoyance to others Attempts to improve 
one's social presence and skill are worth 

Books on how to win friends and in- 
fluence people are popular, more tlian tliree 
million copies of one sueh book having 
been published But you can probably re- 
call some people who, having read such 
hooks, overdid it when they tried the tech- 
niques To appear to be “putting on” such 
techniques is offensive to others, any man- 
ner of behaving must appear to be natural 
Some idea as to the nature of these effecfave 
social skills can be found m the following 
readings, but you will do well to have a “best 
friend” or your counselor help you analyze 
what mannerisms and characteristics in your 
present behavior are not pleasing 

The following readings deal with both 
appearance and social behavior 

G F Alsop and M F McBride, She’s Off 
to College, Vanguard, 1940 

D Carnegie, How to Win Friends and In- 
fluence People, Pocket Books, No 68 

V Dengel, Personality Unlimited, Winston, 


R B Hamrick, How to Make Good m Col- 
lege, Association Press, 1940, Chaps 5-8 

E Hawes, Fashion Is Spinach, Random 
House, 1938 

W Wliite, Psychology in Living, Mac- 
millan, 1944 

M Wilson, Woman You Want to Be, Lip- 
pincott, 1942 

The college years are often the bme when 
one finds Ins best friends and even the per- 

son he later marries Because the entering 
student wants to do whatever he can to be 
good at such selection, he often spends 
much thought on two decision areas 

(a) What campus gioups should I join? 

(b) Should I get married— and to whom? 
Such decisions are the person’s own, but the 
following readings may be of interest and 
some assistance m clarifying these problems 

Campus Groups 

G F Alsop and M F McBride, She’s OS 
to College, Vanguard, 1940 Chap 10 
H C Hand, Campus Activities, McGiaw- 
Hill, 3938 Chap 9 

E Lloyd-Jones and R Fedder, Coming of 
Age, Whittlesey House, 1941 Pages 226- 

M McConn, Planning for College, Stokes, 

1937 Pages 199-234 

R B Hamrick, Flow to Make Good in Col- 
lege, Association Press, 1940 Pages 28-30 


H A Bowman, Marriage for Moderns, 
McGraw-Hill, 1942 

D D Bromley and F H Britton, Youth and 
Sex, Harper, 1938 

J K Folsom, Plan for Marriage, Flarper, 


R G Foster, Marriage and Family Relation- 
ships, Macmillan, 1944 
E R Groves, Marriage, Holt, 1942 
H M Jordan, You and Marriage, Wiley, 

P Popenoe, Modern Marriage, Macmillan, 

F B Strain, Love at the Threshold, Apple- 
ton-Century, 1941 



Probably almost every one of us has per- 
sonal problems These worries make us in- 
efficient by distracting our attention, pre- 
venting normal healthful habits of living, 
and giving us a dour outlook on life Quite 
often, in spite of our resolve to stop thinking 
about them, tliey keep plaguing us 
Worries and fears can be dealt with so 
that cither they are eliminated or adjust- 
ments are made to them Psychologists have 
found that if a person talks over his prob- 
lems with some adequately trained individ- 
ual, he will be benefited in two ways First, 
just talking over a problem with another per- 
son tends to "get it out of one’s system,” 
with quite beneficial results to his peace of 
mind Second, in spite of the common belief 
that each person’s problems are unique, psy- 
chologists have found that most problems 
have certain common characteristics and 
that people tend to react in certain regular 
ways to them With this understanding of 
problems and of their good and poor solu- 
tions, psychologists arc able to assist people 
in analyzing the nature of tlieir worries and 
in handling them better 
The counselor in charge of this course is 
available for consultation concerning any 
personal problems you may wish to discuss 
with him Many colleges also have on their 
staff other trained people who specialize in 
this personal counseling Youi counselor can 
tell you who these guidance specialists are. 
Because almost eveiyone is reticent about 
having his personal affairs and problems gen- 
erally known, these specialists keep all in- 
formation given them strictly confidential. 


There is no parhcular need to make a 
catalogue of all your worries In a way, 
your checking on the Piobleip Check List 
in Project I represents such a listing Each 
student knows his own woiries, he should 
feel free to ask for a conference with a 
counselor in order to talk over any of them 
tliat he wishes. 

Often if a student has difficulty m dis- 
cussing a problem directly with another per- 
son, he will find that writing out a de- 
scription of it for the counselor to read 
confidentially will enable him to present it 
more easily 

Program for Improvement 

Your talks with your counselor (either 
die guidance specialist or your course coun- 
selor) will be the key aspect of this project. 
Some useful readings are listed among the 
following, aldiough you must realize that 
mere reading is not a complete answer to 
many problems. 

Finances in College’ 

W J Greenleaf, Working Your Way 
Through College, U S Office of Educ 
V D Bull No 210, 1940, 175 pages 

W J Greenleaf, Student Loan Funds, U S 
Office of Educ, 1940, Misc No 2141, 
19 pages 

F J Kelley and E B Ratcliffe, Financial 
Aid for College Students, U S Office of 
Educ, Bull No 11, 1940 

C E Lovej'oy, So You're Going to College, 
Simon & Schuster, 1940. 



M McConn, Planning for College, Stokes, 
1937 Pages 102-165, 261-263 

G E Snavely, Choose and Use Your Col- 
lege, Plarper, 1941 

Home Relationships 

C C Fry and E G Rostow, Mental Health 
in College, Commonwealth Fund, 1943 
Chap 3 

E A Leonaid, Pzohlems of Freshmen Col- 
lege Girls, Teachers College, Child Dev 
Moiiog, No 9, 1932 

E Lloyd-Jones and R Fedder, Coming of 
Age, Whittlesey House, 1941 Chap 3 

K W Taylor, Do Adolescents Need Parents? 
Appleton-Century, 1938 

Organic Factors and Personality Development 

A V Keliher, Life and Growth, Appleton- 
Century, 1938 

W V Richmond, Personality, Its Develop- 
ment and Hygiene, Farrar & Rinehart, 
1937 Pages 192-200, 261-265. 

A Schcinfeld, You and Heredity, Stokes, 

^ 1939 

L F Shaffer, Psychology of Adjustment, 
Houghton Mifflin, 1936 Chap 12 

Philosophy of Life, Religious Development 

M E Bennett, College and Life, McGraw- 
Hill, 1941, rev. ed. 

H E Fosdick, On Being a Real Person, 
Haiper, 1943. 


L B Hale, From School to College, Yale 
Umv Press, 1939 

D B Klein, Mental Hygiene, Holt, 1944 
Chap 11. On dynamics of conscience 

J H Miller, Take a Look at Yourself, Cokes- 
bury, 1944 

Emotional Problems 

D D Bromley and F H Britton, Youth 
and Sex, Harper, 1938 

O M Butterfield, Love Problems of Adoles- 
cents, Teach Coll Contn Educ, 1939, 
No. 798 

L Cole, Attaining Maturity, Fariar & Rine- 
hart, 1944 

C C Fry and E G Rostow, Mental Health 
in College, Commonwealth Fund, 1943 

W Johnson, People in Quandaries, Harper, 

F, McKinney, Psychology of Personal Ad- 
justment, Wiley, 1941 Chaps 13-16 

W Richmond, Making the Most of Your 
Personality, Farrar & Rinehart, 1942 

L F Shaffer, Psychology of Adjustment, 
Houghton Mifflin, 1936 Chaps 5-10 

E A Strecker, K E Appel, and J W Appel, 
Discovering Ourselves, Macmillan, 1944, 
2nd ed 

L E Travis and D W Baruch, Personal 
Problems of Everyday Life, Appleton- 
Century, 1941 

W White, Psychology m Living, Macmillan, 



Tlie purpose of this final project is to 
make an inventory of your progress and to 
plan for whatever future work seems neces- 
sary This cannot be a final closing of your 
record or of your efforts since a single course 
cannot be expected completely to remedy 
the deficient attitudes, skills, and knowledge 
you may have developed over a period of 
many years Thus far, you have had the fol- 
lowing purposes m this course, (i) the de- 
velopment of an awareness of your various 
abilities and problems, (2) training in 
higher-level work skills, and (3) an initial 
attack to remedy deficiencies in, or adjust 
your plans to, your profile of abilibes. Now 
there is need for a progress report upon 
which you can base your future efforts Be- 
cause training in how-to-study must be done 
in terms of specific problems, your diagnosis 
at the beginning of this course must now be 
changed m light of the work that you have 

Note also that if your present survey indi- 
cates the solution of some problem, such as 
reading rate, you still have to practice fur- 
ther m order to make this skill habitual and 

What are some of the bases by which you 
may evaluate your present status? 

1. A retest on some of the tests that you 
took initially and on which you did poorly 
will indicate the extent of your gams and the 
present status of these problems Tests com- 
parable to some of these first ones are avail- 

able for retesting and may be obtained from 
the publishers ^ 

2 These remeasured basic skills, while 
important, represent only a small part of 
what you have been working on this term. 
Also measure your improvement in the 
quality of your notebook and class papers, in 
your study habits, in your use of time, in 
your ability “to concentrate,” and in your 
ability to predict quiz questions and take 

3 You should include an evaluation of 
your social and vocational adjustments and 
the steps that you are taking toward tlieir 

4 Your conferences with your counselor 
about various problems also offer a good 
basis for the analysis of your present prob- 

5 There are probably some traits on 
which you did not know your relative stand- 
ing before tahng this course This new 
orientation should have assisted in your 
school adjustment. 

Your problem in this project, then, is to 
(1) state your present status in terms of all 
these measures, (2) evaluate the gams you 
have made, and (3) outline tlie program of 

^Rate and comprehension accuracy, “Russian 
History” or “Canadian History," Ohio Slate Univ 
Press Vocabulary, Form B (Part II of General 
Reading Test), State Department of Educabon, 
State Office Bmldmg, Columbus, Ohio English 
Sutv^, Form B, State Department of Education, 
State Office Bmldmg, Columbus, Ohio. 

i 82 effective study PROJECT XIV 

remedial work that you plan to carry on 
after this course You can best do this with 
an informal essay coveiing these points, it is 
to be handed to the counseloi not later than 
the last day of class before exam week 
Your counselor will be glad to go over 
your outline before you write this paper. 

and make pertinent suggestions and cor- 

If at a later time m your college program 
you need help with any aspect of the work 
that has been covered in this course, feel 
free to ask your present counselor for as- 




Art Reading Rate and Comprehension Accuracy tests 185 

Geology Reading Rate and Comprehension Accuracy tests 199 

Special Reading Skills tables, charts, maps, and formulae 213 

English Survey tests, grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence 
structure 223 

Spelling 233 



Do not turn the page until tlie signal to begin reading is given 
A Test of Reading Ability for 

Fiancis P Robinson and Prudence Hall 
The Ohio State University 


Name Age 

Grade School 

1 The purpose of this test is to measure your ability to read school assignments You are to read 

2 the following art selection in your usual manner of reading assignments, after ten minutes of 

3 reading you will be asked to answer questions over the material read These questions will be 

4 of the type generally asked in class over such readings 

5 At the end of 3 minutes, 6 minutes, and 10 minutes of leading you will be asked to "Mark " 

6 This means that you are to encircle quickly the number of the line that you are leading (num- 

7 bered as m the left-hand margin here) and then go on immediately with your reading At the 

8 end of 10 mmutes you will be asked to stop reading and to tuin to the questions which follow 

9 Be accurate in notmg the last line read for you will be expected to answer questions over all the 
10 material that you mark as having been read 

• Used with permission from Volume F, pp 36-42, Comvtcm’s Pictured Encyclopedia, copyright, P E 
Compton and Co , 1941 



2 What is “ art ”? Let us begin shaping our answer to this 

3 question by going back to the original meaning of the word. 

4 The two letters ar foim a very ancient word root appearing 
6 in many languages. Its meaning is to bind or j oin together. 

6 When a man joins or bmds materials together, as pieces of 

7 wood in a chair, or hnes and colors, as in a picture, he is 

8 an artist — one who makes. An am, the part so beautifully 

9 joined to the human shouldei, is a work of art, “the art 

10 of God ” A coat of chain mail, a piece of m mor, is made 

11 of many metal rings hnked mgeniously and beautifully to 

12 one another. This is a work of art, the ait of man In 

13 both “arm” and “armoi” the ar appears, and both imply 

14 the fundamental sigmficance of art — ^joining and binding to- 

15 gether To this elementary idea let us add what the gieat 

16 painter Walter Sargent said “Art is not a mere skillful rep- 

1 7 1 esentation of nature, but a concrete embodiment of a sigmfi- 

1 8 cant range of human experience. ” Now we have a bi oad and 

19 firm foundation upon which to build an understanding of 

20 our subject. 

21 Classes op Aet 

22 The various aits are broadly divided into two classes, 

23 ordmarily distinguished as the useful arts and the fine arts 

24 The meamng of the former of these terms is self-evident 

25 The fine arts begm when there is a conscious attempt to 

26 express beauty in the form of the thmg made, and in its 

27 decoration. 

28 Man exposed to ram and cold builds a roof and four 

29 walls withm which to be protected against the elements His 

30 building is a work of useful art But suppose he makes his 

31 roof project, so that it casts a deep shadow on tho walls when 

32 the sun shmes, and that he makes the chimney large, so that 

33 his house wiU not only be, but seem to be, a place of shelter 

34 and warmth. And suppose that he sets ornamental columns 

35 at either side of his door to make it at once suggestive of 

36 hospitahty and beauty. Then his house does more than with- 

37 stand the elements, it celebrates %ts triumph over them. This 

38 IS the fine art of architecture ; a form of emotional expression. 

39 And this is precisely what the fine arts are. 

40 This celebratmg of the triumph theme is evidenced in 

41 every form of fine art Prom the aboriginal song and dance 

42 of savage wamors after battle down to the day of Sousa 

43 marches, tnumph has found expression m the fine art of 

44 music. Since before the time of the Greeks, it has been ex- 

45 pressed m sculpture. From ancient Egyptian times it has been 

46 presented m painting In every age the fine art of poetry has 

47 made triumph its theme. 


48 Architecture, sculpture, painting, music, and literature 

49 aie not the only fine arts Wherever there is an effoit to 
60 express beauty in the form and decoration of the thing made, 

51 we find a fine art, and the person who seeks to create beauty 

52 thus IS an artist 

53 Identification of Aktist with Object 

54 The ]oy, pam, devotion, scorn, patriotism, or ecstasy 
65 which the artist felt when he wrote the sonnet, composed the 

56 funeral march, formed the vase, wrought the inimitable iron 

57 hinges of the doors of Notre Dame of Paris is m turn felt 

58 by the person who reads the sonnet, hears the march, or sees 

59 the vase and the lunges Ait speaks a umversal language — 

60 alanguage, as Charles Reade says, “without words, unfettered 

61 by the penman’s hnuts, it can steal through the eye into 

62 the heart or bram, ahke of the learned and the unlearned — 

63 and is at the mercy of no translator ” This is seen in dancing, 

64 a form of musical appreciation in which the hstener becomes 

65 a pait of the performance, a co-worker with the composed 

66 Arthur B Davies says “When I paint a wave I am the 

67 wave ” True. And it is also tiue that when we look at his 

68 painting of the wave we are that wave. When the painter 

69 sweeps his brush over the canvas, he feels himself doing just 

70 what the wave is doing He becomes, as he says, a sort of 

71 conscious wave, when we sweep our eyes over the hues where 

72 his brush has led, we, too, become a sort of acting, conscious 

73 wave. 

74 Artist Interested in Effects 

75 In answer to the question “What is a wave?” the 

76 scientist with his cold analytical method will explain that 

77 it is the result of certain causes and principles; he will sep- 

78 arate it into its elements, and will point out the relations 

79 of the wave to other thongs. He will always lead away fiom 

80 the wave itself. The artist, on the other hand, forces atten- 

81 ti on solely to the wave “The real woik of art,” it has been 

82 said, “leads nowhere, and its frame ends the world ” In 

83 general, art may be said to show effects, not to seek their 

84 causes. 

85 The fine arts make us share the hope, fear, aspiration, 

86 joy, and sorrow of humamty, because a work of fine art is 

87 always the expression of one or the other of these Whistler, 

88 the most famous American pamter, said, “The artist is to 

89 arrest and typify m materials the harmomous and inter- 

90 blended rhythms of nature and humamty.” 

91 Nature and Pine Arts 

92 Another way of explaining fine arts is to say that they 

93 are what man makes out of the mspiration which he receives 

94 from nature. He is so profoundly impressed that he must 



95 give utterance to his feelings, and he does so in a hymn of 

96 ]oy, a nobly formed statue, a perfectly proportioned vase, 

97 or the pattern and colors of an oriental rug In all art, he 

98 seeks to preserve the significance of the passing moment — 

99 in the joy of seemg a sea-sheU or a fern frond and fixing 

100 some of that joy which nature has given him in the shape 

101 of a silver basin or an lomc capital, or m the hne of a 

102 drawing 

103 The arts thus inspired by nature put us into a state of 

104 receptive calm. They first make captive our imagination or 

105 our ]oy in sight or sound; and then, through the unity and 

106 mtensity of their mterest, they grip our whole consciousness 

107 until, hke the children and the Pied Piper, we forget all else 

108 and follow. Even m this cahn, however, there is a sort of 

109 activity, for when we aie enjoymg a lyric, a musical rhap- 

110 sody, a symphony of color, a bit of Roman glass, or a fine 

111 fabric, we are hvmg as mtensely as at any other time, but 

112 we are free of the conscious effort of hvmg. 

114 What Aktistic “Unity" Means 

115 To give this feehng of calm, a work of art must have 

116 but one theme, it must be free within itself from conflicting 

117 attractions or suggestions; that is, it must have umty, 

118 Whether it be sonnet, picture, vase, or cathedral, it must at 

119 a glance give one umfied impression. That impression may 

120 be simple, as is that produced by the architecture of a Greek 

121 temple, it may be as complex as is that given by the cathe- 

122 dral of Amiens. But it must be one It may be imposmg, 

123 as m Michelangelo’s statue of Moses; or it may be delicate, 

124 as m the carvings of the Japanese, but it must produce an 

125 unconfused impression. It may be brought about by com- 

126 bining many similar forms, colors, hnes, or ideas until they 
12? add power to one another, as in the poems of Milton and in 

128 the paintmgs of Corot. It may be brought about by leading 

129 the attention to an unUkeness in certain related things, as 

130 in Keats’ sonnet ‘On the Grasshopper and the Cricket,’ which 

131 brings out a contrast. But in any case, a single impression 

132 must result. 

133 Nature doesnot always give us simple relations, and so, if 

134 he would produce pictorial beauty, the artist must make many 

135 changes m the “landscape with figures aimd which we dwell." 

136 He must select, arrange, subdue, and accent the elements 

137 of his work so that they will produce the mood or set forth 

138 the idea which he is endeavormg to present. He must not 

139 admit confusion, the enemy of all the fine arts, unless it is 

140 a part of the subject matter, as for example, the picture of a 

141 volcanic eruption. It must never be a part of his techmque. 

142 Whistler said* “Nature contains the elements, in color and 

143 form, of aU pictures (of all varieties of fine art), as the 



144 keyboard contains the notes of all music. But the artist is 

145 born to pick and choose, and group with science, these 

146 elements that the result may be beautiful ” 

147 The Meaning op “Composition” 

148 This process of selection and arrangement is called ‘ ‘ com- 

149 position ” For illustration we turn to pamtmg When, in 

150 looking over the fields, we send our glance from the trees 

151 to the hills beyond them, when we remove our eyes from 

152 a person to whom we are speaking, to the walls ]ust behind 

153 him; when, in fact, we leave off looking at any one thing 

154 and look at somethng either farther away or nearer than 

155 that at which we were looking before, our eyes change 

156 their focus in somewhat the way the focus of a camera is 

157 changed to suit varying distances Now, if the artist were 

158 to try to paint in one picture the hills as he sees them 

159 when looking directly at them, or the trees, or the clouds, 

160 he would have a pictme with as many separate interests 

161 as it contained objects — a picture which would never have 

162 unity or give repose of any sort. So the artist must select 

163 some one thing for the mam theme of his picture, and 

164 to this he must subordinate all other thmgs which occur 

165 in it. 

166 In nature it is sufiicient if the form of a tree be 

167 beautiful against the sky; in a pictme the visible shapes 

168 of sky seen through the tree must be equally beautiful. The 

169 picture, since it is all to be seen at once, must be a beau- 

170 tiful pattern in which every shape is fine. Consistency of 

171 character, which has been called harmony, consistency of 

172 attractions, which has been called balance, and consistency 

173 of movement, which has been called rhythm, will keep all 

174 elements of the work together m an mtegral whole. Here 

175 again the artist in formmg his work must exercise his aesthetic 

176 judgment, varying fiom nature’s appearances, if need be, to 

177 bring finer proportion into his work, to give it more perfect 

178 unity and deeper meamng. 

179 Corot’s landscape ‘Mormng’ has now come to be called 

180 ‘The Dance of the Nymphs ’ Is this because there is a group 

181 of tiny figures at the bottom — ^who m truth are scarcely 

182 dancing and who may hardly be called nymphs? Or is it 

183 because of the witchery of that flowmg movement which 

184 takes us from the bottom up mto the picture, aeioss the 

185 top and down the other side, lastly circhng round and round 

186 the bit of sky in the center, leading us, befoie we know it, 

187 in an airy dance through the treetops? The httle figures 

188 give the keynote — ^they form a statement of the theme, 

189 Morning, Happiness, Dancing. Butevenif they were suddenly 

190 to whisk themselves out and disappear on the other side of 


191 the tangled shrubbery, the movement of the picture would 

192 still go on, and it would still be a dance of the nymphs 

194 Turner’s great picture ‘The Fighting Temeraire’ ex- 

195 presses a contrastmg mood. What is there about this pic- 

196 ture to show that this ship is the heroine of England’s 

197 battles that she is — or to tell us that she is being towed 

198 away for biealong up? And yet Ruskin says that of all 

199 pictures not visibly involving human pain, this is the saddest 

200 What has the artist done to make us feel the solemnity of 

201 this occasion? We see a sheet of still water under a 

202 gieat bending sunset sky On the othei side a tall ship is 

203 coming up, towed by a black tugboat Long ripples aie thrown 

204 to left and right, and thin smoke pouis back from the funnel 

205 of the tug Shadows are gathering from all sides, and there 

206 are the buildings of a gieat city beyond in the gloom. Con- 

207 sider the use of hues. Are they hke those merry ones that 

208 circle round the canvas of Corot’s ‘Morning’? Or are they 

209 the hues which we see in the solemn gioves of pine or 

210 cypiess, m the desert, and in the great cathedrals? Are 

211 they like the figures in a funeral march? Has the artist 

212 accepted Nature only as he found her? 

214 Message of Art is a Mood 

215 The beauty of a picture, a piece of music, a Greek vase 

216 does not he m pleasing the emotions alone. Perhaps it is 

217 impossible for the emotions to be stirred at all without the 

218 mind receiving some deeper message thiough it Thus, art 

219 IS a sort of language, but the message which that lan- 

220 guage has to give is not an intellectual one. Art does not 

221 exist primarily to set forth facts The message from a 

222 picture, like that of the music or from the vase, comes as 

223 an experience, a mood which the work awakens within us, 

224 and not as a story which the thing itself tells A Bokhara 

225 rug may be of “sleepy coloring’’ and give us the repose of 

226 twilight as we contemplate it, a clear melody may give 

227 us the same feehngs as a view from a mountain top, a dash 

228 of thrillmg color may be to us hke a battle-hymn, the 

229 curve of a vase may absorb our whole being Such, and 

230 numerous otheis, are the artistic messages we may receive 

231 if we fit ourselves to receive them, instead of the common- 

232 place message that “here is a man and he is doing so and 

233 so ” These are the feelings which come to us stiaight from 

234 the heart of the artist himself, even though he be cen- 

235 tunes in his grave The tree, the figure, and the incident 

236 are merely the words of the message Its charm or inspiia- 

237 tion IS something very different We are aware of this when 

238 we look at a 13th-century stained glass window, a silver 

239 teapot by Paul Revere, or the spire of a great cathedral. 
241 Three principal considerations compel an artist to turn 


242 away from attempting to copy nature slavishly Of these, 

243 doubtless the chief is the desire for expression of emotion 

244 Intimately related to this is the second, namely absolute 

245 beauty, a beauty other than that which is associated with 

246 the subject as being merely one of the many things in life. 

247 ThisisfeelingforbeautywhichJeanSimeon Chardin (French, 

248 1699-1779) or Emil Cailsen (American, 1853-1932) get into 

249 a picture of such objects as a ragged book, a cut of meat, or 
260 a battered copper pot And so we see why beauty may be 

251 defined as being a light which shines about a thing and is 

252 not the thing itself The third deals with the tianslation of 

253 the three-dimensional aspect of nature mto the two-dimen- 

254 sional limits of a picture or a pure pattern Artists whose 

255 aim is merely to portray nature are busy with only the vocabu- 

256 lary of art and not the ideas , with externals and not emotional 

257 reactions. These three considerations give artists a working 

258 giammar of art, the means, along with the vocabulary, of 

260 expressing themselves, but their expression in terms of beauty 

261 and permanence — ^be it in pottery, weaving, metal working, 

262 painting, architecture, or poetry of deep human experience 

263 — ^is the great purpose of them all Its attainment stamps 

264 the seal of success on all that can properly be called “the 

265 fine arts ” Without this successful expression of experience 

266 or emotion, it becomes mere slavish reproduction 

266 Inbustkial Aets 

267 By industrial arts, decorative arts, we understand all 

268 those things which make our dwelling rooms attractive Wil- 

269 ham Morris, an Englishman (1834-1896), started a move- 

270 ment to increase the beauty of common objects and to add 

27 1 beauty to machine-made obj ects of daily use Thi s revolution 

272 m taste spread over Europe and the Umted States. Since 

273 the opening of the 20th century France has done a similar 

274 thing with distinguished, far-reachmg success At present 

275 the improvement of taste and the betteiment of design in 

276 our own country are making great headway through the in- 

277 terest of educational institutions and the suppoit of manu- 

278 facturers and retail establishments Artists are being asked 

279 to bring their traimng and taste to bear on labels, packages, 

279 and even the shapes of products 

280 Cycles in Art's History 

281 The story of art from ancient to present times is a record 

282 of many changes, tendencies, and attainments Once these 

283 have run their course, they seem to begm all over and repeat, 

284 like a wave which rises to its crest and then subsides to its 

285 trough again and again First, m every fine ait, come a child- 

286 like technique and strong emotion, as seen, for example, in 

287 the drawings of children in Cizek’s classes, or the glazed 



288 pottery horses of the ancient Chinese Later comes the stage 

289 of developed techmque, in which emotion is still strong, as, 

290 for mstanee, m a Paul Potter bull, a Rembrandt landscape, 

291 a statue by Michelangelo. Last comes a consuming passion 

292 for realism, the effort to make everything — picture, carpet 

293 or wall-paper design, sculpture — deceptively real to vie with 

294 nature, not to create In the industrial arts this tendency 

295 IS seen in an extreme concern for detail, as in flower-painted 

296 Chinese jars as compared with Dresden ware, ornamented 

297 with naturalistic flowers in rehef 

298 After a period of reahsm, which is the siren that lures 

299 all the arts to destruction, comes reaction to pure design and 

300 pattern Many beheve that we are ]ust now entering such a 

301 period. They beheve that modernistic art, although it is pro- 

302 ductive of some absurdity, is none the less leading to bettei 

303 things What was considered beautiful in eai her days IS still 

304 a part of the beautiful, but it does not impress us today as it 

305 did then. As life changes, so does beauty, and since the flne 

306 arts express hfe, they are affected by the tempo and the spirit 

307 of change and eflflciency in present-day living In geneial, 

308 the modern tendency is toward simplicity and usefulness 

309 Fine Arts in the Schools 

310 There is no better witness to the fact that the fine arts 

311 help to explain hfe and add happiness to it than the marked 

312 increase of interest in them which present-day education is 

313 showmg. Methods of teachmg focus attention on making 

314 them means of self-expression One of the world’s successful 

315 art teachers of children, the famous Prof P Cizek of Vienna, 

316 assigns a subject, such as Spring, or Autumn, and leaves 

317 each child to mvent his own expression by using the forms 

318 and facts which he has gathered from his own experience 

320 Startlingly fresh and often beautiful have been the results, 

321 for example, the ‘Dog and Ducks’ by a 13-year-old child 

322 Opportunities are given for actual work with the materials 

323 and tools of various fine arts Through successes and failures 

324 the pupils learn of the difficulties involved, and their sense of 

325 appreciation and selection is thereby awakened as m no 
325 other way. 

325 How TO Appreciate Art 

326 How can we learn to appreciate good pictures, sculpture, 

327 engraving, and other forms of fine art, when there are so many 

328 kinds, and so many conflictmg opinions about them? There are 

329 no sure rules foi doing this any more than for appreciating 

330 good hterature; but a few suggestions have been helpful. 

331 First of all, never try to force your likings. Give them 

332 a chance to develop by looking at all kinds, especially heed 

333 what good authorities call excellent. Second, never condemn 


334 a work of fine art because its subject does not appeal, or is 

335 absolutely distasteful to you. Distinguish between the picture 

336 or object as an arrangement of color, shadow, line, and mass, 

337 and as the portrayal of a specific subject. Look for patterns 

338 as apart from the details which express them. Look for 

339 rhythms. Look for deft lines that bmd the parts into one 

340 umfied whole. Heed with utmost care the picture that at first 

341 glance gives you a single clear impression. Look for strength 

342 first, and admire dehcacy afterward. Be neither intellectually 

343 brow-beaten by a great name — ^the greatest have their weak 

344 moments — ^nor contemptuous in the presence of an unloxown 

345 one Use eyes and mind wherever pictures aie concerned 

346 and be glad when they make your heart beat rapidly Remem- 

347 ber George Meredith’s words, “He who sees well is king of 

348 what he sees; eyesight is haymg.” 


Do not look at the next two pages until after text is read. 




Francis P Robinson and Prudence Hall 
The Ohio State University 

Directions I 

Note the number of the last line you had read at the end of 10 minutes Turn this page and find 
the number m the left-hand margin which is just equal to, or just less than, this numbei Draw a 
line across the page under the question thus numbered and then answer each of the questions down 
to this line 

After you have answered these questions, read Directions II and do what it requests 

Directions II 

Write in below the three numbers which you encircled in the text at the end of 3 mmutes, 6 minutes, 
and 10 minutes of reading 

Rath of Rbadinq . . 


No right 
No tned 

3 minute Ime 
6 minute Ime 
10 mmute Ime * 


% right 


* This value for the 10-minute interval also equals the average number of words read per minute during 
this tune 



In the left-hand margin there is a series of “line numbers ” Find the number that is equal to, 

or just less than, the number of the last Ime you read Mark this and do not answer questions beyond 

this point 


20 What IS the fundamental quahty of art? (1) joinmg together (2) beauty 

(3) perspective (4) skillful representation (5) balance (1) 

20 Art IS a skillful representation of nature as m a photograph . .. (2) T F 

26 What are the two classes of art? (1) useful (2) practical (3) fine (4) in- 
dustrial (5) hterary (3) 


40 To what class of art does a hand-tooled leather purse belong? (1) useful 

(2) practical (3) fine (4) industrial (5) hterary (5) 

47 The theme that is celebrated in every form of fine art is (1) beauty (2) 

representation (3) decoration (4) triumph (5) deficiencies of world (6) 

52 An artist is a person who (1) copies (2) creates what is beautiful (7) 

73 The painter identifies himself with the object of lus art (8) T F 

73 The observer identifies himself with the art object he is observing (9) T F 

84 The artist is more concerned with causes than effects (10) T F 

89 The fine arts deal almost entirely with the hopes and aspiiations of hu- 
manity and with that which is good in life (11) T F 

102 Where does the artist ultimately get his inspiration? (1) himself (2) na- 
ture (3) history of race (12) 

113 What effect do the arts have upon one viewing them? (1) mouse him to 
criticism (2) free him from the conscious effort of hving (3) inspire him 
to create a work of art (4) soothe his nerves (13) 

132 A work of art may have how many themes? (1) only one (2) related ones 

(3) many (4) themes within a theme (14) 

135 The artist must simphfy the relationship he finds among the objects he 

portrays (16) T F 

141 It would never be artistic to portray the havoc of a battlefield as it 

realty is (16) T F 

149 By what name is the process of selection and arrangement known? (1) 

composition (2) consistency (3) umty (4) subordmation . (17) 

165 In developing a scene depiotmg “Jealousy,” the prmciple of unity would 
suggest the use m this picture of (1) all three people m the triangle (2) 
two of these people (3) the jealous peison only (4) any of these or other 
combmations of persons that would best depict your theme (18) 

165 TiTiy should some things in a pmntmg appear to be out of focus? (1) it 
is a more skillful techmque (2) that is the way they look m real life (3) 
to give a single impression (4) the artist does not have time to concen- 
trate on less important aspects . , . , (19) 




173 Consistency of attractions in a picture is called harmony (20) T F 

178 In this process of selection and arrangement, what three thmgs are im- 
portant? (1) beauty (2) haimony (3) focus (4) curved hues (6) balance 
(6) perspective (7) rhythm (21) 

( 22 ) 


193 Why IS Corot’s landscape “Morning” also called the “Dance of the 
Nymphs”? Because of (1) the three figures (2) the movement m the 
painting (3) the consistency (4) the iipphng water (24) 

213 What IS the theme of Turner’s “Fighting Temeraire”? (1) bravery (2) 

sadness (3) glory of war (4) iiony (5) sternness (25) 

213 The theme of these two pictures is produced primarily by (1) the selec- 
tion of objects in the paintmg (2) the flow and direction of the lines (3) 
the titles used (26) 

224 The message of art is primarily (1) intellectual (2) a mood (3) emotional 

(4) an inspiration (27) 

240 The message of art is to present the beauty of the scene rather than to 

use a scene to present the beauty which the artist is expeiiencing (28) T F 

255 What three considerations compel the artist to turn away fiom trying 
to copy nature slavishly? (1) artistic scruples (2) absolute beauty (3) 
principles of design (4) desire to improve upon nature (5) desire for 
expression of emotions (6) knowledge of the futility of trying to copy 
nature (7) translation of three-dimensional aspects to the canvas (29) . ... 

(30) . 

279 According to the text, the industnal arts resemble the fine arts more 

closely than they resemble the useful arts (32) T F 

285 The stages of art history (1) go in cycles (2) pi ogress with frequent re- 
gression (3) occasionally regress, by accident (4) are leading to a fifth 
and new stage (33) 

296 List the following stages of art history m chronological order (1) reahsm 

(2) childlike techmque (3) developed technique (34) 

300 What IS the siren that leads all the arts to destruction? (1) surreahsm 

(2) reahsm (3) simplicity (4) cubism (5) impressionism (6) classicism (35) 

308 In general, according to the text, the modern tendency is toward (1) 

reahsm (2) simphcity and usefulness (3) classicism (36) 

315 How IS art taught in the schools? (1) self-expression (2) copying art 

forms (3) studying about artists (37) . , . 

330 Authorities are agreed upon a theory of art. . (38) T F 

348 To appreciate ait, one should confine his study to works of great masters (39) T F 


348 Which, m each of the following pairs, is more important to consider in 

judging a work of art? 
(1) subject portrayed ve 

! (2) arrangement of color, shadow, line and 


(1) patterns ve 

s (2) details 


(1) strength V£ 

1 . (2) dehcacy 



Do not turn the page until the signal to begin reading is given. 


A Test of Eeading Abihty for 

Francis P Robinson and Prudence Hall 
The Ohio State University 


Name A.S® 

Grade School 


1 The purpose of this test is to measure your abihty to read school assignments You are to 

2 read the following geology selection m your usual manner of reading assignments, after ten 

3 minutes of leudmg you will be asked to answer questions over the mateiial read These questions 

4 will be of the type generally asked in class over such leadlng^ 

6 At the end of 3 minutes, 6 imnutes, and 10 minutes of reading you will be asked to “Maik ” 

6 This means that you are to encircle quicldy the numbei of the line that you aie reading (num- 

7 bered as in the left-hand maigin here) and then go on immediately with your leading At the 

8 end of 10 minutes you will be asked to stop leading and to turn to the questions which follow 

9 Be accurate in noting the last hne lead for you mil be effected to answer questions over all the 
10 material that you mark as liavmg been lead 

® tJsea with permission from Volume GH, pp 39-46j Compton’s Pictured EncyclopediOy Chicago P Ei 
Compton and Co , 1941, 



2 Geology is the science which deals with the history of the 

3 earth It is the task of geology not simply to recite the history 

4 of the earth so far as it is Imown, but to show how this his- 

5 tory became known and how the himts of knowledge are being 

6 extended Geology is a young science, and in its study at the 

7 present time it is needful to take account of the limitations 

8 of present knowledge as well as of the knowledge itself 

10 Everything which throws light on the histoiy of the earth 

11 falls withm the field of geology. The history of the atmosphere 

12 and the history of the ocean are really parts of geology, since 

13 the atmosphere and the ocean are paits of the earth The 

14 popular impression, therefore, that geology has to do only with 

15 the locks of the earth is not altogether adequate. The rocks 

16 of the earth, to be sure, furnish the larger part of the data 

17 for unravelmg the history of the earth, though they aie not 

18 the only sources of mformation. It is to be remembered, too, 

19 that when the geologist studies the rocks, he studies them for 

20 the fight they can be made to throw on earth-history, rather 

21 than for their own sake 

23 How Earth Rehearses the Story of Her Life 

24 In working out the history of the eaith, so far as it has 

25 been worked out, the line of approach has been through the 

26 study of the changes which are now taking place on the earth’s 

27 surface. The ram falls on the land, and some of it gathers 

28 mto streams, and the streams flow into the sea. In the flow 

29 of the water the substance of the land is worn away. The 

30 material is caiTied to the sea and deposited there in the foim 

31 of gravel, sand, mud, etc. The sand and mud need nothmg 

32 but cementation to become sandstone and shale, two of the 

33 commonest sorts of rocks found on the land. The process of 

34 cementation is now going on by natural means in many places 

35 In the sand and the mud, as they are deposited m the sea, 

36 shells of vanous ammals are imbedded The shale and sand- 

37 stone of the land also contain shells and other traces of marine 

38 ammals known as fossils Hence it is inferred that the sand- 

39 stone and shale, as well as certain other sorts of rock found 

40 in the land, originally were deposited as beds of sand and mud 

41 in the sea, and that they have smee been elevated so as 

42 to become dry land. 

45 The activities of other surface agencies are studied sim- 

46 ilarly. The detailed study of the work now being done by 

47 rain and rivers, underground water, waves and currents, the 

48 atmosphere, glaciers, changes of temperature, gravity, organic 

49 agencies, and all other forces and activities operative on the sur- 

50 face of the earth, has taught geologists how to interpret the rocks 

51 formed in ages long past. It is by the interpretation of the re- 


62 corded results of the past, in the hght of the processes now taking 
53 place, that the science of geology has giown up The study of 
64 present processes is becoming more and more exhaustive, and the 

55 application of this increased knowledge of present processes to 

56 the records of the past is contmually enlargmg and perfecting 

57 our knowledge of the earth’s history. 

58 The Mtstert in the Woked’s Beginnings 

59 Geology really begins with the origm of the earth, and at 

60 this point it touches the field of astronomy The early ages of 

61 the eaith’s history are as yet speculative. There seems to be good 

62 reason for doubting the truth of the “nebular hypothesis,” which 

63 was long regarded as satisfactory. The only rival hypothesis 

64 which has been framed is the “planetesimal hypothesis,” which 

65 supposes that the earth is made up of an aggregation of small 

66 bodies comparable to the meteorites and shootmg stars which 

67 daily reach the earth by milhons at the present time. While the 

68 stages of the earth’s history preceding the beginning of sedi- 

69 mentation are largely conjectmal, many lines of mvestigation 

70 are being pursued which ultimately may throw much light on 

71 the early and obscure stages of the earth’s development. The 

72 general outhnes of this history smce sedimentation began are 

72 fairly well understood. 

73 Classes oe Rocks 

73 The rocks of the earth which contam the prmcipal record 

74 of the earth’s history are of three great classes (1) igneous 

75 rocks, or those which represent solidified lava; (2) sedimentary 

76 rocks, as shale, sandstone, conglomerate, etc , most of which are 

77 made up of fragments of older locks, and (3) metamorphic 

78 rocks, which may have been so far altered by various means that 

79 they are now very unlike the materials from which they were 

80 first made. In the metamorphism of rocks, pressure is the most 

81 important agent. Chemical change, under the mfluence of mois- 

82 ture, is probably second in importance , and heat thu d A special 

83 class of sedimentary rocks is due to hfe. Here belong most hme- 

84 stones, made of shells, corals, etc ; coal, of plant oiigin, and a 

85 number of lesser formations 

86 The composition, position, and structure of these several 

87 sorts of rock and their fossil contents, so far as they contain 

88 fossils, Intel preted in the hght of processes now taking place, 

89 allow geologists to infer the conditions under which the various 

90 sorts of rocks are made When geologists are able to tell what 

91 the conditions were on every part of the earth at every period 

92 of the past, the science of geology will be complete. 

93 Economic Geology 

94 Among the many branches of the science, economic geology 

95 is one of the most important It deals with the materials of 

96 the earth’s crust which are commercially valuable, and has to 

302 , 


97 do with ores of all sorts, with coal, with building stone, with 

98 clays which are valuable for the manufacture of brick and pot- 

99 tery, and the hke. It deals also with mateiials which can be 

100 used for pigments, sand, used for malang glass; with precious 

101 stones, with abrasive materials, with asphalt um, peti oleum, 

102 natural gas, salt, fertihzers, etc One function of economic geol- 

103 ogy IS to determine the ongm of these substances and, so far as 

104 possible, the laws which govern their distribution 









Five Vast Chaptees in Earth’s Story 

Geologic tune is divided into five eras, and most of these 
are divided into several periods, as shown in the following table 
reading from the present to the i emote past 







( Quaternary (including glacial) 
Phocene ) 

Miocene Irp . 

Ohgooene Prtiary 
Eocene j 
Upper Cretaceous 
Lower Cretaceous 

Permian 1 
Pennsylvanian | Carboniferous 
Mississippian J 

Ordovician (= Lower Silurian) 

Silurian (= Upper Silurian) 




111 Archeozoic Era Formation of Oldest Rocks 

112 The Archeozoic era was the time occupied in the making 

113 of the oldest known system of rocks The Aichean rocks aie 

114 mostly metamorphosed igneous rocks, though with them are 

115 some metamorphic sedimentary rocks Fossil algae have been 

116 found in this system of rocks, and it is certain that life existed 

117 before the close of this era 

117 Proterozoic Era Long Period op Sedimentation 

118 The Proterozoic era is the time during which were deposited 

119 the greatest system of rocks lymg above the Archeozoic and 

120 below the oldest rocks containmg abundant fossils. The rooks 

121 of the Proterozoic era are mainly sedimentary, though igneous 

122 rocks have great development locally The formations of the 

123 Proterozoic era are many thousands of feet thick, though com 



124 siderable portions have been removed by erosion. The Protero- 

125 ZOIC era was perhaps as long as all subsequent time Some forms 

126 of life existed duimg this eia, as is shown by the few fossils 

127 which have been found m the rocks, and by the nature of 

128 some of the formations, even where fossils aie wanting. For 

129 example, theie are black shales and graphitic slates, the carbon 

130 of which probably is of plant origm The Proterozoic (Algon- 

131 kian) locks of the Lake Superior region contain rich deposits 

132 of iron and copper. 

133 Paleozoic Era The Rahge oe Life and the Origin of Coal 

134 The Paleozoic (formerly called Primary) era was the time 

135 when the several systems of rocks bearmg the names Cambi lan, 

136 Ordovician,Silurian,Devoman,MississippianandPennsylvaman 

137 (Carboniferous), andPermianweredeposited Thetime occupied 

138 in the deposition of each of these systems is a period These 

139 systems of locks aie mainly of sedimentary origm, and the 

140 materials of which they are composed were derived from the laud 

141 aieas existing when these systems were being laid down Most 

142 of the materials of the systems were washed down from the land 

143 to the sea, and there deposited The several systems of Paleozoic 

144 1 ocks are distinguished from one another by their fossils Thus, 

145 the fossils of the Cambrian system of rocks are sufficiently un- 

146 like those of the Ordovician system to be readily distinguished 

146 by those famihar with fossils 

147 Even at the beginmng of the Cambrian period the range 

148 of hfe was great, aU the great types which now hve except 

149 the vertebrates being represented Even the vertebrates may 

150 have lived, though rehcs of then existence have not been found. 

161 In this period trilobites and brachiopods seem to have been 

162 the most abundant and characteristic hfe. In the rocks of the 

163 Ordovician system fish remams have been found, and also rehcs 
154 of air-breathmg life, Mollusks, orinoids, and corals lived in 
165 great profusion, in addition to the types of life which pre- 

156 dominated in the Cambrian period. Most of the oil and gas 

157 of Ohio and Indiana has come from rocks of the Ordovician 

158 age 

159 In the Silurian period the same general types of hfe were 

160 prevalent, but the species are so unlike those of the preceding 

161 period as to be readily distmgmshed by those fanuliar with 

162 fossils The Devonian period is often known as the Age of 

163 Fishes, on account of the abundance of fish remains in the 

164 rocks of this system. It is far from certam, however, that 

165 fish were more abundant than now, and the variety of fish 

166 probably was less than at the present time. The Devonian was, 

167 however, the first period when fishes were abundant, so far as 

168 now known The oil of Pennsylvania and Canada is largely 

169 derived from beds of Devonian age. 

170 During the Mississippian period, animal hfe seems to have 



171 become notably more abundant, and some beds of coal were 

172 formed, though coal is more characteristic of the next system 

173 Much oil has been derived from the Mississippian system of 

174 rocks in Ilhnois. Durmg the Peimsylvanian period there were 

175 extensive marshes m the Umted States and in some other parts 

176 of the world, m which vegetable matter accumulated m great 

177 quantity. These marshes (peat-bogs) subsequently weie sab- 

178 merged, and the vegetable matter buiied by mud, sand, etc , 

179 and ultimately convei ted into coal Most of the coal of the United 

180 States east of the Great Plams was accumulated at this period 

181 Plant life was abundant, but the plants were largely of types 

182 now extinct. Land animals of early reptilian types were common 

183 The Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian periods some- 

183 times are called the Carbomfeious period 

184 The Permian peiiod represents a transition stage between 

185 the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic eras In the Permian period there 

186 was extensive glaciation in Austraha, South Africa, India, and 

186 South America 

187 The several systems of Paleozoic rooks have somewhat dif- 

188 ferent distribution, and, smce the area of the deposits of any 

189 period corresponds approximately with the submerged area of 

190 that penod, the distribution of the several systems helps us to 

191 understand the relations of land and water during the several 

192 periods. In this way it is known that the relations of sea and 

193 land were different at different times It would appear either that 

194 the continent repeatedly rose and sank, causing areas which were 

195 at one time submerged to become land, and vice versa; or that 

196 the sea-level itself rose and fell. If the sea-level rose, it would 

197 overspread the low lands , if it were lowered, it would cause areas 

198 which had been submerged to become land How far the many 

199 changes m geography during the Paleozoic era were the result 

200 of land oscillations, and how far they were the result of oscilla- 

201 tions of sea-level, never has been determined. So far as present 

202 knowledge goes, it would appear that the deep-sea bottom has 

203 at no time been land, and that the areas which were alternately 

204 above and below sea-level were low when they were land, and 

205 covered by shallow water only when they were submerged 

206 Mesozoic Era. When Giant Eeptiles Ruled the Land 

207 The Mesozoic (formerly called Secondary) era, as the term 

208 indicates, was the era when life mtermediate between the ancient 

209 and the present existed This era is divided into several periods, 

210 as indicated above The Triassic formations of North America 

211 are somewhat widespread m the western third of the continent, 

212 but have but httle development m the eastern part. During 

213 this penod reptiles perhaps were the dominant type of life. They 

214 were not only numerous but the individuals attained great size. 
216 The earliest known remams of mammals date from this period. 


216 Marine life abounded, but departed notably from the types which 

217 had prevailed m the Paleozoic era. Vegetation was abundant, 

218 but of types now extmct or lare 

219 The Jurassic period followed, and the distribution of its 

220 formations is similar to that of the Triassic formations The life 

221 of this period was somewhat different from that of the preceding, 

222 though the same general types abounded Reptiles were the most 

223 distinctive type, and they were even larger than in the preceding 

224 period The oldest remains of birds yet found are Jurassic 

225 The J urassic period was followed by the Cretaceous (Chalk) 

226 periods. In the early part of the first period chalk was not 

227 being deposited, but m the later part chalk deposits were in 

228 process of formation m many parts of the earth. The chalk 

229 deposits are made up, for the most part, of the shells of minute 

230 marine animals. The Cretaceous formations of North America 

231 are much more widespread than those of the Jurassic and 

232 Triassic periods. Their distribution indicates that a large part 

233 of the North American continent was submerged during part 

234 of the later Cretaceous periods It was durmg the Upper Cre- 

235 taceous that modern t3rpes of plants and fishes made their ap- 

236 pearance. During the last stages of the Cretaceous periods 

237 extensive coal beds were laid down m the western Umted States. 

238 Cenozoic Eba : Exit the Monstbes, Enteb the Mammals 

239 The Cenozoic era, or era of modern life, followed the 

240 Mesozoic Mammals, the earliest remains of which were found 

241 in the rocks of the Triassic system, abounded during the 

242 Cenozoic era, while the huge reptiles which had been especially 

243 characteristic of the Mesozoic era had disappeared. Reptiles 

244 still existed, but they were of relatively small types, and their 

245 numbers appear to have been few. An the Cenozoic era pro- 

246 grossed, the forms of life approached more and more closely to 

247 those of the present time, and by the end of the Phocene the 

248 life was nearly the same as that which now exists. 

249 One theory ascribes this change from Mesozoic to Cenozoic 

250 life to a change in climate and ground suiface. Before the 

251 change much of the ground was marshy, and smce under such 

252 conditions size and power were more important than speed for 

253 survival, ponderous reptile forms dommated the earth Then 

254 geologic changes drained off the water, created large areas of 

255 hard ground surface suited to running, and supplanted the 

256 luxurious swampy vegetation with modern ‘ ‘dry land’ ’ flowering 

257 plants These changes gave the running types of animal, Avith 

258 their speed and abihty to range far m search of food, an advan- 

259 tage over the clumsy giant reptiles, which therefore gradually 

259 became extinct. 

260 The Quaternary (Pleistocene) period was a remarkable one, 

261 on account of the great climatic changes which occurred at this 

262 time. The result of these climatic changes brought on a glacial 


263 climate, and an ice-sheet or senes of ice-sheets covered some- 

264 thmg like 4,000,000 square imles in the northern part of North 

265 America A large ice-sheet was developed, probably contempo- 

266 raneously, on the continent of Europe, affecting especially its 
266 northwestern part. 

266 Age op the Eakth 

268 The duration of the earth’s history is a matter which has 

269 received much attention, but no conclusions have been reached 

270 which can be rehed upon, beyond the veiy general one that 

271 the histoiy of the eaith has been exceedingly long Various 

272 conjectures as to the number of years occupied in bringing 

273 the earth to its present condition have been made They range 

274 fiom 25,000,000 years or so to 1,500,000,000 since the time of 

275 the formation of the oldest rocks now accessible As stated 

276 above, the Archeozic era probably was longer than all subse- 

277 quent time put together. The Proterozoic era was perhaps as 

278 long as all that followed The Paleozoic era was perhaps two 

279 or three timesaslongasthe Mesozoic, and the Mesozoic probably 

280 longer than the Cenozoic 

280 Great Changes in Climate 

281 The chmatic changes which the earth has undergone have 

282 been great, but their causes aie not well understood. There 

283 is httle basis for the belief, formerly widespread, that the climate 

284 has on the whole been growing cooler Cold periods seem to 

285 have alternated with warmer ones. There was local glaciation 

286 in the Paleozoic eia, and extensive glaciation at the close of 

287 the Paleozoic There was glaciation in the early Cenozoic era 

288 and very extensive glaciation later in that era, and there is 

289 some indication of cold periods at other times. On the other 

290 hand the lands of high latitudes enjoyed genial climates during 

291 some parts of the earth’s history, even as late as the mid- 

292 Tertiary time. 

293 V oleanic activity seems to have been greater at some periods 

294 than at others, but on the whole it seems to have been about as 

295 great, so far as now known, in late as in early stages of the 

296 earth’s history, if the Archeozoic era be excepted. 

297 The Work and Training of a Geologist 

298 Although geology is among the youngest of the sciences it 

299 is also one of the most useful Much that is useful to mankind 

300 comes out of the earth. Fuel for warmth and power, stone, clay, 

301 and cement for our houses, metals for makmg the machines that 

302 serve the modern industrial world — all these are earth products 

304 The various useful commodities are not placed within the 

305 earth hke plums in a pudding without law or order Each de- 

306 posit of every one of them is where it is for some good geological 

307 reason The study of the origin, distribution, and laws of 

308 occuirence of such deposits is part of the science of geology 

309 Geology has a particularly strong appeal to the man who 

310 has a love for the great outdoors, "the glory of the sun and 

311 streams that murmur as they run” The earth itself is the 

312 great textbook of geology, open everywhere to the one who is 

313 willing and laiows how to read its lesson To become expert in 

314 his science the geologist must travel widely and often to difficult 

315 and dangerous places He should be proficient m all manners 

316 of travel — afoot, with a pack-sack, on horseback, in the canoe, 

317 and by wagon — and able to camp in forests, on the plains, or 

318 m the mountains 

319 Since geology is largely the apphcation of other sciences 

320 to earth pi oblems, the geologist must have at least an elementary 

321 knowledge of chemistry, physics, and mathematics. PIis woik 

322 is largely the study of imnerals, rocks, and ores and their rela- 

323 tions to one another, and particularly the relations of groups of 

324 rock or rook formations to each other, and the relations of 

325 mineral deposits to the various rock masses m which they are 

326 found Since a large part of his busmess is the making of maps, 

327 he should know surveymg and drafting. 


Do not look at the next two pages unbl after text is read. 






Francis P Robinson and Prudence Hall 
The Ohio State University 

Name . Age 

Grade School 

Directions I 

Note the number of the last line you had read at the end of 10 minutes Turn this page and find 
the number in the left-hand margin which is just equal to, or just less than, this numbei Draw a 
line across the page under the question thus numbered and then answer each of the questions down 
to this line 

After you have answered these questions, read Directions II and do what it requests 

Directions II 

Write in below the three numbers which you encircled m the text at the end of 3 imnutes, 6 minutes 
and 10 minutes of reading 

[ 3 minute hne 

Rate op Reading 

6 mmute Ime 
10 minute hne * 

Comprehension Accubact 

No nght 
No tried 


% right 


^ This value for the 10-mmute interval also equals the aveiage number of words read per minute during 
this time 



In the left-hand margin there is a series of “hne numbers ” Find the number that is equal to, 

or just less than, the number of the last hne you read Mark this and do not answer questions beyond 

this point 


9 The mam object of study in geology is (1) rocks (2) the history of the 
earth (3) geography (4) mmeials and oils (1) 

22 Geology is interested in the history of the ocean and of the atmosphere, 

as well as of rocks (2) T F 

44 The piesenoe of what indicates that ceitain land rocks weie originally 
in the sea? (1) sandstone (2) shale (3) marine fossils (4) cementation (5) 
beds of sand and mud (3) 

67 The study of the recently made "dust bowl” would be of little value to 

geologists (4) T F 

67 The "nebular hypothesis” says that the earth is made up of an aggrega- 
tion of such things as meteoiites and shooting stars (5) T F 

72 The general outlines of the earth’s history are pretty well understood 
from the time (1) of origin of the earth (2) of begmning of buckling and 
volcanic action (3) when sedimentation began (6) 

76 Solidified lava is (1) sedimentary (2) metamorphic (3) igneous, rock (7) 

85 List the following m order of their importance in the metamorphism of 

rocks (1) chemical change (2) heat (3) pressure (8) . 

104 Some geologists are professionally interested m finding the best clays 

for making brick (9) T F 

105 How many major eras are there in the earth’s history’ (1) three (2) five 

(31 ten (4) eighteen (10) 

113 Which era constituted the time occupied m making the oldest known 

system of rocks’ (1) Proterozoic (2) Archeozoic (3) Paleozoic (11) 

122 The Proterozoic era had rocks mainly of what origm? (1) sedimentary 

(2) igneous (3) metamorphic (12) 

127 Which one of these eras was longer than all the rest put together? (1) 

Cenozoic (2) Paleozoic (3) Mesozoic (4) Proterozoic (13) . 

130 The fossils of what indicate that there was life before the end of the 

Archeozoic era? (1) fish (2) trees (3) algae (4) mammals (14) . , 

136 To what era do the Silurian and Mississippian periods belong? (1) 

Paleozoic (2) Proterozoic (3) Mesozoic (15) 

146 How does one distmguish between the various penods of the Paleozoic 
era’ (1) appearance of carbon (2) levels of their rocks (3) kmds of fossils 
(4) geographical location of the rocks (16) 

168 Which one of the following probably did not exist dunng the Cambrian 
period of the Paleozoic era? (1) Protozoa (2) algae (3) corals (4) verte- 
brates (5) moUusks , . , (17) 




165 Changes m animal life from the Cambrian penod to the Silunan penod 
consisted mainly in modification of (1) complexity (2) size (3) species 

(4) habitat (Igj 

169 Which form of animal life was abundant in the Devonian period of the 

Paleozoic eia? (1) amphibians (2) mamm«ds (3) fishes (4) protozoa (19) 

176 The pciioda in which our coal beds were laid down generally preceded 

those in which fossil animals are found (20) T F 

183 The periods accounting for the ongm of oil generally (1) precede (2) 

come at the same time as (3) follow, those which cause coal (21) 

186 During the Permian period (end of Paleozoic era) there was extensive 
glaciation m (1) southern hemisphere (2) northern hemispheie (3) both 
southern and northern hemispheres (22) 

200 The distribution of rooks in the Paleozoic era indicates that (1) there 
was Gonsideiable glaciation at this time (2) the damp land aieas and 
those covered by water changed consideiably (3) theie was much bending 
and breaking of the earth’s surface (earthquakes and volcamc activity) (23) 

210 What was the era which had life mteimediato between the present and 

the ancient? (1) Proterozoic (2) Mesozoic (3) Paleozoic (4) M-cheozoic (24) 

218 What form of life was most abundant during this era'’ (1) reptiles (2) 

mammals (3) fish (4) birds (26) 

224 Which form of life apparently made its appearance m the Jurassic period 
of the Mesozoic era'’ (1) man (2) mammals (3) insects (4) birds (5) 
amphibians (26) 

237 What formations were numerous m the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic 

era? (1) fossils (2) sandstone (3) chalk (4) lava (27) 

242 What form of life abounded in the Cenozoio era? (1) mammals (2) reptiles 

(3) primates (4) birds . . (28) 

248 What period of the Cenozoio era marks the end of changes in animal life 
and had life forms similar to those today? (1) Eocene (2) Miocene 
(S) Pliocene (29) 

250 One theory ascribes the change in life from Mesozoic to Cenozoio to 

change in (1) climate (2) sea level (3) evolution (30) 

262 The outstanding feature of the Quarternary period of the Cenozoio era 
was changes in (1) climate (2) rock foimation (3) distribution (4) forms 
of life . (31) 

295 How closely do geologists agree as to the age of the earth? (1) they agree 
within a few thousand yeais (2) their estimates vary about 1,000,000 
years (3) there are great differences (many miUions of years) in their 
estimates (4) they find it impossible to make any estimate (32) . 

280 The earhest era was longer than all the other eras put together (33) T F 

(34) T F 

280 Each succeedmg era is shorter than its predecessors 




283 What is the cause of the marked changes in climate in the earth’s history? 

(1) changes m sea level (2) cause is unknown (3) earth is farther from 
sun (4) earth is cooling off (35) 

291 The earth’s changes in chmate are charactenzed by (1) increasing cold- 
ness (2) increasing heat (3) alteinatmg hot and cold periods (36) 

296 Volcanic activity has decreased a great deal during the last (Cenozoic) 

era as compared to the earhei ones . (37) T F 

300 Geology is one of the oldest and best developed sciences (38) T F 

310 A. geologist needs to know different kinds of ore when he finds them, but 
there is little he can do to hmit the area over which he must search to 
find them . . (39) T F 


21 ^ 


A. Reading Tables: No right out of 30 

1 If a student gets 17 out of 21 questions right, what per cent does he have right? 

2 If a student gets 13 out of 16 questions nght, what per cent does he have nght? 

3 If a student gets 19 out of 21 questions right, what per cent does he have nght? 

4 13/23 is a larger fraction than 16/27. 

5 17/21 IS a larger fi action than 25/30. 

6 What divided by 18 equals 78 per cent? 

7 What divided by 24 equals 71 per cent? 




Percentage of Youth 

m Each Grade Group 

6th Grade 

7th or 8th 

9th, 10th, 

11th or 

1, 2, or 

3 Years 

4 or More 


11 5 

17 9 

23 3 

32 2 

42 6 

42 9 

Individual spoits 

12 4 

13 6 

15 9 

15 6 

15 2 

18 4 

Dancing, dating 

12 6 

10 9 

15 6 

14 0 

10 4 

8 3 


9 4 

12 8 

13 4 

10 2 

8 2 

7 6 


21 7 

15 8 

7 5 

5 9 

3 9 

4 3 


8 7 

10 1 

8 4 

10 4 

10 7 

9 9 

Team games 

10 1 

8 2 

8 7 

5 4 

4 0 

3 5 

Listening to radio 

2 8 

2 4 

2 3 

1 8 

0 9 

1 0 

Quiet games 

2 2 

1 8 

1 0 

0 7 

0 9 

1 8 

Other activities 

8 6 

6 6 

4 0 

3 8 

3 2 

2 3 


100 0 

100 0 

100 0 

100 0 

100 0 

100 0 

Number of youth 







Ta3I.Ii 13 Principal Leiaure-time Activities of Out-of-school Youth According to the Grades They 
Completed (From II M Bell, Youth Tell Their Story, American Council on Education, 1938, p 166) 

8. What pei cent of college graduates say that reading is their principal leisure- 
time activity? 

9 What per cent of out-of-schooI youth with less than a 6th-grade education say 
that loafing is them principal leisure-time activity? 

10 What per cent of out-of-sohool youth with a 7th- or 8th-giade education say 
that hobbies are their prmcipal leisure-time activity? 

11. Reading is the most popular leisure-time activity with each of the educational 
divisions of the youth group 

12. Youth who have been to college tend to do the following things more than do 
youth who have not been to college* 

a Read 

b. Dancmg and datmg 
c Movies ... 

d Loafing 

e Team games 

13. Youth with some college education tend to seek more social and less mdividual 
recreation than do youth without any college education, 

14. Out-of-school youth with the most education tend to consider hobbies a more 
important activity than do any of the other groups. 

16 Out-of-school youth tend to participate more m activities which do not necessi- 
tate havmg someone else around than in activities which do demand someone 

T F 

T F 
T F 
T F 
T F 
T F 

T F 

T F 

T F 



School Giade Completed 

Number of 





t Median 

Dead-end Job 

Less than 6th grade 


* 7 84 

50 5 

1 53 2 

6th grade 


8 76 

44 9 

60 0 

7th grade 


9 27 

48 7 

51 5 

8th giade 


10 89 

42 3 

46 6 

9th giade 


13 n 

45 0 

46 0 

10th or 11th giade, not graduate 


14 51 

42 4 

44 6 

llth-grade graduate 


12 72 

60 3 

35 4 

12th-grade graduate 


15 38 

42 6 

44 1 

1 year beyond high school graduation 


15 71 

42 0 

34 1 

2 or 3 years beyond graduation 


19 74 

42 3 

23 4 

4 or more years beyond graduation 


22 23 

41 5 

17 4 

All youth 


$12 96 

42 8 

43 2 

Table 14 Median Weekly Wages and Hours of Out-of-school Employed Youth by Grade Completed 
(Fiom , pp 121, 128 ) 

16 The typical out-of-school employed youth earns how much per week? 

17 What per cent of youth, who are college graduates and workmg, beheve they 
have dead-end jobs'" 

18 This study is based on how many people? 

19. The largest single group of students in this table are those who have graduated 

from 12th-year high school and have gone no further T F 

20. Accordmg to this table, the median (as many people have more, as have less, 
education than he) workmg youth has had how much education? (1) 8th grade, 

(2) 9th grade, (3) 10th or 11th, but not a graduate, (4) high school graduate 

21. Because he has had more time to advance before he is 25 years of age, the lugh 
school graduate who goes to work tends to earn more money per week before 
the age of 26, than the person who goes to college for a few years and then 

goes to work T F 

22 Typical youth (16-24) who work, earn about how much pei year? (1) |675, 

(2) $1000, (3) 11550, (4) *2125 

23 College graduates (16-24) who work earn about how much per year? (1) *1150, 

(2) *1560, (3) *2100, (4) *2600 

24 Persons with less education work longer hours and earn less money than persons 

with more education T F 

25 The less their education, the more youth consider their jobs to have httle future T P 

26 At the time of this study, most youth worked less than 40 hours a week T F 



B. Reading Charts No right out of 24 . 

Chart 17. Increase in the Iowa Silent Reading 
Test norms from grade 9 Uirough grade 13 (Based 
on publisher’s norms ) 

Use Chart 17 to answer questions 1-6’ 

1 The average score during the freshman year m college is 

2 At which grade is the most marked gam shown m readmg abihty? 

3 On this test, the person at the 10th percentile of college freshmen is midway be- 
tween the average student of what two grades? 

4 Which part of the distnbution of readers shows the greatest change on entering 
college? (1) highest quarter, (2) average, (3) lowest quarter, (4) lowest 10 per 

5 There is a greater difference withm the middle 50 per cent of 12th graders (75th 
peicentile~25th percentile) than there is between the average 12th grader and 
the average 9th grader. 

6. The most marked change m one year is made in what year at what level? 

T P 















Chart 18 The )obs employed youth ( 16-24 years of age) want, and the jobs they hold (From 
Bell, op cit, page 133 ) 

XJse Chart 18 to answer questions 7-11 

7 The type of work youth most want to enter is 

8 The type of work these youth are most frequently employed m is 

9 How many of these youth weie employed in unskilled laboi? 

10 (1) More than half, (2) less than half, (3) half of these youth are employed m 
office or sales and semiskilled labor 

1 1 How many youth are employed at skilled labor? About (1) 150, (2) 225, (3) 300, 

(4) 950 







Chart 19 The extent to which students and nonstudents (aged 16-24) belonged to clubs and the rela 
hon of grade completed to belonging 

Use Chart 19 to answer questions 12-16’ 

12 More out-of-school youth belong, than don’t belong, to clubs T F 

13 Out-of-sohool youth who have had the most schoolmg tend to belong to more 

clubs than those with less schooling T F 

14 Of the group who have graduated from an 11-year high school, what per cent 
don’t belong to any clubs? 

15 Students belong to more clubs than youth who have left school. T F 

16 Less than half of college graduates in this group belonged to clubs. T F 

Use Chart 20 to answer questions 17-24 

17 What per cent of entermg fieshmen graduate in the same college? 

18 The greatest number of voluntary withdrawals takes place at the end of which 

19 There were more dismissals than there were withdrawals T F 

20 The time of greatest change m the original class is at the end of which quarter? 

21 The tune of greatest mcrease m mcommg transfers is at the begmmng of which 

22 More students are dismissed fiom school at the time of their senior year than 

at any other year T F 

23. The class graduatmg from the college is (1) less than half as big, (2) slightly 
smaller, (3) larger than the class entermg the college as freshmen 

24. More than half of the class giaduatmg from this college is made up of students 

who entered this college as freshmen T F 




Chart 20 The academic history of students who enter and who graduate from a college in a university 
(R D Bennett, Ohio State University, mimeographed report ) 



C. Skills in Map Reading No right out of 22 

Directions Answer each question as it tells you to do 

1 What letters indicate borders of states? 1 

2, How many capital cities are there on this map? 2 

'3 What town IS located at 1-C? 3 

4. What town is located at 6-E? 4 

5. What letters represent desert? 5 

6. What letter represents a group of mountains almost surrounded by 

desert? 6 

7. Which coast (north, south, east, or west) could be called mountamous? 7 

8 Is Darwin on the north, south, east, or west coast? 8 

9. Is Darwin or Melbourne closer to the equator? 9 

10 Is Alice Springs east or west of Wallabie? 10. 

11. What town is located directly on one of the latitude lines? 11. 



12. Wiat town is located directly on one of the longitude lines? 12 

13 What letteis indicate lakes? 13. 

14 What letters indicate the ocean? 14 

15. What letters indicate rivers? 15 

16 What town is located on a iiver and on the coast? 16 

17 What direction LS the equator from this country? 17. 

18. What town is farthest south? IS 

19 What town is farthest west? 19 

20 Is Alice Sprmgs in the torrid zone or the temperate zone? 20 

21 If one inch (| 1^' = 500 m D equals 500 miles on this map, about what 

IS the greatest length of this country? 21 

22. About what distance is the greatest width? 22 


D. Mathematical Formulae No right out of 11 

Directions’ Place the letter of the best answer m the space provided (Note The purpose of this 
test 18 to measuie your ability to manipulate values in formulae For this leason some of the formulae 
do not represent actual physical events, hence you cannot depend upon your knowledge of physics 
to answer the questions ) 

1 f= ws where / = force, w - weight, s = speed In the case of a one-ounce bullet 
which hits an object with the same force as a two-ounce bullet, the value of s 
m the formula is (a) halved, (b) doubled, (c) squared, (d) equal 

2 d= vt wheie d - distance, » = velocity, t = time Where the values of d and v 
are both doubled, the value of t (a) remains the same, (b) is also doubled, (c) is 
halved, (d) is squared 

3 ri- mv'‘ wheie r = ladius, t = tension on string, m = mass of whirling object, 
« = velocity An object at the end of a string is whirled aiound one’s head If 
the length of the stiing is doubled and the velocity remains the same, what 
happens to the value of f? (a) doubled, (b) halved, (c) quadrupled, (d) almost 

4 FiPi = YiPi where 7i = ongmal volume, Pi = original pressure, V2 = second 
volume, and Pi = second pressure If the value of Pi is twice that of Pi, the 
value of 7i is how large in relation to Fi? (a) double, (b) half, (c) quadruple, 
(d) squared 

5 P = haDg where P = pressure at outlet, h = height of water above outlet, 
a = area of outlet, D = density of liquid, and g = force of gravity The pressure 
at the outlet of identical containers completely filled with different hqmds will 
vary with (a) volume, (b) height, (c) area, (d) density 

Q E - vDgh where E = energy lost by drop of liquid, v = velocity of drop, D = 
density of drop, g = foice of gravity, and h = height drop falls If two drops of 
the same size fall under identical conditions but lose different amounts of 
energy, they must have differed in respect to (a) their densities, (b) the velocity 
of fall, (0) the height fallen, (d) the effect of gravity 

7 2ii = g& where v = velocity, g = gravity and i = time For the velocity of one 
object to be 4 times as great as that of a second object, when the effects of 
gravity are constant, the value of t must be (a) halved, (b) doubled, (c) quad- 
rupled, (dl squaied 

8. 2« =• gP where v ■= velocity, g = gravity, and t •« time Where the value of g 
remains constant, doubhng the value of v has what effect on the value of t? (a) 
halved, (b) doubled, (c) about 1 J times, (d) about quadrupled 

9 E - where E = energy, m = mass and v = velocity When the velocity is 
doubled , the value of E is (a) halved, (b) doubled, (0) squared, (d) quadrupled. 

10 V = ■\/K/D where F = velocity of sound, K = & constant unchanging value, 
and D = density of air As the density of air is doubled, what change occurs m 
velocity of the sound? (a) decreases more than i, (b) decreases i, (c) decreases 
less than J, (d) stays the same 

11 t- s/^dja where t = time, d = distance, and a = acceleration If the value of 
a remains unchanged while the value of d is doubled, what change occurs in 
the value of tl (a) decreases about J, (b) doubles m value, (c) increases about i, 
(d) decreases less than J 






11 . 




By S. L Piessey 
Ohio State University 

No. lines right . . . Peicentile Date 

Grammar Test 

Direchons In each line of the passage below, four words are undeihned In most of the lines, one of 
these underlined woids is giammatically mcorrect Disregard punctuation, assume that it is coirect. 

Make your answei to each line m one of the following ways (1) Wlien there is an erroi, write the 
conect form of this wrong word on the hne at the left (2) When you are sure that there is no error 
in the line, write a "0” to the left (3) If you do not know what the correct form is, or if you aic 
uncertain whether or not theie is an erroi, leave the Ime at the left blank 

Look ovei the examples below Then begin at once Woifc lapidly Yon wiU have 25 nunutes in 
winch to complete this section The key foi coirecting this test is on pages 251-252. 


were There was money, bonds, and other valuable papers 
to m the safe The boys were anxious too see the inside. 

1 . It is the first day of school; each of we 

2 pupils greet the teacher We have already taken 

3 our seats Mary, John, and Annabelle set in the 

4 front row John intends to ^ his work good this 

6. yeai Sally and Richard have ask to occupy seats 

0 near the wmdow I have dumb mto one of the seats m 

7 the fiont row I can see easy now 

8. Miss McDonald, om new teacher, has told 

9 each one to do their part. We accomplish more if 

10 . there w co-opeiation between us Jack don’t remember 


the other schools that he has went to Mary is two 


years older than I Neither Martha noi John are 

13 . younger than I_ The teacher wanted to know whom my 

14 father was I told ^ his name and who I was hvmg 

15 with Each of us were told to legistei Algebra and 


geometry has been easy for me, so I chose more math- 

Used with the permission of the Ohio State Department of Education. 




























46 . 

ematics The greater part of the ciirrieuliim are 
Enghsh subjects, which k very uninterebtmg 
The teacher can’t learn me English a^all 
Verbs make my head ache I am sure weak m giammar 
My sister has gave much time to her lessons Martha, 
my older sister, don’t go to school The weakest 
part of our school aie the mateiials m the labora- 
tories Our prmcipal feels badly about the lack 
of funds The price of supplies are high Perhaps 
the prmcipal will leave me drop chemistry I shall 
consider the matter very careful 
Neither Jane I were able to play basketball 
last year However, we never felt sadly 
about ^ for we could not help ^ Basket- 
ball and baseball is what I am going to take this 
year Jane don’t want to play games because she is 
lazy She likes to lay around and read ^ much to 
suit Soon FU be able to play basketball good 
and then she will be sorry Most of us 1^ a very 
good tune playing baseball Jane is taller than w 
and s^ used to play baseball better than but 
she plays so poor now that no one wants her on 
their team I wish I were as pretty as Jane, though 
She IS fourteen, like Mary and T aud she 1^ curly 
black hair She wears such pretty clothes to She 
has some perfume that smells very sweetly Mother 
won’t leave me have any perfume She said, though 
that I could buy some next year 
When we graduate from high school iw girls 
are gomg to the same college. We have wrote to 





















several colleges and have began to read all about 
the different ones There are almost to many nice 
ones to choose one very easy A few like women's 
colleges better than co-educational colleges Most 
of ns prefers the schools where both boys and giils 
may attend because students have a better time their. 
They have football games, ;to I saw a football game 
once at Hopewell College The pnce of the tickets 
were two dollars and seventy-five cents We surely 
had a good tune There was about 30,000 people there 
I had never saw so many people in one place Every- 
one shouted as loud as they could when_oim team 
come on the field Between halves the band played 
the college song very soft while everyone sang 
Then the teams came back and each player took their 
position on the field The substitutes set down on 
the bench The referee, like the other officials, were 
dressed in white hnen kmckers His sleeves 
were rolled up He must have froze because it was 
very cold Everyone was happy when our team won 
the game We sung songs and cheered as m followed 
the band out of the stadium People throwed confetb 
everywhere Mary, as well as the other girls, have 
ask me to ^ about this game over and over again 
No one in our crowd have seen a big game except me 
There IS several reasons why we want to go to 
Hopewell College Our teacher told Mary and I 
that they have mterestmg courses their To tell 
the truth, the curriculum don’t matter so much^ us. 
Either dramatics or athletics aie gomg to be my 

22 ^ 


specialty There is sevci al things to choose from 
I thmk that sports k the best pait of any school 
Everybody don’t agiee with me, however Mary prefers 



Capitalization and Punctuation Test 

Capitalization No lines correct . , . Percentile 

Punctuation No lines correct Percentile 

Directions All the capitals and punctuation marks have been omitted fiom the sentences below, 
except the capital at the beginmng of each sentence and the peiiod at the end 
Look over these sentences carefully Whenevei you find a word which should be capitalized, wiite 
the lettei which should be a capital on the Ime at the left of the sentence Sometmies several capitals 
are needed in one sentence, you will then write seveial lettei s on the line at the left In some sentences 
no words need to be capitalized When this is tiue leave the Ime blank If you are uncertain, it is genei- 
ahy best to omit a capital 

Also, insert m the places m each sentence where they are needed such punctuation maiks as you 
think should be added You may change a period to an exclamation point 01 question maik when 
desiiable, but do not out a sentence mto two or moie shoit sentences In some sentences, no punctua- 
tion marks aie needed WThen m doubt it is best to omit a mark Make all maiks large enough to be 
seen leadily 

Study the examples below and then begm at once Woik rapidly You will have 25 minutes in which 
to complete this section. The key for correcting these tests is on pages 252-257 


S S V D Do you like s. s van dine’s mystery stories? 

I Just imagine how frightened 1 was! 

1. Are you gomg to strassburg germany. 

2 She exclaimed what a beautiful lake 

3. The hudson a river m new york is very beautiful. 

4 Do you expect to visit china or ceylon 

6 . Three weeks from now well be m kansas city 

6 Tell me what doctor harris did said emily. 

7. If thats all john said we may as well go 

8. Friday the tenth of june was my buthday 

9. Why do so many people blame the germans 

10. It was the fourth of july a national hohday 

11. She fives at 25 whittier street dolby kentucky 

12. A1 smith the democratic candidate was defeated. 

13. He attended tate college then he went to a law school. 

14. . My subjects include the following history engbsh and latm. 

16. Theyre ready but well have to wait awhile. 

16 . 














In the first place the ku klux klan was not legal 
He had started to newburg there was no retreat 
She said that she intended to visit mount baker 
I thmk french a bonng subject but like physics 
This poem is called in the cool of the night 
The ring is an heirloom it belonged to jenny lind 
The captain our old friend met us at the dock 
Esther jane and mary organized a girls club 
The letter was sent from detroit on august 8 1933 
Christmas memonal day and thanksgiving are holidays 
Will the socialist party ultimately succeed 
I use detoxal it is a good tooth paste 

Sinclair lewis wrote these books dodsworth babbitt and arrowsmith 
We are said the speaker at the dawn of a new eia 
If you see any ameiican tourists let me know 
He burned into the bank and asked for the president 
John fimshed his Spanish then he worked on biology. 

By a waterfall is a simple little piece to play 
He read tennysons famous poem in memoriam 

A careful description of captam evans was given for he was an important 
witness in the trial 

She recommends gold dust for cleaning since it is cheaper and just as good 

We didn’t have time to visit the alps still we saw almost every other part of 

His wife is a presbjdenan he is a baptist 

He claims that the government is as corrupt as m the days of rome that 
there is no place for an honest man in politics and that there is little hope 
for reform 

The national radway association should recognize that this type of engine 
will not pay it is out of date 

The lincoln school has been overcrowded for some time. 

Its too bad that gerry cant go with us 
Oranges lemons and grapefrmt are citrous fruits 
She said that he would be glad to see you. 














TESTS 210 

On Sunday we went fishing in beaver creek 

The various codes were submitted to general Johnson 

He said that he saw the prince of wales but no one believed him 

Please come she wrote colonel brown wiU be here. 

Joe IS not going nor is sally 

In other words the general electnc company refused my offer 

Its hair is fine and soft its still just a puppy 

Im m a hurry is the name of an amusmg shoit story 

You will like these movies cimarron and masquerade 

The unemployed league will meet tomorrow at seven oclock 

We saw the capitol at Washington and then the diiver took us home 

You should talk to professoi brown she advised 

She said she played no card games during lent 

One of us must go to lisbon which will it be 

John makes high grades in mathematics he wants to enter harvard college 
next year 

Youll find it easier to go by way of athens youll save twenty miles 
Im too tired to go out tonight besides its too cold 
That youngster said coach jones will be a stai next year. 

Its raining haid but jim wont stay at home 
June July and august are vacation months 

He wants someone who is quick who is ambitious and who has had experi- 

If its really necessary you may have the Chevrolet 

He told me to meet him at the seneca hotel but he didnt appear 

Being capable and socially pronunent she was elected to the martha Wash- 
ington club 

All right he said well put the money m the chase bank 

111 send you a subscription to the hterary digest if you want it 

You may take this note to mr adams then drop these letters in the mailbox. 

Joseph conrad is the author of lord jim he also wrote victory 

To be frank she doesnt like jamce very well 









They went to Washington to Oregon and on to California 

She resigned from the missionary society thus losmg many friends 

We drove to st louis and then took a quaint old steamer down the mississippi 

111 take you in the car otheiwise youll be late 
Mary you may desciibe general pershmgs plan 

One goes to church on easter to ease ones conscience to wear ones new spring 
clothes or to see what mrs jones is wearing 
The play was almost over when john left 



Test on Sentence Structure 

No right times 2 Percentile 

Directions Each of the following paragiaphs contains three statements One of these violates some 
lule of good sentence stiucture, it is poorly expressed or not cleai Write the number of the wrong 
statement m each paragraph, m the parentheses at the left Do not change or mark on any sentence 
Look ovei the example Then begin at once Woik lapidly You will have 15 mmutes m which to 
complete this section. The key for this test is on page 257. 


1. ( 1 ) (1) The man with the pipe sitting on tho bank (2) The man with the pipe is sittmg on 
the bank (3) The man sittmg on the bank has a pipe 

1 ( ) (1) Where is he'i’ (2) Wliere is he at? (3) Where has he gone’ 

2 ( ) (1) The giocei offeied me a job, but I lefused it (2) The giocei said tliat I could work for 

him Satuidays, but I refused it (3) The grocei offeied me work on Saturdays, but I re- 
fused his offer 

3. ( ) (1) I saw your uncle. The one from Dayton (2) I saw youi uncle who lives m Dajdon 

(3) I saw your uncle, tire one from Dayton 

4 ( ) (1) While readmg a book, I was stai tied by the telephone rmgmg (2) Whilereadmgabook, 

the telephone rang (3) 'i^ile I was reading a book, the telephone rang 
6 ( ) (1) Jane was nervous when Nancy called to her (2) When Nancy called to Jane, she was 

nervous (3) Nancy was nervous when she called to Jane 

6. ( ) (1) His brother is very strong (2) He has a brothei who is very strong. (3) He has a 

brother is very strong 

7. ( ) (1) Hiding down the street in a car they passed John who was afoot (2) Walking down 

the street we met John in a cai (3) Walkmg down the street John passed us in his car 

8. ( ) (1) He had a revolver m his desk, which he had carried m the army (2) In Ins desk he had 

a revolver which he had carried m the army (3) In the army he had carried the revolver 
which he now had in his desk 

0 ( ) (1) I got this book fiom Tom, who got it from Mary (2) Since this book has left the store 

it has been first Tom’s and then Mary’s (3) This is the book which I got from Tom, who 
seemed it from Mary, who purchased it at the store 

10 ( ) (1) John laced down the field, which was 110 yards long (2) John ran tire full length of 

the field, which made him a hero (3) John, who is our best player, raced down the field 

11 ( ) (1) Helen prefers Mary to Jane (2) Helen likes Mary better than Jane does (3) tielen 

likes Mary better than Jane 

12 ( ) (1) Cheermg wildly as the team came on the field, all ready for the game (2) The crowd 

cheered wildly as the team came on the field. (3) Cheering wildly, we rushed the bleachers 

13 ( ) (1) Chinning is when you pull yourself up to a rod (2) Chinning is puUmg youi self up to a 

rod (3) Pulling yourself up to a rod is called churning 

14 ( ) (1) I like football better than basketball (2) A game of tennis gives moie exercise than a 

ride in an automobile (3) Playing tennis is better exercise than to ride in an automobile 

15 ( ) (1) It IS a novel which has great merit and which should be read by all (2) A Tale of Two 

Cities IS a novel of great merit and which should be read by all (3) A Tale of Two Cities 
is a fine novel which should be read by all 

16 ( ) (1) We went to the city and saw a show We had a good tune (2) After going to the city 

and seeing a show, we came homo (3) We went to the city and we saw a show, and we came 
home, and we had a good time 

17 ( ) (1) We took an an plane because it was the qmckest means of travel (2) Wanting to get 

there quickly, an aiiplane was taken (3) To get there qmckly we took an airplane 
IS ( ) (1) The boys fumbled in the third quarter This fumble caused us to lose the game (2) 

The boys fumbled m the third quartei, which caused us to lose the game. (3) The game was 
lost when the boys fumbled in the third quarter. 



19 ( ) (1) He ran home He told his mother She came out We were severely scolded. (2) He ran 

home and told his mother She came out and scolded us severely (3) John haiong gone 
home and told his mother, we were severely scolded 

20 ( ) (1) John spoke to the man, and he was very cross (2) John spoke crossly to the man 

(3) John spoke to the man, who was very cross 

21 ( ) (1) A lesson which was too long and which should not have been assigned (2) The lesson, 

which was too long, should not have been assigned (3) The lesson was too long and should 
not have been assigned 

22 ( ) (1) He arose late and ate no bieakfast (2) Hav-ag arisen late, no breakfast was served 

(3) He ate no breakfast because he had arisen late 

23 ( ) (1) The summer being veiy dry, and all the cieeks diied up (2) Because the summer was 

very dry all the creeks dried up (3) The summer was very dry All the creeks dried up 

24 ( ) (1) We fimshed the problem at noon, then we called the teacher (2) We fimshed the 

pioblem at noon and called the teacher (3) We fimshed the problem at noon and calling 
for the teacher 

26 ( } (1) Ann is a cute child Who IS always getting into trouble (2) Ann is a cute child, but she 

IS always getting mto trouble (3) Ann is a cute child who is always getting into trouble 
26 ( ) (1) After the car stopped we stepped out (2) We stepped out The car having stopped 

(3) The car stopped We stepped out 

27. ( ) (1) She ]omed the party, reserved and quiet (2) The paity which she joined was a reserved 

and quiet affaii (3) She joined the party, but was reserved and quiet 

28 ( ) fl) Although he read everjrthing he could, he acted as if he were compelled to do it (2) He 

read everything as if he were compelled to do so (3) Eeadmg everything he could, as if 
he were compelled to do so 

29 ( ) (1) John was talking about that man (2) That is the man whom John was discussing 

(3) That IS the man, he was just discussing him 

30 ( ) (1) Tom was soiry because he was too Late (2) Tom was too late, and he was sorry 

(3) Tom was Sony, being too late 

31 ( 1 (1) He is a student who is popular, but who is always m trouble (2) That student is 

popular, but always troublesome (3) He is a popular student, but who is always in trouble 
82 ( ) (1) Everyone is welcome, and you do not have to contribute (2) Everyone is welcome, 

and no one has to contnbute (3) You are welcome, you do not have to contribute 
33 ( ) (1) She thought of only one peison Her brother, who was ill (2) She thought of only one 

person, her brother (3) Her brother, the one who was ill, is coming 
84 ( ) (1) I like a good novel— one which portrays strong characters and wboh thrills the reader 

(21 I like a good novel— one which portrays strong characters and in reading the book 
you aie thiiUed (3) I hke novels which are thrilhng and which poitray strong charaoteis 

35 ( ) (1) James, sitting on the platform, was lookmg at the audience (2) There was James, 

looking at the audience sitting on the platfoim. (3) Theie was James, sitting on the plat- 
form and looking at the audience 

36 ( ) (1) If she IS better tomoirow we will go (2) We do not expect to go Unless she is better 

tomorrow (3) We do not expect to go unless she is better tomorrow 

37 ( ) (1) The ball which he had just purchased was thrown mto the gutter (2) He threw the 

ball which he had just purchased mto the gutter (3) He threw the ball into the gutter 
which he just pui chased 

38 ( ) f 11 Mother was ill That was why I was absent (2) The reason I was absent was because 

Mother v as ill (3) I was absent because Mother was ill 
89 ( ) (1) We will keep going regardless of anythmg (2) Whether we win or lose, we will go on 

(3) Whether we win or lose, whether we fail or succeed 
40 ( ) (1) A long lesson was assigned before Christmas, which made us angry (2) A long lesson 

assigned before Christmas made us angry (3) A long lesson was assigned befoi e Christmas 
This assignment made us angry. 




No right out of 228 . Date 

This IS a self-admimstermg test of spelling and has no tune limit You are to write out the spelling 
of each of the words listed below 

The sound of each word is indicated at the left by a crude phonetic method (exactly correct pi onun- 
ciations are not always indicated and a few times the correct spelhng is used to indicate how the word 
sounds) , the middle column gives a defimtion of each word, and you aie to write the correct spelling 
of each woid, thus sounded and defined, in the space at the right-hand side 

A good way "to take” this test is to decide what the word is m terms of the first two columns 
and then, disregarding the first two columns, sound the word as you spell it A dash over a letter, 
e g , “a,” mdicates that it has a "long” sound, 1 e , sounded as m saying the alphabet. 

The key for correcting this test is on pages 258-260 

How word sounds Definition 

1 ab sense 

2 ak 

3 all together 

4 a feet 

6 ak si dent ily 
6 aksept 
7. a cross 

8 add vise 

9 a comma date 

10 all red i 

11 a n ]ell 

12 amung 

13 all ways 

14 all most 

15 ang gull 

16 a per ate us 

17 auks ill er i 

18 ath let ick 

19 are gu ment 

to be away 
to pam 

without exception 
to influence 
without mtention 
to approve 
on the other side 0 
to warn 
to adapt to 
celestial being 
in the midst of 
at all tunes 
sharp comer 
good at sports 



How word sounds 

20 a tack t 

21 a pier unce 

22 ath. leet 

23 be leave 

24 balense 

25 be gm mg 

26 biz nes 

27 ben 1 fit 

28 by sickle 

29 come er sliell 

30 oh owes 
31. care actor 

32 oham ja bull 

33 kal end er 

34. care actor i stick 
35 kol ledge 
36. oh ooze 
37 chgf 



external show 

football player 

to accept as true 


at the start 

commercial entei prise 

for the sake of 

vehicle with two wheels 

related to mdustry 

to have selected m the past 

reputation, sum of one’s charac- 


table of days and months 
typical, distmctivo 
umversity, school 
to select 

39 cap ten 

40 come mg 

41 kritiBize 

42 korse 

43. kon vSn yent 

44 komp li ment air i 

45 komp li ment 

46 come pair i tiv lee 

47 come it e 
48. kc<n shence 

officer in army 
to find fault 
school subject 
near at hand 

given to flattering remarks 
flattering remark 
group of people 

feeling of obligation to do right 


How word sounds Dejimhon Spelling 


kon she en chus 

faithful, exact 


kon troll 

govern, direct 

51. kon shus 

aware of 


kon spick you us 

prominent, easily seen 


de seeve 



de side 

to conclude 


deaf a nit 

limited, fixed 



form of veib “to do” 


dis a point 

to not fulfill expectation 


dis a pier 

to go from sight 


de vel up 

to form, expand 


de vel up ment 

formation, expansion 


de scribe 

to relate, depict 


des send 

to go down 


die ning 



dis sip lin 

to pumsh 


dock ter 

medical person 


de pen dunt 

not self-sustaimng 


doe nt 

contracted form of “do not” 


eks IS tense 

to be 


eks pier S ense 

to live thiough an event 


eks er size 

exertion, to run, play games 


eks ek u tiv 



eks sept 

to leave out 


e miff 



e quip t 



em a grunt 

person from a country 


em bear us ment 

to feel uncomfortable 


em bear us 

to make uncomfortable 



How word sounds 

78. e fekt 

79. el 1 ] a bull 

80. fas sm ate 

81. feb you wary 

82. fine ul e 

83 four^mei li 


85 full fill 

86 . frend 

87. great full 

88 grevus 

89 gramer 
90. guv urn er 

91 ges 

92 hugbmerus 

93. hope mg 

94. hear 
96 hear 
96 hair us 

97. ear resist a bull 

98. its 

99 i me grunt 
100 . 1 med i et h 

101 1 maj in 

102 m deep end ent 

103 m ti rest mg 

104 judgement 
105. jew dish al 

result of a cause 
qualified to be chosen 
to hold attention 
second month of the year 
at last 
spell “40” 

to satisfy, to carry out 
person that likes you 
to have giatitude 
heavy, distiessmg 
language form 
head of a state 
to judge at random 

desne for something 

at this place 

to sense sounds 

to worry by repeated attacks 


contracted form of “it is” 

peison coming into a country 

nght away 

to form a mental image 
free from external control 
behef, opimon 
pertaining to a court 

How word sounds 

106 new 

107 lab la tor i 

108 lad 

109 led 

110 lee zure 

111 he berry 

112 lew z 
113. lew se 

114 litter a ture 

115 he sense 

116 management 
117. ment 

118 miss spell 
119. miss oheev us 
120 more gage 
121. mi nut 

122 nessysary 

123 notice a bull 



126 knee se 

127 OK shun 

128 0 K shun a lee 

129 aw per toon i ti 
130. 6 mish im 

131 offen 

132 6 clock 

133 6 nut ed 


Definiiion Spelling 

past tense of verb meaning to have 
information about 
place for experiments 

past tense of verb meaning "to 
place upon” 

past tense of verb meanmg "to 
show the way” 
time outside of work 

place for books 

not to wm 

to be free from 

books, writing 

official permit 

those in charge 

past tense of "to mean” 

to spell incorrectly 

to cause annoyance 

a debt on property 

l/60th of an hour 

something that must be 


spell "19” 

spell "20” 

daughter of one's sister or brothei 

the tune for 

now and then 


left out 

happen frequently 
tune of day 
left out 



How word sounds 

134 6 cur d 

135 pair a lei 

136 prob bub lee 

137 pro seed 

138 pro fes er 

139. praw fess 1 

140. puir man ent 

141 purr miss a bull 

142 percyvear 

143. pick mck ing 

144. pre seed 

145 poseesbun 

146 plan mg 

147 pland 

148. peace 

149. preh fui unoe 

150 pre fur d 

151 privi ledge 
152. preh purr 5 shun 

153 prince a pull 

154 prince a pull 

155 preh ]ew dis 

156 par la ment 

157 partner 

158 purr form 

159 purr haps 

160 kwan ti tea 




extendmg m same direction 

to begm or go forward 
college teacher 
piediction (noun) 
contmue without change 

to keep trying at somethmg 
lunch outdoors 
to go ahead of 
to have with one 
schemmg, devismg 
schemed, devised 
a part of 
greater likmg for 
had gieater liking for 
a right or immunity 
state of readmess 
head of a school 
fundamental truth 
opmion against 
goveinmg body 

to do, accomplish 
amount, sum 

161 kwi et 

without noise 


How word sounds 

162 kwit 

163 re ah 

164 re seat 

165 ri them 

166 ryem 

167 re spon sa bull 

168 re speck full Ice 

169 rep i ti shun 

170 le hj us 

171 re leave 

172 wreck 5 mend Sshun 
173. wreck 6 mend 

174 wreck eg niz 

175 resev 

176 sal ar i 

177 se puir ate 

178 seas 

179 sek ri tary 
180. sked yule 

181 seen 

182 sm sear lee 

183 shme mg 

184 sun 1 ler 

185 shep urd 

186 s peach 

187 sof a more 

188 skillfull 

189 stay shun ery 

entirely, positively 

acknowledgment of payment 

movement marked by regular re- 

regardful for 
godly, pious 
to free from burden 
good suggestion 
to suggest as good 
identify, to know 
to accept 

to divide, take away 
to take, grab 
time table, catalogue 
view, part of a play 
genumely, honestly 
reflecting light 
being alike 
a tender of sheep 
talk, oration 
2nd year m college 

writmg material 



Hm word sounds 
100. stay shun eiy 
191. shyour 

192 sloping 

193 Studs mg 

194 suckses 

196. sue puir seed 

196 sue purr in ten dent 

197. stop t 
198 sn- prize 

199. sill 1 bull 

200. tare if 

201. th air 

202. th air 
203 th air 
204. th air four 

206. threw 
206 to 

207. two gether 

208. trajedi 

210 . 

211 try z 

212. true lee 

213. un nessy saiy 

214. un till 
216. use mg 
216 witch 

stay in one place 
with ceitamty 
ceasmg of movement 
to lead lessons 
to attain a goal 
to be in place of 
head of school system 
to have ceased movmg 
pait of a woid 
tax on impoils 
opposite of heie 
belonging to them 
contraction of “they aie” 
for that reason 
to be done with 

m company with 
fatal or momnful event 
spell “2” 
spell "12th” 
he attempts 
genumely, honestly 
useless, needless 
to the time that 

217 hole 

interrogative or relative pronoun 
all of 

Hm word sounds 




218 wi men 

219 wetli er 

220 Wens day 
221. wear 

222 wrytmg 
223. use you lee 

224 vilun 

225 vil edge 

226 woent 

227 wood 

228 rit 

persons of female sex 
state of the atmosphere 
4th day of week 
at or m what place 
what one has composed 
commonly, ordmanly 
small town 

contraction of “will not” 
form of veib “will” 
to compose a letter 



Libeakt Inpoemation 
(pages 83-86) 

1 3 

2 4 
3. 1 

4 2 

5 5 

6 T 
7. T 

8 F 

9 F 
10 T 

11. F 

12 T 

13 F 

14 T 

Libeakt Inpobm (Co?ii ) 
IS. A 
16 C 

17. A 

18 E 

19 H 

20 2 

21 F 

22 1935 
23. T 

24 7 

25 T 

26 F 

Libeakt Inform (Cont ) 

27. I 

28 E 

29 F 

30 G 

31 C 

32 H 

33 D 

34 h 

35 f 
36. d 

37 a 

38 0 

39 k 

40 j 

41 1 

42. T 

43 T 

44 T 
45. T 


Libraby Inform { Gont .) 

Gen Vocab (Coni.) 

47. F 

Score Rights (80) 

1. (2) 

16 (3) 

48 T 

2. (3) 

16 (2) 

3 (3) 

17 (3) 

4. (6) 

18. (5) 

49 F 

6. (1) 

50. F 

19. (4) 

51 T 

6 (2) 

20 (3) 

52 T 

7 (4) 

21. (6) 

53 3 

64. 1 

8 (1) 

22. (5) 

65 T 

9. (6) 

23 (2) 

66 T 

10 (3) 

24 (3) 

67. 3 

11 (3) 

25. (1) 

68. T 

12. (1) 

26. (6) 

69 T 

60. F 

13 (4) 

27. (4) 

61 4 

14 (1) 

28. (3) 

62 1 

29. (3) 

63. 2 

30. (4) 


VocAB. {Cmt) 

Gen. Vocab {Cant) 

Gen. 'Vocab. (Cont.) 

31. (1) 

51. (1) 

71. (4) 

32. (4) 

62 (3) 

72 (1) 

S3 (1) 

63. (1) 

73 (3) 

84 (5) 

54 (2) 

74. (5) 

35 (5) 

55. (4) 

75 (2) 

36 (2) 

56 (5) 

37 (1) 

57 (2) 

38 (4) 

58. (4) 

76 (6) 

39 (2) 

59 (3) 

77. (3) 

40 (6) 

60 (4) 

78 (4) 

41. (3) 

61 (3) 

79 (1) 

42 (4) 

62 (5) 

80. (3) 

43 (6) 

63 (1) 

44 (6) 

64 (3) 

45 (1) 

65. (2) 

46. (4) 

66. (2) 

47. (5) 

67. (5) 

48. (3) 

68. (4) 

49. (2) 

69. (5) 

50 (3) 

70 (5) 

Dictionabt Usagh 


Mathematics (fimi.) 

(page 121) 

1. (2) 

(pages 147-148) 

1 2,166 



2. (4) 

2. 1,509 



3 F 

3 18,585 



4 johnnycake 

4 67,572 



5 (1) 

5 1,071,840 



6 T 

6 1,624,773 



7. ni 

7 199 5 



8 291 00 



8. F 

9 33/40 



9 (9) 

10 1 11/20 



10. (4) 

11 1/21 



11 (2) 

12 1/12 



12. (2) 

13 3/7 



13. (3) 

14 3/10 



14 (2) 

15 7/12 



16. (3) 

16 4/6 



16. (4) 

17 27 2086 



17. (2) 

18. 89 1424 



19 1 1694 



18 (1) 

20 2942 



19. jollified 

21 766314 



20. (3) 

22 074592 



21 T 

23 .003 



22 T 

24 5. 



23. (2) 

24. (3) 

26, 62 5% 

26 70 69% 


Test oe Social Usage 
(pages 171-172) 

1. T 

2 F 

3 T 

4 T 
5. T 

6 T 

7 P 

8 T 

9 T 
10. T 

11 T 

12 P 

13 P 

14 T 
16 T 

16 T 

17 T 

15 T 

19 T 

20 T 
21. P 

SociAi Usage {Coni ) 

22 P 

23 P 

24 T 

25 T 

26 T 

27 T 

28 P 

29 T 

30 T 

31 F 

32 F 

33 F 

34 T 

35 T 

36 T 

37 T 

38 F 

39 T 

40 T 

Abt Reading 
(pages 196-198) 
1 ( 1 ) 

2 (P) 

3 (1) 

4 (3) 

6 (3) 

6 (4) 

7 (2) 

8 (T) 

9 (T) 

10 (F) 

11. (P) 

12 ( 2 ) 

13 (2) 

14 (1) 

15 (T) 

16 (P) 

17. (1) 

18 (4) 

19. (3) 


Gbologt Beabinq 
( pages 210-212) 

1 (2) 

Art iConl) 

20 (F) 

21 ( 2 ) 

22 (S) 

23 (7) 

24 (2) 

25 (2) 

26 (2) 

27 (2) 

28 (F) 

29 (2) 

30 (6) 

31 (7) 

32, (T) 

33 (1) 

34 (2,3,1) 
36 (2) 

36 (2) 

Aut {Com) 

40 (2) 

41 (1) 

42 (1) 

2 (T) 

3 (3) 

4 (F) 

6 (F) 

6 (3) 

7 (3) 

8 (3, 1, 2) 

9 (T) 

10 ( 2 ) 

11 ( 2 ) 

12 . ( 1 ) 

13 (4) 

14 (3) 

15 (1) 

16 (3) 

17. (4) 


37 (1) 

38 (F) 

39 (F) 

Gbol (Cont) 

Gbol (Cont ) 

TABiiBS {Cont) 

18. (3) 

35. (2) 

8. 42 9% 

19 (3) 

36 (3) 

9 217% 

20 (F) 

37 (F) 

10 101% 

21. (1) 

38. (F) 

11 F 

39 (F) 

12a. T 
b F 

22. (1) 

0 F 

d. F 

e. F 

14 F 

24 (2) 

25. (1) 

15. T 

26. (4) 

^ ( 8 JOLiffiS J 

27. (3) 

28 (1) 

16. 812 96 

29 (3) 

17 174 

18. 5679 

30 (1) 

A Reading Tables 

19. T 

31 (1) 

(pages 213-215) 

1 81% 

20 3 

2 87% 

3. 90% 

21. P 

32 (3) 

4 F 

5 F 

22 1 

33 (T) 

6 14 

23 1 

34 (T; 

7, 17 

24 T 

25 T 

26. F 


(pages 216-218) 

1 145 

2 13 

3 10 & 11 

4 4 

5 T 

6 13, 10th%Tle 

7 Professional 

8 Office or sales 

9 750 

10 1 

11 225 

12 P 

13 T 

14 80% 

15 T 

16 F 

17 35 5% 

18 3rd 

19. F 

20. 3rd 

21 7th 

22 F 

C. Skills in Map REAMNa 
(pages 220-221) 

1. GK 

2 7 

3 Geraldton 

4 Alice Sprmgs 

5 BH 

6. J 

7 East 

8 North 

9 Darwin 
10 East 

11. Rockhampton 

12 WaUabie 

13 AM 

14 IN 

15 DO 

16 Rockhampton 

17 North 

18 Geelong 

19 Geraldton 

20 Torrid zone 

21 about 2300 mi. 
22. about 1750 mi 

24 F 

D. Mathematical Foemulab 
(page 222) 

1. (b) 

2 (a) 

3 (b) 

4 (b) 

5 (d) 

6 (a) 

7. (b) 

8 (o) 

9 (d) 

10. (c) 

11 . ( 0 ) 


English Stovey Test 
Grammar (pages 223-226) 
Buie Answer 

1 (9) us 

2 (7) greets 

3 (13) sit 

4 (11) well 

5 (10) asked 

6 (10) climbed 

7 (11) easily 

8 0 

9 (8) his 

10 (6) doesn’t or does not 

11 (10) gone 

12 (1) IS 

13 (9) who 

14 (9) whom 

15 (7) was 

16. (1) have (had) 

Grammar {Coni) 

17 (5) IS 
18, (8) are 

19 (13) teach 

20 (11) surely 

21 (10) given 

22 (6) doesn’t or does not 
23, (5) IS 

24 (12) bad 

25 (2) IS 

26 (13) let 

27 (11) carefully 

28 (1) was 

29 (12) sad 

30 0 

31 (1) are 

32 (6) doesn’t or does not 

33 (13) he 

34 (11) weU 

35 (7) have 

36 (9) I 
37. (9) I 

38 (11) poorly 

39 (8) his (her) 

40. (9) me 

41. (13) too 

42. (12) sweet 

43. (13) let 

44. (13) might 

45. (9) we 

46. (10) written 


Grammar ( Cont ) 

47. (10) begun 

48 (13) too 

49 (11) easily 

5( 0 

51. (7) prefer 

52 (13) there 

53 (13) too 

54 0 

55 (2) was 
66. (4) were 
57 (10) seen 
58. (8) he 
69 (10) came 

60 (11) softly 

61 (8) bs 

62 (13) sat 

63 (3) was 

64 0 

66 (10) frozen 
66 0 

67 (10) sang 

68 (10) tbew 

69 (3) has 

70 (10) asked 

71 (7) has 

72 (4) are 
73. (9) me 

74 (13) there 

75 (6) doesn't or does not 

76 (1) is 

Grammar (Cont.) 

77 (4) are 
78, (5) are 

79- (7) doesn’t or does not 
80 (9) me 


(pages 227-230) 



1. (3) 


2 (1) 


3. (3) 


4 (3) 


5 (3) 


6. (2) 


7 (2) 


8. (5) 


9. (3) 


10 (5) 


11. (3) 


12. (2, 4) S D 

13 (3) 


14 (3) 




Capitalization (Cont ) 

Capitalization (Coni.) 

Capitalization (Cont ) 

16 (4) 


45 (3, 5) S B C 

74. (3) 


17. (3) 


46 (2) 


75 (4) 


18 (3) 


47 (2) 


76 (3) 


19 (3) 


48 (2) 


20 (6) 


49 (2) 




21 (2) 


50 (4) 


78 (2) 





79 (2, 5) E M J 

23 (2) 


52. (6) 


80 (2) 


24 (3, 5) D A 

53 (6) 


26 (5) 


54 (4) 


26 (4) 


55 (3) 


27 (6) 


56. (2) 


28 (2, 6) LDBA 

57 (5) 




58 (3) 


30 (3) 


59 (4) 




60. (3) 


32. (3) 




33 (6) 


62. (2) 


34 (2,6) TIM 

63. (2) 


35 (2) 


64 (5) 


36 (6) 



37 (3) 


66 (6) 


38. (4) 


67 (4) 


39 (3) 


68 (4) 


40 (4) 


69 (4) 


41. (4) 


70 (6) 


42 (2) 


71. (2) 




72, (2,6) OLJV 



73. (2) 



(pages 227-230) 

Note Comma underlmed thus_j_is optional, the sentence is correct either with or without the mark. 

The total score in punctuation is the total number of hues in which coriect punctuation maiks and 
no others have been mserted (except as certam alternatives are allowed as indicated by the marks m 
paientheses) If the student has only three of four punctuation marks needed on a Ime or if he has 
all the punctuation and adds a mark, no credit is given. The total possible score is thus 80 pomts. 





strassburg, germany? 


(12, 1, 7) 

exclaimed, “what lake!” 



The hudson, a york, is 








(12, 7) 

“TeE did,” 


(14, 12, 7) 

"If that’s all,” John said, “we go ” (that’s said,) 



Fnday, the june. 






July, a 



street, dolby, kentucky 



A1 smith, the candidate, 



college, then 


(11, 6) 

following histoiy, englisl^and latin 


(14, 6) 

They’re ready, but we’ll 


Punctuation {CcmL) 

16 (4) place, the 

17 (9) newburg, there (started, to) 

18 (7) (No punctuation needed) 

19 (6) (No punctuation needed) 

20 (13) called “in night " 

21. (9) heirloom, it 

22 (3) captain, oui friend, met 

23 (15, 5) Esther, jane,^ and girls’ 

24. (8) 8, 1933 

25 (5) Christmas, memorial dajij^ and 

26 (1) succeed? 

27 (9) detoxal, it 

28 (13, 11, 5) books dodsworth, babbitt^ and arrowmith (books, “dodsworth,” “babbitt,” and 

“airowsmith ”) 

29 (12, 7) “We are,” said the Speaker, “at eia.” 

30 (4) tourists, let 

31 (6) (No punctuation needed) 

32 (10) spamsh, then 

33 (13) “By a waterfall” is 

34 (15, 3, 13) tennyson’s poem, “m memonam.” 

35 (6) given, for 

36 (4) cleamng, since 

37 (14, 10) didn’t alps, still 

38 (15, 9) piesbytenan, he 

39 (5) rome, that politics, and 

40 (9) pay, it 

41 (No punctuation needed) 

42 (14) It’s can’t 

43 (5) Oranges, lemony and 

44 (7) (No punctuation needed) 




47, (7, 6) 

48 (12,7) 

49. (6) 

60 (4) 

51 (15, 14, 9) 
62 (14,13) 

53 (13, 11) 

54 (14) 

55 (6) 

66 (12,7) 


58 (1,9) 

50 (9) 

60 (14,9) 

61 (14, 10) 

62 (12, 7) 

63 (14,6) 

64 (5) 

65 (5) 

66 (14,4) 

67 (14, 6) 

68 (4) 

69 (7,12,14) 

70 (14,13,4) 

71 (2,10) 

72 (13, 9) 

73 (14,4) 


(No punctuation needed) 

(No punctuation needed) 
wales, but 

“Please come,” sbe wrote, “colonel heie ” 

going, nor 

words, the 

soft, it’s 

“I’m hurry” 

movies ammaron and masquerade (movies, “oimmaron” and “masquerade,”) 

tomorrowj^at o’clock 

washmgton, and 

“You brown,” ^e 

(No punctuation needed) 

hsbon, which be? 

mathematics, he 

You’ll athens, you’ll 

I’m tomght, besides it’s 

“That youngstei,” said coach jones, “will year.” (said, “coach year.”) 

It’s hard, but jim won’t 
June, ]uly;,_and 
quick, who ambitious, and 
If it’s necessary, you 

prominent, she 

“All right,” he said, “we’ll bank ” 

I’ll literary digestj^ii (“hterary diges^”) 

mi adams, then 

Iwd jim, he victory (“ ”) 

frank, she doesn’t 

74. (5) 

75 (4) 

76 (6,2) 

77 (14,10) 

78 (15,3) 

79 (15,5,2) 

W ashington, to oregon_j_and 

society, thus 

I’ll car, otherwise you’ll 

Mary, you pershing’s 

one’s conscience, to one’s clothes, or mrs 

80 (No punctuation needed) 

Sentence Structure Sentence Structure (Coni) Sentence Structure (Cont) 

(pages 231-232) 

Rule Answer 

1 ( 2 ) 


27 ( 4 ) 


2 ( 5 ) 


16 ( 3 ) 


28 ( 1 ) 


3 ( 3 ) 


17 ( 4 ) 


29 ( 5 ) 


4 ( 4 ) 


18 ( 5 ) 


30 ( 4 ) 


5 ( 5 ) 


31 ( 6 ) 


6 . ( 1 ) 


32 ( 6 ) 


r ( 4 ) 


19 ( 3 ) 


33 ( 1 ) 


8 ( 4 ) 


20 . ( 6 ) 


34 ( 6 ) 


9 . ( 3 ) 


21 ( 1 ) 


36 . ( 4 ) 


10 ( 5 ) 


22 . ( 4 ) 


36 . ( 1 ) 


11 ( 6 ) 


23 ( 6 ) 


37 . ( 5 ) 


12 ( 1 ) 


24 ( 6 ) 


13 ( 2 ) 


38 ( 2 ) 


14 ( 6 ) 


25 ( 1 ) 


39 ( 1 ) 


15 ( 6 ) 


26 ( 1 ) 


40 ( 6 ) 



Spblwng Test 
(pages 233-241) 

1 absence 

2 ache 

3 altogether 
4. affect 

6, accidentally 
6 accept 

7. across 

8 advise 

9 accommodate 
10. alieady 

11 angel 

12, among 

13. always 

14 almost 

15 angle 

16 apparatus 
17. auxihary 

18 athletic 

19 argument 

Spelukg {Cant.) 

20 attacked 
21, appearance 

22 athlete 

23 beheve 

24 balance 

25 beguinmg 

26 business 

27 benefit 

28 bicycle 

29 commercial 

30 chose 

31 character 

32 changeable 

33 calendar 

34 charactenstio 

35 college 

36 choose 

37 chief 

38 certain 

39 captam 

40 coming 

(or criticise) 

41 criticize 

42 course 

43 convement 

44 complimentary 
45. comphment 

46 comparatively 

47 committee 

48 conscience 

Spelling {Cont) 

49. conscientious 

50 control 

51 conscious 

53, deceive 
64 decide 

56 does 
67 disappoint 

58 disappear 

(or develops) 

59 develop 

(or developement) 
60. development 

63 dinin g 

64 disoiplme 

65 doctor 

66 dependent 

67 don’t 

68 existence 

69 expel lence 

70 exercise 

71 executive 

72 except 

73 enough 

74 equipped 
75. eimgrant 

76 embarrassment 
77. embarrass 


Spelling (Cont) 

SpELiJNa (Cont) 

Spelling (Cont) 

78. effect 

106 knew 

134 occurred 

79. eligible 

107 laboratory 

135. parallel 

80 fascinate 

108 laid 

136 probably 

81. February 

109 led 

137 proceed 

82 finally 

110 leisure 

138 professor 

83 formerly 

111 hbraiy 

139 prophecy 

84. forty 

112. lose 

140 permanent 

(or ful&ll) 

86 fulfil 

113 loose 

141. permissible 

86 friend 

114 hterature 

142. persevere 


87 giateful 

115. hcense 

143 picmcking 

88 grievous 

116 management 

144. precede 

89 grammar 

117 meant 

146 possession 

90 governor 

118 misspell 

146 planning 

91. guess 

119 mischievous 

147 planned 

(or humourous) 

92 humorous 

120 mortgage 

148 piece 

93 hopmg 

121 mmute 

149 preference 

94 here 

122 necessary 

160 preferred 

95 hear 

123 noticeable 

161. privilege 

96 harass 

124. mneteen 

152 preparation 

97 irresistible 

125 twenty 

153. prmoipal 

98 it’s 

126 mece 

154 pnnciple 

99 immigrant 

127 occasion 

165 prejudice 

100 immediately 

128 occasionally 

166 parliament 

101 imagine 

129. opportumty 

157 partner 

102 independent 

130. omission 

168 perform 

103. interesting 

131 often 

169 perhaps 

(or judgement) 

132. o’clock 

104. judgment 

160 quantity 

106. judicial 

133. omitted 

161 quiet 


Spelling (Cont) 

Spelling (Conf) 

Spelling (Cont) 

162 quite 

190 stationary 

218 women 

163 really 

191 sure 

219 weather 

164 receipt 

192 stopping 

220 Wednesday 

165 rhythm 

193 studymg 

221 wheie 

166. rhyme 

194 success 

222. writing 

167 responsible 

195 supersede 

223 usually 

168 respectfully 

196 superintendent 

224. vilLam 

169 lepetition 

197 stopped 

226. village 

170 religious 

198 surpiise 

226 won’t 

227 would 

171 reheve 

199 syllable 

228. write 

172 recommendation 

200 taiifif 

173 recommend 

201 there 

174 recognize 

202. their 

175 receive 

203 they’re 

176 salary 

204. therefore 

177 separate 

205 through 

178. seize 

206 too 

179 secretary 

207 together 

180 schedule 

208 tragedy 

181 scene 

209 two 

182 sincerely 

210 twelfth 

183 shming 

211 tries 

184 similar 

212 truly 

185 shepherd 

213 uimecessary 

186 speech 

214 until 

187 sophomore 

215 using 

(or skilful) 

188 skillful 

216 which 

189 stationery 

217 whole 


Directions' When each of the following activities is completed, fill m the date below and, if it has a 
score, its score This listing quickly mdieates what has been completed and which tests need cheolang, 
after the course this will serve as a record of your test results 

Page Title 

4 Self-Insight Exercise 

9 Student Data Sheet 

11 Problem Check List 

17 Practice with Cues 

32 Practice with Survey Q3R 

46 Fmal Examination Schedule 

63 Exarmnation Practice 

58 Present Use of Time 

69 Study Habits Questionnaiie 

61 Plan of Time Use 

65 Study Conditions Questionnaire 

69 Check List of Work Behavior 

70 Evaluation of Study Conditions 

76 Motivation Check 

79 Motivation Write-up 

83 Test of Library Information 

87 Library Laboratory Exercise 

88 Term Paper Library Project 

90 Evaluation of Past Term Papers 

94 Evaluation of Classroom Behavior 

101 Practice with Classioora Skills 

107 Alt Reading Rate 

107 Ai't Compiehension Accuracy 

107 Geology Reading Rato 

107 Geology Compiehension Accuracy 

107 Summary Evaluation of Reading 

110 Rate Evaluation 

111 Outside Reading Reeoid 

112 Rate Chart 

114 Summaiy Evaluation of Comprehension 

117 General Vocabulary 

121 Dictionary 

124 Vocabulary Listing 

126 Reading Tables 

126 Reading Chaits 

126 Reading Maps 

Date Result Checked 

not scoied 
not scoied 
not scored 
not scored 
not scoied 
not scored 
not scoied 
not scoied 


not scored 


not scored 
not scored 
not scored 
not scoied 

scoie , 
not scored 


not scored 





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not scoied 



, score 




Page Title 

126 Reading Pormulae 

127 Summary Check List on Reading 

130 Grammar 

130 Capitahzation 

130 Punctuation 

130 Sentence Structure 

130 English Eriors Tabulated 

139 Summaiy List of English Rules 

140 Spelhng 

141 Spelling Eirors Summarized 

145 Handwriting Analysis 

147 Mathematics 

153 Health Questionnaiie 

159 Interest E’s:peiience Summary 

160 Thmkmg About Jobs 

163 Job Information 

171 Etiquette Test 

174 Activity Questionnaire 

176 Activity Plans 

181 Einal Paper 

not scored 





not scored 
not scored 


not scored 
not scoied 


not scored 
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not scored